Much empirical evidence suggests that the standard economic paradigm of rational agents is not suitable to describe the observable behavior of individuals in the financial markets. Within the framework of cognitive finance, this research work propose a conceptual approach that explains the dimensions that comprise the construct of capital structure based on the paper of Perez J.A., et. al. 2019. In this article, a 44-item questionnaire was developed and applied to a sample of Chief Financial Officers from diverse companies in Mexico. The data was analyzed via factor analysis and under the principal components modality; at the same time, different internal consistency coefficients were used. The results revealed the existence of some factors in corporate financial practice that could explain the established construct, particularly to show that decision-makers react, to a great extent, to uncertainty and environmental conditions, which directly affects the valuation of a firm’s losses or earnings.