E. Elias Hakalehto, PhD, graduated from the University of Helsinki as an environmental microbiologist in 1983 and got his PhD in biotechnology at the University of Kuopio, Finland, in the year 2000. During 1983-84, he acted as a board member of the Helsinki University's Student Union. He established the environmental section of the union, being also its first chairman.

He has familiarized himself with microbes' physiological and clinical role in the aetiology of diseases. In the industrial microbiology field, he has designed biorefinery processes for converting side streams into valuable chemicals, including organic acids and higher alcohols, energy gases such as methane and hydrogen, and organic fertilizers. Dr. Hakalehto was nominated as the Adjunct Professor of the University of Kuopio (now the University of Eastern Finland) in 2008 in biotechnical microbe analytics, and the Adjunct Professor of the University of Helsinki in 2016 in microbiological agroecology. He is the inventor of the PMEU device (Portable Microbe Enrichment Unit) and the concept "Bacteriological Intestinal Balance" (BIB).

In 1984-85, Elias Hakalehto studied in England, participating in the international diploma course in biotechnology. He is an alumnus of the University College London (biochemical engineering). During his project work in Westminster University (then Polytechnic of Central London), the first genetic vector for transmitting an antibiotic gene (for clavulanic acid) from Streptomycetes to Escherichia coli was developed. In 1986 he was the first researcher in the joint project between Valio Dairies Corporation and the University of Helsinki, leading to the purchase of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus (former Lactobacillus rhamnosus) strain G.G. (Gorbach & Goldin), which has become the most researched probiotic strain globally with several trademarks. He was a visiting scientist at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in its biotechnology unit (1990-91) and the Hadassah Medical School's Membrane and Ultrastructure Research department. During 1997-2003, he acted as a member and secretary of the Toxicological and Microbiological Section of the Finnish Scientific Advisory Board for Defence.

His R&D company Finnoflag Oy has been active for 28 years. It has conducted more than 100 projects for various clients in industries, research institutes, the clinical and food sectors, and the authorities. It has also been designing and supervising between 2008 and 2021 about 20 industrial Pilot studies. During 2009-2012, Elias Hakalehto and his company were the key technology providers for the Finnish nationwide Polaris project for safeguarding household water quality. This project was conducted by the Finnish National Institute of Health and Welfare and the Geological Survey of Finland, and it had 29 institutional participants. Finnoflag Oy has also been designing and conducting between 2008 and 2021 about 20 industrial pilot studies, including the E.U. (European Union) Baltic Sea Region (Germany, Poland, Sweden, Finland, Lithuania and Estonia) Biorefinery Pilot project. Dr Hakalehto and the company were the key technology providers and designers of the bioprocess, which was then tested in Finland for forest industry wastes, in Poland for sorted biowaste and potato industry side streams, and in Sweden for chicken litter.

Elias Hakalehto is the vice president of the International Society of Environmental Indicators (since 2015) and chaired the 22nd international conference of the society (ICEI) in Helsinki, Finland, in August 2017. He has authored numerous research papers, about 80 original patent applications, and over 100 book chapters for international publishers, such as Springer, Wiley, CRC Press, Elsevier and others. He has also edited the "Alimentary Microbiome - a PMEU Approach" (2012) and the Microbiological Hygiene series (2015-18) for Nova Scientific Publishers Inc., N.Y., USA.

As the inventor of PMEU (Portable Microbe Enrichment Unit), Elias Hakalehto has developed techniques for the enhanced patient and environmental samples analysis, quantifying probiotic effect (ESPEN conference, Leipzig, Germany, in 2013), and monitoring metabolic processes and the microbiome as a whole. His main interests are microbial communities and real-time activities during microbial interactions. Globally, he has pursued microbiology and biotechnology to solve the big issues of our time, such as environmental changes, nutrition, and health balance.

He has given about 50 international lectures, almost half of which have been keynote talks. He has been a session or webinar chairman in several instances. Besides monitoring the change by microbiological indicators, he has been involved in numerous projects to capacitate the metabolic power of the microbiome and microbial communities in the industries, agriculture, ecosystem engineering and health sectors. Elias Hakalehto designed and lectured a two-week full-time course in biorefineries for advanced students in Technion, Haifa, Israel, in 2018. He has also studied and coordinated the biotechnical and microbiological exploitation of the millions of tons of cellulosic side streams accumulated to the local waterways close to the centre of Tampere, the largest inland city in Scandinavia and the cradle of Finnish industrialization.

Dr Hakalehto demonstrated in Tampere during the first piloting funded by the Finnish Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in 2018-19 that the microbial bioprocess would offer an economically feasible non-waste solution for the removal of the biomass from the lake bottom, where it had accumulated during 1913-2008 as a result of a now-closed pulp and carton board factory. Dr Hakalehto was elected a Fellow member of the International Society for Development and Sustainability (ISDS) (Japan) in 2021. He has also worked as the editor and principal author of the book "Microbiology of Food Quality - Challenges in Food Production and Distribution During and After the Pandemics", published in December 2021 by Walter De Gruyter GmbH publishing house (Berlin, Germany).

Currently, he is involved in the establishment of Xibio Oy for the alimentary microbiological analyses and the planning of the 2022 ICEI conference in Toledo, Spain. He was interviewed during the pandemic era for U.K. radio channels in April and September 2021 and Finnish T.V. and internet publications (TerveysSummit). His innovation of using so-called passive immunization with IgY chicken egg yolk antibodies for mucosal protection against bacterial and viral epidemics (in 1996) has recently been discussed to eradicate pandemic pathogens. He is running multiple biorefinery experiments to produce energy and chemicals out of industrial and agricultural side streams. In 2021 he lectured in the webinars of "Autoimmunity 2021" about microbes and autoimmunity, "Green Connections 2021" (arranged or supported by the Swedish, Finnish and Norwegian chambers of commerce in Southern California) about biohydrogen, and for the "6th International Conference on Food Chemistry and Technology" (United Scientific Inc.) about probiotics and panbiotics (universally distributed beneficial strains).

Eino Elias Hakalehto, PhD Department of Environmental Studies, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

E. Elias Hakalehto, PhD, graduated from the University of Helsinki as an environmental microbiologist in 1983 and got his PhD in biotechnology at the University of Kuopio, Finland, in the year 2000. During 1983-84, he acted as a board member of the Helsinki University's Student Union. He established the environmental section of the union, being also its first chairman.

He has familiarized himself with microbes' physiological and clinical role in the aetiology of diseases. In the industrial microbiology field, he has designed biorefinery processes for converting side streams into valuable chemicals, including organic acids and higher alcohols, energy gases such as methane and hydrogen, and organic fertilizers. Dr. Hakalehto was nominated as the Adjunct Professor of the University of Kuopio (now the University of Eastern Finland) in 2008 in biotechnical microbe analytics, and the Adjunct Professor of the University of Helsinki in 2016 in microbiological agroecology. He is the inventor of the PMEU device (Portable Microbe Enrichment Unit) and the concept "Bacteriological Intestinal Balance" (BIB).

In 1984-85, Elias Hakalehto studied in England, participating in the international diploma course in biotechnology. He is an alumnus of the University College London (biochemical engineering). During his project work in Westminster University (then Polytechnic of Central London), the first genetic vector for transmitting an antibiotic gene (for clavulanic acid) from Streptomycetes to Escherichia coli was developed. In 1986 he was the first researcher in the joint project between Valio Dairies Corporation and the University of Helsinki, leading to the purchase of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus (former Lactobacillus rhamnosus) strain G.G. (Gorbach & Goldin), which has become the most researched probiotic strain globally with several trademarks. He was a visiting scientist at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in its biotechnology unit (1990-91) and the Hadassah Medical School's Membrane and Ultrastructure Research department. During 1997-2003, he acted as a member and secretary of the Toxicological and Microbiological Section of the Finnish Scientific Advisory Board for Defence.

His R&D company Finnoflag Oy has been active for 28 years. It has conducted more than 100 projects for various clients in industries, research institutes, the clinical and food sectors, and the authorities. It has also been designing and supervising between 2008 and 2021 about 20 industrial Pilot studies. During 2009-2012, Elias Hakalehto and his company were the key technology providers for the Finnish nationwide Polaris project for safeguarding household water quality. This project was conducted by the Finnish National Institute of Health and Welfare and the Geological Survey of Finland, and it had 29 institutional participants. Finnoflag Oy has also been designing and conducting between 2008 and 2021 about 20 industrial pilot studies, including the E.U. (European Union) Baltic Sea Region (Germany, Poland, Sweden, Finland, Lithuania and Estonia) Biorefinery Pilot project. Dr Hakalehto and the company were the key technology providers and designers of the bioprocess, which was then tested in Finland for forest industry wastes, in Poland for sorted biowaste and potato industry side streams, and in Sweden for chicken litter.

Elias Hakalehto is the vice president of the International Society of Environmental Indicators (since 2015) and chaired the 22nd international conference of the society (ICEI) in Helsinki, Finland, in August 2017. He has authored numerous research papers, about 80 original patent applications, and over 100 book chapters for international publishers, such as Springer, Wiley, CRC Press, Elsevier and others. He has also edited the "Alimentary Microbiome - a PMEU Approach" (2012) and the Microbiological Hygiene series (2015-18) for Nova Scientific Publishers Inc., N.Y., USA.

As the inventor of PMEU (Portable Microbe Enrichment Unit), Elias Hakalehto has developed techniques for the enhanced patient and environmental samples analysis, quantifying probiotic effect (ESPEN conference, Leipzig, Germany, in 2013), and monitoring metabolic processes and the microbiome as a whole. His main interests are microbial communities and real-time activities during microbial interactions. Globally, he has pursued microbiology and biotechnology to solve the big issues of our time, such as environmental changes, nutrition, and health balance.

He has given about 50 international lectures, almost half of which have been keynote talks. He has been a session or webinar chairman in several instances. Besides monitoring the change by microbiological indicators, he has been involved in numerous projects to capacitate the metabolic power of the microbiome and microbial communities in the industries, agriculture, ecosystem engineering and health sectors. Elias Hakalehto designed and lectured a two-week full-time course in biorefineries for advanced students in Technion, Haifa, Israel, in 2018. He has also studied and coordinated the biotechnical and microbiological exploitation of the millions of tons of cellulosic side streams accumulated to the local waterways close to the centre of Tampere, the largest inland city in Scandinavia and the cradle of Finnish industrialization.

Dr Hakalehto demonstrated in Tampere during the first piloting funded by the Finnish Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in 2018-19 that the microbial bioprocess would offer an economically feasible non-waste solution for the removal of the biomass from the lake bottom, where it had accumulated during 1913-2008 as a result of a now-closed pulp and carton board factory. Dr Hakalehto was elected a Fellow member of the International Society for Development and Sustainability (ISDS) (Japan) in 2021. He has also worked as the editor and principal author of the book "Microbiology of Food Quality - Challenges in Food Production and Distribution During and After the Pandemics", published in December 2021 by Walter De Gruyter GmbH publishing house (Berlin, Germany).

Currently, he is involved in the establishment of Xibio Oy for the alimentary microbiological analyses and the planning of the 2022 ICEI conference in Toledo, Spain. He was interviewed during the pandemic era for U.K. radio channels in April and September 2021 and Finnish T.V. and internet publications (TerveysSummit). His innovation of using so-called passive immunization with IgY chicken egg yolk antibodies for mucosal protection against bacterial and viral epidemics (in 1996) has recently been discussed to eradicate pandemic pathogens. He is running multiple biorefinery experiments to produce energy and chemicals out of industrial and agricultural side streams. In 2021 he lectured in the webinars of "Autoimmunity 2021" about microbes and autoimmunity, "Green Connections 2021" (arranged or supported by the Swedish, Finnish and Norwegian chambers of commerce in Southern California) about biohydrogen, and for the "6th International Conference on Food Chemistry and Technology" (United Scientific Inc.) about probiotics and panbiotics (universally distributed beneficial strains).

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