Plasmas and Energetic Processes in the Geomagnetosphere. Volume II: Plasmas/Magnetic and Current Sheets, Reconnections, Particle Acceleration, and Substorms

Lev I. Dorman
Tel Aviv University, Golan Research Institute, Israel Space Agency, Israel; Pushkov’s IZMIRAN, Russia

Series: Physics Research and Technology
BISAC: SCI032000

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The importance and actuality of the geomagnetosphere’s research are based on the following three factors:

1. The geomagnetosphere is the nearest giant natural laboratory, where it is possible by multiple satellites and ground measurements to investigate in detail many different plasmas and energetic processes in space; these are caused by the interaction of high kinetic energy solar wind plasmas and their perturbations (Coronal Mass Ejections – CME, Interplanetary Shock Waves – ISW, Interplanetary Interaction Regions – IIR) frozen in Interplanetary Magnetic Fields (IMF) with the rotated main geomagnetic field. This interaction leads to a dynamic transformation in magnetic fields in the geomagnetosphere, generation and trapping of high energy particles (which are also called Magnetospheric Cosmic Rays – MCR), and generation of instabilities and electromagnetic radiations. These processes are in principle similar to processes in magnetospheres of other planets and their moons, in the atmosphere of the Sun and other stars, in interplanetary and in interstellar space, and in many different astrophysical objects. Put simply, this research is an important basis for fundamental space and astrophysical science.

2. In modern times, technology, economics, navigation, television, internet, radio connections, military and all aspects of people’s lives on our planet are strongly connected with the work of many satellites moving inside the geomagnetosphere. Different processes and MCR in the geomagnetosphere influence satellites often lead to satellite malfunctions and sometimes fully destroying them. The described research can be considered as a basis for developing methods of forecasting dangerous situations for satellites in different orbits, and to decrease the risk of satellite malfunction and loss.

3. The interaction of CME, ISW, and IIR with the geomagnetosphere leads to the generation of big magnetic storms accompanied with Forbush decrease and precursory effects in Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) intensity. These magnetic storms are dangerous not only for satellites, but also on the Earth’s surface for technology, radio connections, car accidents, and human health (e.g., increasing frequency of infarct myocardial and strokes). Investigations of magnetic storm causes can help to develop methods of their forecasting and decrease the level of magnetic storm hazards. Therefore, the other practical application of this research is connected with the problem of space weather influence on the technology, radio connections, navigation, transportation, and human health on Earth in regards to altitude and latitude.

The authors hope that this book will be interesting and useful for researches, engineers, and students of corresponding specialties. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Acknowledgements

Abbreviations and Notations

Author Contact Information

Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sheets: Main Properties, Structure, Expansion, and Particle Transport

Chapter 2. Turbulence and Fluctuations, Instabilities, Storm Time Variations, Fast Flows, Temperature Anisotropies, and Magnetic Field Structure in Magnetospheric Sheets

Chapter 3. Magnetospheric Sheets: Bifurcation and Flapping, Pressure Gradients, Influence of Solar Wind and IMF conditions, ULF, EUV, Auroral Arc Waves, Dipolarization and Antidipolarization Fronts, Parallel Electric Fields, Plasmoids and Jets

Chapter 4. Main Properties, Onset and Expansion Phases of Substorms

Chapter 5. Substorms: Reconnections, Particle Acceleration, and Statistical Studies

Chapter 6. Modeling and Simulation of Magnetospheric Substorms and Related Phenomena

Chapter 7. Substorms Energetics, Relation with Magnetic Storms, Pulsations, Turbulence, Plasma Bubbles, Substorm Index, and Jets

References for Monographs and Books

Object Index

Author Index

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