Chapter 14. Cultural Element in Turks: Atli-Cirit
Atatürk Üniversitesi, Türkiyat Araştırmaları Enstitüsü, Tarih Bölümü, Eskiçağ Anabilim Dalı, turkey
Part of the book: Applications of Traditional Equestrian Sports in the World
If we take social conditions of history as a basis, the horse being tamed and used as a saddle beast is equal to the use of motor vehicles in our age. Because, if the ones who own motor vehicles can direct the history of our age, those who owned horses had the same power in ancient times. Ural-Altaic tribes had two important roles in world history. The first one of these was ‘horse breeding’ and, the second was their ability of ‘deck processing’. Based on these, we can see that horses have extensive coverage in Turkish culture. The word ‘horse’ is expressed as ‘at’, ‘yılkı’ on the Orkhon and Yenisei Inscriptions, and it is expressed as ‘at’, ‘yılkı/cılkı/çılgı’ in today’s Turkish dialects. The horse is even the name of a year on the Twelve Animal Turkic Calendar. It is known that the economy of Huns was considerably based on the horses that they bred. Moreover, a great amount of the gifts that they sent to China consisted of horses. Turks used horses in their ancestor sports like javelin besides their legends, folk songs, stone paintings, cairns, and person and place names. Although mounted javelin has come from those days until now, it could not spread at the intended level in Turkey. But today, it can be learned and improved through different activities such as school trips to barns and riding facilities that have javelin horses or playing unmounted javelin.
Keywords: Turkish culture, Middle Asia, horse, sport, javelin
Bakir, Abdullah (hzl.) (2009). Yazıcızâde Ali, Tevârîh-i Âl-i Selçuḳ [Oğuznâme-Selçuklu
History] (Introduction-Text-Index). Istanbul: Camlica Publishing.)
Bayraktar, Gökhan (2012). “Equestrian Sports in Turkish Culture”, 2nd International
Congress Of Sports For All and Sport Tourism, Kemer/Antalya, 08-11 November
2012 (Poster presentation)
Bayraktar, Gökhan (2013). “Türk Spor Kültüründe Çevgan”, 2. Uluslararası Bilim Kültür
ve Spor Kongresi, (BAYRAKTAR, Gökhan (2013). “Çevgan in Turkish Sports
Culture”, 2nd International Science, Culture and Sports Congress,)
Caferoglu, Ahmet (1972). “Hunting Culture and Institution in Turks”, VII. Turkish History
Congress, TTK Publications, Ankara, 1972, pp.170–175.)
Çelebi, Evliya (1999). Evliya Çelebi Travel Book, Volume 2. (R. Dankoff and S. A.
Kahraman, Trans.). Istanbul. Yapı Kredi Publications. (The publication date of the
original work is unknown.)
Ceylan, Alpaslan (2002). “Cunni Cave, One of the First Turkish Settlements in Anatolia”,
Turks Encyclopedia, 6, 425-429.
Ceylan, Alpaslan (2015, Güz). “Çıldır Başköy Rock Paintings”, Journal of Ardahan
University Faculty of Humanities and Letters, 2, 7-29.)
Göksu, Erkan, (2008). “Weapon in Turkish Culture”, Istanbul, Ötüken Publications.
Güleç, Erdoğan (1998). “Turkish Javelin Horse”, Ankara, 1998, pp.16-15.)
Günaşdi, Yavuz (2016). “Saturated Rock Panels in the Light of Eastern Anatolian Rock
Paintings”, Selçuk University Journal of Turkic Studies, Konya, p. 391-407.)
Hendricks, L. Bonnie (2007). International Encyclopedia of Horse Breeds, Binding:
Paperback, University of Oklahoma.
Kafesoglu, İbrahim (1995). Turkish National Culture, Boğaziçi Publications, Istanbul,
1995 XII. Oppression).
Kahraman, Atıf (1995). Sports in the Ottoman State, Ankara, T.C. Ministry of Culture, 1995.
Karcioğlu, Uğur (2017). “The Importance of Horse in Turkish Culture and Equestrian
Javelin Game, Our Ancestor Sports”, Anasay Magazine, Vol 2, p. 167-198.)
Karcioğlu, Uğur (2018a). “Horse Burials in Some Kurgans in Central Asia” Master Thesis,
Kafkas University, Institute of Social Sciences.)
Karcioğlu, Uğur (2018b). “The Anatomy, Nutrition and Care of the Turkish Javelin Horse
and Javelin Horse and Javelin Breeding Techniques in Turkey” Kafdagi Journal,
Volume 3, Issue 2, pp.154-184.)
Ögel, Bahattin (1985). “Introduction to Turkish Cultural History I”, Ministry of Culture
and Tourism Publications, 1985.)
Özgül, Oktay (2015). “Erzurum Region Rock Panels”,
Trakya University Faculty of Letters Journal, 5, 169-198.)
Özgül, Oktay (2016). “Horse/Deer and Sun Course in Erzurum/Şenkaya Petroglyphs”,
Selçuk University Journal of Turkic Studies, 39, 371-390.)
Sümer, Faruk (1983). “Equestrian and Equestrian in Turks”
Turkish World Studies, 1983 p. 1-2.)
Turkish Traditional Sports Federation Atlı-Cirit Regulation Article.
Turkman, Mehmet (1996). “The Practice, Source and Unknown New Dimensions of
Traditional Equestrian Sports in Turks”, PhD Thesis, Marmara University,
Institute of Health Sciences.)
Turkman, Mehmet (2020). “Javelin Horse Games from the Ottomans to the Present”,
Scientific and Academic Approach to Sports 6, Night Broadcasts.)