What is TSB?

$195.00

Weimin Huang
Professor,University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China

Series: Energy Science, Engineering and Technology
BISAC: SCI024000

Physics to date discusses only how motion is generated, not how the universe evolves. We do not even know how the surrounding material tri-states are phase-transformed.

The Maxwell demon problem presents a sharp problem: is the particle motion with different momentum also divisibility in space? How will the thermodynamic statistics change if the momentum is likely to be order distributed in space by its size, i.e. the microscopic states of the momentum can be degenerated in different spatial regions? The Boltzmann entropy of an ideal gas under thermodynamic equilibrium is no longer a probability but a defined value SB= kN.

As Kant tells us that the world without “quantities” is not recognizable. The ideal gas again becomes the inlet for new recognition. We see not only the unity of contingency or randomness and certainty. We also see the “momentum field” constructed in time and space that is specified by the motion of particle momentum. The gas state equation hides the symmetry: principle of constant force. Two kinds of potentials energy for each momentum correspond to the same interaction. When we review the second law of thermodynamics, Boltzmann entropy of the process of spontaneous heat transfer from a high temperature object to a low temperature object is reduced. It directly contrasts to the Clausius entropy increase calculated by “heat”. The most mysterious dense fog in thermodynamics can be revealed only by using two entropies and two entropy criteria. The Boltzmann entropy reduction is just only evolution trend of the cosmic. Even ordered life results from spontaneous generation of Boltzmann entropy reduction upon electron entanglement and mixing. It is the reason of natural dialectics in the universe.

This potential energy TSB, defined by Boltzmann entropy, is the configuration potential of a momentum field whose momentum is ordered in space according to its magnitude. This is a missing energy. It has been mistaken for “heat” that can be taken from or stored in other energies. Only the first thermodynamic law defined in this way actually satisfies time-translational symmetry and is the energy conservation equation for the first time.

The micro-state degeneracy generated the reverse potential due to the released energy has to make the dynamic evolution process between different levels of momentum in the form of wave. This can help us construct the thermal wave equation with finite thermal conduction velocities that Maxwell looks for. The vorticity degeneracy can help us to understand the concentrated vortex which can’t be simulated and calculated by the N-S equation, so that typhoon and tornado can be better researched; it can also explain how Maxwell demon in cyclone tube refrigeration can accomplish total temperature separation. The energy missing in the hydrogen molecular spectrum is found from the entropy change generated during electron entanglement. How cells generate functionality by building structures (including protein folding) via Boltzmann entropy reduction.

Some of the problems discussed in real-world scientific practice: For example, time arrow, measurement intervention in quantum mechanics, cosmic expansion and background radiation related with dark energy, and whether TSB potential energy exists in gravitational field with dark mass are only discussed primarily or shallowly. It is only desirable to use this energy to find more keys that open the mystery of nature.

(Imprint: Nova)

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Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1. New Ideas and Concepts

Chapter 2. Questions of Motion on Molecular Level in Condensed Matter

Chapter 3. Problems of Motion on Continuous Media Level

Chapter 4. TSB Potential Energy of Quantum State in Atoms and Molecules

Chapter 5. Ordered Lives are Produced Spontaneously

Chapter 6. Discussion and Prospect

Index

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