Early Onset Scoliosis: A Comprehensive Approach

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Ahmed Majid Heydar, MD, FEBOT – Department of Orthopedic and Traumatology, Memorial Hospital, Istanbul Turkey

Series: Orthopedic Research and Therapy; Neurosurgery Research Progress
BISAC: MED065000; MED085010; MED085120
DOI: https://doi.org/10.52305/EAKK2104

Early Onset Scoliosis (EOS) is the lateral curvature deformity of the vertebral column in patients younger than ten years, regardless of etiology. It is a complicated and three-dimensional deformity that has many similar aspects to idiopathic adolescent scoliosis but differs in that it may result in life-threatening cardiopulmonary abnormalities, such as restrictive pulmonary disease, pulmonary artery hypertension, and cor pulmonale if left untreated. Meanwhile, a spinal fusion that is used to correct and prevent the deterioration of adolescent scoliosis results in spinal growth inhibition, pulmonary underdevelopment, loss of the normal proportionality of trunk growth, and the possibility of “crankshaft” phenomenon development when implemented in EOS patients. Therefore, the ideal treatment should be directed toward ensuring spinal growth while maintaining the correction of the deformed spine. Understanding the nature of the disease facilitated the innovation of growth-sparing treatment and growth-friendly implants. Many types of such implants are available, and they have been classified into distraction-based systems, compression-based systems, and growth-guided systems. Despite the presence of numerous growth-friendly implants, none of them could be regarded as gold-standard treatment due to their disadvantages and complications. Nowadays, the most popular treatment system is the ‘Magnetic Controlled Growing Rods.’ This system follows the concept of periodic distraction to catch up and promote spinal growth, that is achieved non-surgically in outpatient settings. At first glance, magnetic controlled growing rods appeared to meet the treatment demands; however, substantial complications have been recognized in long-term results.

EOS is an uncommon condition with a low incidence rate compared to idiopathic adolescent scoliosis. The rarity of cases has diverted the attention of researchers away from EOS and obstructed the innovation of proper treatment protocols. This book aims to direct the light on EOS, study the pathophysiology of their types, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of present treatment options, and examine the novel studies from a clinical perspective so that better care to this challenging patient group can be delivered by health providers.

Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1. Definition and Epidemiology of Early-Onset Scoliosis
Yusuf Sait Durak, MD
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Kurtalan State Hospital, Siirt, Turkiye

Chapter 2. Normal Growth and Development of the Spine and Thoracic Cage
Bilal Karabak, MD
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Erzurum City Hospital, Erzurum, Turkiye

Chapter 3. Pathogenesis of EOS
Ali Can Çiçek, MD
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Agri Education and Research Hospital, Agri, Turkiye

Chapter 4. Classification of Early – Onset Scoliosis (C-EOS)
Anar Alakbarov¹, MD, and Vusala Garayeva², MD
¹Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Nakhchivan Diagnostic-Treatment Center, Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan
²Department of Radiology, Nakhchivan Diagnostic-Treatment Center, Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan

Chapter 5. Idiopathic Early – Onset Scoliosis
Barış Can Kuzuca, MD
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Çerkezköy State Hospital, Tekirdağ, Turkiye

Chapter 6. Congenital Scoliosis
Ömer Cahit Çıtır, MD
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Şırnak Şehit Aydoğan Aydın State Hospital, Şırnak, Turkiye

Chapter 7. Neuromuscular Scoliosis
Uğur Özdemir¹, MD and M. Cemil Gün², MD
¹Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Bandırma Onyedi Eylül University Faculty of Medicine, Balıkesir, Turkiye
²Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Sakarya University Faculty of Medicine, Sakarya, Turkiye

Chapter 8. Syndromic Early-Onset Scoliosis
M. Fatih Serttaş, MD
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkiye

Chapter 9.
Clinical Examination of EOS
Yücel Bilgin, MD
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Bursa Uludag University, Bursa, Turkiye

Chapter 10. Radiological Examination of Early-Onset Scoliosis
Alim Can Baymurat, MD
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey

Chapter 11.
Biomechanics of EOS
Bilal Yekeler¹, MD and Umut Doğu Aktürk², MD
¹Department of Neurosurgery, Bayburt State Hospital, Bayburt, Turkiye
²Department of Neurosurgery, Emsey Hospital, Istanbul, Turkiye

Chapter 12. The Effects of Early-Onset Scoliosis on Morbidity and Mortality of Untreated Patients
Orkun Halaç¹ and Ümit Aygün²
¹Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Ağrı Training and Research Hospital, Ağrı, Turkiye
²Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Faculty of Medicine, Ağrı, Turkiye

Chapter 13.
Consequences of Early Spinal Fusion of EOS
Recep Dinçer, MD
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkiye

Chapter 14. Prognosis of both Surgical and Non-Surgical Treatment of EOS
Kayra Barut¹, MD and Hüseyin Sina Coşkun²
¹EMOT Plus Hospital, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Izmir, Turkiye
²Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkiye

Chapter 15.
Non-Surgical Treatment of EOS
Ahmet Çağrı Uyar, MD
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, University of Health Sciences, Kocaeli Derince Training and Research Hospital, Kocaeli, Turkiye

Chapter 16. Physiotherapy in Idiopathic Early-Onset Scoliosis
Burçin Akçay¹, PT, PhD and Tuğba Kuru Çolak², PT, PhD
¹Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Bandırma Onyedi Eylül University, Balıkesir, Turkiye
²Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkiye

Chapter 17.
Surgical Treatment and Growth-Friendly Implants
Bilge Kağan Yılmaz, MD
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Afyonkarahisar State Hospital, Afyonkarahisar, Turkiye

Chapter 18. Distraction-Based Systems of Early Onset Scoliosis
Ahmet Aksoy, MD
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Alaaddin Keykubat University, Faculty of Medicine, Alanya, Antalya, Turkiye

Chapter 19.
Traditional Growing Rods
Bilal Yekeler¹, MD and Umut Doğu Aktürk², MD
¹Department of Neurosurgery, Bayburt State Hospital, Bayburt, Turkiye
²Department of Neurosurgery, Emsey Hospital, Istanbul, Turkiye

Chapter 20. Magnetic Growing Rod
Uğur Yüzügüldü, MD
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Gülhane Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkiye

Chapter 21.
Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib (VEPTR)
Basri Pür¹, MD and Sinan Yılar², MD
¹The Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Erzurum City Hospital, Erzurum, Turkiye
²The Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkiye

Chapter 22. Hybrid Growing Rods
Alim Can Baymurat, MD
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey

Chapter 23. Staple
Erkan Akgün1, MD
Department of Etlik City Hospital, Ankara, Türkiye

Chapter 24.
Anterior Vertebral Body Tethering
Abdülhalim Akar, MD
Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Private Emsey Hospital, Istanbul, Turkiye

Chapter 25. Growth Guided Systems – Luqué Trolley
Göker Utku Değer, MD
Department of Orhopaedics and Traumatology, Beykoz State Hospital, Istanbul, Turkiye

Chapter 26.
Shilla
Abdülhalim Akar, MD
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Emsey Hospital, Istanbul, Turkiye

Chapter 27. Hemivertebra Resection in Congenital EOS
Fatih Emre Topsakal¹, MD and Mehmet Demir², MD
¹,²Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Erzurum City Hospital, Erzurum, Turkiye

Chapter 28.
Outcomes in Children with EOS
Furkan Soy¹, MD and Ozan Pehlivan², MD
¹Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Kahramankazan State Hospital, Ankara, Turkiye
²Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Beytepe State Hospital, Ankara, Turkiye

Chapter 29. Future Directions in the Management of EOS
Ercan Bayar, MD
and Hüseyin Sina Coşkun
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkiye

Index


Editor’s ORCID iD

Ahmed Majid Heydar: 0000-0002-6907-7976

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