Nanosensors for Healthcare and Environmental Monitoring: Fabrication, Characterization, Simulation, and Applications


L. Ashok Kumar, PhD – Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India
Ms. K. M. Janani – Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India

Series: Nanotechnology Science and Technology
BISAC: TEC027000

Nanosensors refer to a miniature electronic sensing device that works on a “Nano-scale” region. A nanosensor is a device that can transfer information and data on the behaviour and characteristics of tiny particles to a higher degree of visibility. Nanosensors can be used to distinguish chemical or mechanical data, such as the presence of material species and nanoparticles, or to screen real limitations on the nanoscale, such as temperature. Nanosensors are categorised depending on their design and intended use. Based on their structure, nanosensors are classified into two types: optical nanosensors and electrochemical nanosensors. Depending on the application, the nanosensor can be purchased as a material nanosensor, biosensor, electrometer, or deployable nanosensor.

Nanosensors can measure down to the level of a single particle. Nanosensors include an analyte, sensor, transducer, and indicator. Nanosensors work by continuously monitoring electrical changes in sensor materials. The analyte diffuses from the solution for the sensor’s outer layer and responds explicitly and competently, changing the physicochemical properties of the transducer surface, prompting an adjustment of the optical or electronic properties of the transducer’s outer layer, and this change is converted into an electrical sign that is recognized.

Like new technology, intelligent healthcare systems are moving toward new approaches and models of healthcare-based nanosensors, smart phones, smart watches, and other gadgets. This book deeply discusses the deployment of nanomaterials and nanosensors to enhance the healthcare system with continuous and real-time monitoring of individuals to avoid huge life risks.

Environmental pollution has become a serious global issue affecting public health, the economy, and society. Organic pollutants, heavy metals in the soil, pesticide intake from fruits and vegetables, and the influence of illnesses and their toxins are all considered serious environmental problems. This book focuses on current advancements in DNA-nanosensors for environmental monitoring that make tracking contaminants simpler. DNA nanosensors are used to detect harmful microbiological contaminants, toxins, and medications. Some contemporary DNA-nanosensor environmental monitoring applications are discussed.

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Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

Chapter 1. Introduction to Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials
Learning Outcomes
1. Introduction to Nanotechnology
2. Basics of Nanomaterials
3. Evolution of Nanomaterials
4. Occurrence of Nanomaterials
4.1. Natural Nanomaterials (NNMs)
4.2. Incidental Nanomaterials (INMs)
4.3. Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs)
5. Classification of Nanomaterials Based on Dimensional Confinement of Electron Movement
5.1. 0D Nanomaterials
5.2. 1D Nanomaterials
5.3. 2D Nanomaterials
5.4. 3D Nanomaterials
6. Types of Nanomaterials
6.1. Metal Nanoparticles
6.2. Semiconductor Nanoparticles
6.3. Carbon-Based Nanomaterials
6.4. Quantum Dots
6.5. Ceramic Nanoparticles
6.6. Lipid-Based Nanoparticles
6.7. Polymeric Nanoparticles
6.8. Nanocomposites
7. Properties of Nanomaterials
7.1. Mechanical/Physical Properties
7.2. Chemical Properties
7.3. Electrical Properties
7.4. Optical Properties
8. Fabrication of Nanomaterials
8.1. Top-Down Approach
8.2. Bottom-Up Approach
8.3. Magnetic Properties

Chapter 2. Potential Application of Nanomaterials
Learning Outcomes
1. Introduction
2. Electronics and Technology
2.1. Nanoscale Patterning of Electronic Circuits
2.2. Nano Conductive-Inks
2.3. High-Density Data Storage
2.4. Ferro Fluids
2.5. Single-Electron Transistors
2.6. Quantum Computers
3. Healthcare
3.1. Surgery
3.2. Dermatology/Cosmetics
4. Industry
4.1. Automotive Industries
4.2. Cement Industries
4.3. Construction
4.4. Nano Pigments
4.5. Transparent Conductive Coatings
4.6. Superplastic Ceramics
4.7. Reinforced Plastics
4.8. Nano-phosphorous Displays
4.9. Functional Nanocomposites
4.10. Nano Clays
4.11. Nanolubricants
4.12. Nanocoatings
5. Environment
5.1. Environmental Catalysts
5.2. Wastewater Treatment
5.3. Pollution Monitoring Sensors
6. Food and Agriculture
6.1. Food Quality and Safety
6.2. Plant Protectants
6.3. Plant Growth and Crop Production
7. Biomedical
7.1. Drug Delivery
7.2. Biomarkers
7.3. Cancer Therapy
7.4. Biomedical Imaging
7.5. Bio-Composites
7.6. Dental Ceramics
7.7. Bone Growth
7.8. Hyperthermic Treatment
7.9. Wound Dressing
8. Textiles
8.1. Water-Repellent Textiles
8.2. Technical Textiles
8.3. Medical Textiles
8.4. Electro-Conducting Textiles
8.5. Anti-Wrinkle Textiles
8.6. Self-Cleaning Textiles
8.7. UV Blocking Textiles
9. Energy
9.1. Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes
9.2. Hydrogen Storage Materials
9.3. Paint-On Solar Cells
9.4. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
10. Transports
11. Space Science
11.1. Propulsion Systems
11.2. Radiation Shielding
11.3. Anti-Satellite Weapon Countermeasure
11.4. Space Elevator
11.5. Protecting Satellites
11.6. Space Instrumentation
12. Sports

Chapter 3. Lab-on-a-Chip Devices: Needs and Trends
Learning Outcomes
1. Introduction to Lab-on-a-Chip
2. History
3. Need for Lab-on-a-Chip Devices
3.1. Microfluidics
3.2. Nanofluidics
4. Advantages of LoC Over Traditional Technologies
5. Nanomaterials Used in LoC Devices
5.1. Biopolymers
5.2. Hydrogel
5.3. PDMS
5.4. Thermopolymers
5.5. Silicon
5.6. Glass
5.7. Paper
6. Fabrication Techniques Used in LoC Devices
6.1. Inkjet Printing
6.2. Wax Printing and Wax Dipping.
6.3. Screen Printing
6.4. Photolithography
6.5. Laser Cutter
6.6. Desktop Cutter
6.7. Desktop-Pen Plotter
7. Trends of LoC in Various Applications
7.1. Proteomics
7.2. Cell Biology
7.3. Medicinal Drug Production
7.4. Healthcare Sensors and Wearables
7.5. Genomics
7.6. Diagnosis
7.7. Microarray
7.8. Human Implants and Prostheses
7.9. Food Analysis
8. Limitations of LoC Devices

Chapter 4. Nanosensors: Material Selection and Synthesis
Learning Outcomes
1. Introduction to Nanosensors
2. Classification and Significance of Nanosensors
2.1. Optical Nanosensors
2.2. Electrical Nanosensors
2.3. Magnetic Nanosensors
2.4. Chemical Nanosensors
2.5. Biological Nanosensors
2.6. Mechanical Nanosensors
2.7. Thermal Nanosensors
3. Impact of Nanomaterials Deployed in Nanosensors
3.1. Sensitivity
3.2. Selectivity
3.3. Stability
3.4. Response Time
3.5. Compatibility
3.6. Cost and Scalability
3.7. Multi-Functionality
4. Classification of Materials Used for Nanosensors
4.1. Metals
4.2. Semiconductors
4.3. Polymers
4.4. Carbon Nanotubes
4.5. Biomolecules
4.6. Oxides
5. Synthesis Methods for Nanosensors
5.1. Chemical Synthesis
5.2. Physical Synthesis
5.3. Biological Synthesis
5.4. Hybrid Synthesis
5.5. Templates Synthesis
5.6. Hydrothermal Synthesis

Chapter 5. Nanosensor Fabrication Methods
Learning Outcomes
1. Introduction to Nanofabrication
2. Nanofabrication Techniques
2.1. Electron Beam Lithography Nanofabrication
2.2. Nanoimprint Lithography
2.3. Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography
2.4. X-Ray Lithography
2.5. Ion Beam Lithography
2.6. Direct Epitaxial Growth
2.7. Strain Engineering
2.8. Scanning-Probe Techniques
2.9. Self-Assembly Nanofabrication Technique
2.10. Template Manufacturing

Chapter 6. Nanosensors: Characterization Techniques
Learning Outcomes
1. Introduction
2. Classification of Characterization Techniques Based on Various Characteristics
2.1. Determination of the Morphological Characteristics
2.2. Determination of the Structural Characteristics
2.3. Estimation of the Nanoparticle Size
2.4. Determination of the Elemental Studies
2.5. Determination of the Optical Properties
2.6. Determination of the Surface Charge
2.7. Visualization in the 3-Dimensional Regime

Chapter 7. Simulation and Analysis Tools for Nanosensors
Learning Outcomes
1. Introduction
2. Significance of Simulation and Analysis of Nanosensors
3. Fundamentals of Nanosensor Simulation
3.1. Simulation Approaches for Nanosensors
3.2. Computational Models for Nanosensors
3.3. Challenges in Nanosensor Simulation
4. Simulation Software for Nanosensors.
4.1. Commercial Software for Nanosensor Simulation
4.2. Open-Source Software for Nanosensor Simulation
5. Analysis Techniques for Nanosensors
5.1. Signal Processing and Data Analytics
5.2. Statistical Analysis of Nanosensor Data
5.3. Noise Reduction and Filtering Techniques
5.4. Calibration and Error Analysis

Chapter 8. Nanosensors in Healthcare Monitoring: Biosensors
Learning Outcomes
1. Introduction
2. Potential of Nanosensors in Healthcare Monitoring
3. Fundamentals of Biosensors
3.1. Principles of Biosensing
3.2. Transducers and Signal Amplification in Biosensors
3.3. Selectivity and Sensitivity in Biosensing
4. Application of Nanosensors in Healthcare Monitoring
4.1. Point-of-Care Diagnostics
4.2. Continuous Monitoring of Patient Health
4.3. Wearable Biosensors
4.4. Early Detection of Diseases
4.5. Personalized Medicines
4.6. Drug Delivery Systems
5. Challenges Associated with Using Nanosensors in Healthcare Systems
5.1. The Development of New Nanomaterials for Nanosensors
5.2. The Improvement of the Sensitivity and Specificity of Nanosensors
5.3. The Miniaturization of Nanosensors
5.4. The Commercialization of Nanosensors for Healthcare Monitoring
6. Future Trends Associated with Using Nanosensors in Healthcare Systems

Chapter 9. Nanosensors in Environmental Monitoring: Gas Sensors
Learning Outcomes
1. Introduction
2. Classification of Gas Sensors
2.1. Metal Oxides for Gas Sensing
2.2. Carbon Nanotubes for Gas Sensing
2.3. CNT- Metal Oxide Nanocomposite Sensors
2.4. Characteristics of Gas Sensors
2.5. Mechanically Flexible Sensors
3. Nanosensors for Gas Detection Based on Various Materials
3.1. Gas Sensors Based on Metal Oxide Nanostructures and Carbon Nanotubes
3.2. Gas Sensors Based On CNT-Metal Oxide Nanocomposites
3.3. Gas Sensors on Flexible Substrates
4. Internet of Things for Environmental Monitoring Applications
4.1. Internet of Things (IoT)
4.2. Real-Time Air Quality Monitoring System Design
4.3. Software Design
4.4. Working On the Air Quality Monitoring System
4.5. System Integration and Testing

Chapter 10. The Integration of Nanosensors with Electronic Gadgets
Learning Outcomes
1. Introduction
2. Significance and Applications of Integrated Nanosensors
3. Electronic Gadgets for Integration
3.1. Overview of Electronic Gadgets
3.2. Selection Criteria for Compatible Gadgets
3.3. Examples of Electronic Gadgets for Integration
4. Internet of Things and Nanosensors
4.1. The Significance of the Integration of Nanosensors with an IoT Ecosystem
4.2. Architecture of IoT Ecosystem
5. Integration Techniques and Challenges
5.1. Sensor Integration Approaches
5.2. Interface and Communication Protocols
5.3. Power Supply and Energy Efficiency Considerations
5.4. Addressing Size and Form Factor Constraints
5.5. Security and Privacy Challenges
6. Future Perspectives and Emerging Trends
6.1. Advances in Nanosensor Integration Techniques
6.2. Miniaturization and Flexible Electronics
6.3. Sensor Fusion and Multi-Modal Integration
6.4. Implications for Future Electronic Gadgets

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