Chapter 7. Horse Breeding Studies in the Ottoman Empire between the Nineteenth Century and the Beginning of the Twentieth Century (1800-1920)

$39.50

Ahmet Yiğit
Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, Faculty of Letters, Department of History, Muğla, Türkiye

Part of the book: Applications of Traditional Equestrian Sports in the World

Abstract

The Turks were the first to tame the horse. With horses, they spread over large areas in a short time. They took the Central Asian horse with them to the new lands they went to. The Seljuks brought this horse with them to Anatolia and bred it. Among the Anatolian Principalities, the Germiyan sons came to the fore in horse breeding. The Ottoman Principality also continued to raise horses by taking this heritage from the Anatolian Principalities. In the Ottoman Empire, horses were raised for the army by the nomads in Anatolia, especially in Eskisehir, Kütahya, and Karaman. Arabian horses were bred by Aleppo Turkmens in and around Aleppo in Erbil and Mosul in the Iraq region. The lack of animals, including transport and mounts, in the army of the Ottoman Empire XIX. emerged in the middle of the century. After the Crimean War, it started to meet its horse needs by purchasing them from Hungary and Russia. This brought temporary relief and was not permanent. The period when the army’s need for horses reached the highest level was the Ottoman-Russian war. The lack of transport animals and riding horses during the war caused many deaths. The Ottoman Empire aimed to supply the army’s horse needs from within the country. It was decided that the most suitable horse for the army was the Arabian horse. Farms have been established to raise horses throughout the country. Çifteler farms in Eskisehir and Sultan Suyu farms in Malatya were the first ones to be established. It was decided to encourage people to breed horses. For the selection of horses, horse races, sometimes attended by soldiers, have been organized throughout the country. Regulations have been established for the races to be held. These races were held in almost every part of the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, Anatolia, and Rumelia, which was dominated by the Ottoman Empire. Domestic and foreign companies were formed to organize the races. Horse races were held for social purposes such as building schools and raising money for the airplane society. Horses taken by the British in the Mosul and Erbil regions of Iraq, one of the most important places for breeding Arabian horses, were being taken to India and its surroundings. The state had to ban the sale of horses abroad. The Islâh-ı Nesl-i Feres Society, which was established for horse breeding in the Ottoman Empire, could make demands regarding the race, the places where it was organized and the foreign breeds brought to the country. The Association also controlled the races held in Veli Efendi and Kağıthane, which are the running fields in Istanbul. The Ottoman Empire was invited and participated in horse races held in cities such as Paris, Rome, and London outside the country. Istanbul was informed by telegrams with the results of the horse races held in these places and the names of the horses that were ranked. Ottoman Empire XX. He carried out studies on horse breeding for the army even during the turmoil around the world at the beginning of the century. Horse races were organized, which received a lot of support from the public. Horse farms established throughout the country have been converted into stud farms. But all the work done for horse breeding XX. It was left without results at the beginning of the century.

Keywords: Ottoman Empire, horse, stud, Arabian horse, horse racing


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