Universal Immunization Programme after Three Decades: Exploring the Determinants of Childhood Immunization in India


Nilanjan Patra, PhD – Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Bangabasi Morning College, Kolkata, India

Series: Pediatrics – Laboratory and Clinical Research
BISAC: BUS069040; HEA046000; MED036000
DOI: https://doi.org/10.52305/QFSC0363

This book studies India’s Universal Immunization Programme using National Family Health Survey-4 (2015-16) data. Assuming the ceteris paribus supply side constraints, this study tries to find out the factors that explain the underutilization of immunization services in India. Only then will the immunization coverage rate be augmented considerably by giving a big push to those predictor variables. It shows the effects of some selected demographics. It also presents the socioeconomic predictor variables on the likelihood of a child receiving immunization for six vaccine-preventable diseases. A qualitative data analysis complements the study. Immunization coverage rates increase with factors such as a mother’s education level, mother’s age, mother’s exposure to mass media, mother’s awareness about immunisation, antenatal care during pregnancy, wealth index, household electrification, mother’s empowerment index, and caste/ tribe hierarchy.

Table of Contents



List of Tables

List of Figures

Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1. Background
1.2. Research Objective
1.3. Study Structure

Chapter 2. Principles of Immunology and Vaccination
2.1. Background
2.2. Passive Immunity
2.3. Active Immunity
2.4. Classification of Vaccines
2.5. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases

Chapter 3. Universal Immunization Programme and Literature Review
3.1. State Intervention and UIP
3.2. Critical Review of UIP Experience in India
3.3. Pulse Polio Immunization
3.4. Factors Affecting Immunization

Chapter 4. Data Source

Chapter 5. Methodology

Chapter 6. Determinants of Full Immunization in India
6.1. The Effect on Full Immunization Coverage in India
6.2. The Effect on Full Immunization Coverage in Rural India
6.3. The Effect on Full Immunization Coverage in Urban India
6.4. The Adjusted Effect of Demographic Factors on Full Immunization in India
6.5. The Adjusted Effect of Socioeconomic Factors on Full Immunization in India
6.6. Adjusted Effects on Full Immunization in Three State-Wide Areas

Chapter 7. Social Determinants of Immunization Care-Seeking: Qualitative Analysis
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Factors Affecting Immunization
7.3. Conceptual Understanding and Objective
7.4. Methodology
7.5. Data Analysis
7.6. Results
7.6.1. Local Beliefs on Disease Causation
7.6.2. Household and Community Decision Making for Vaccination Seeking
7.6.3. Mother’s Status
7.6.4. Attitude of Government Health Workers
7.6.5. Physical Access to Formal Services
7.6.6. Non-Availability of Government Providers of Vaccine
7.7. Discussion

Chapter 8. Conclusion and Policy Implications
8.1. Findings of the Study
8.2. Broad Policy Areas
8.3. Limitations and Areas of Further Research




Author’s ORICD iD

Nilanjan Patra: 0000-0002-4610-0109

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