Sustainable Soil Fertility Management mainly focuses on issues related to soil management at the field level, which is a prime concern for crop production that may be improved by adopting several sustainable management practices. Soil fertility is the capability of soil to sustain plant growth and optimize crop yield. This can be enhanced through the use of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Several techniques are suggested that enhance soil fertility and crop production while minimizing environmental impact. Soil fertility can be further improved by incorporating cover crops that add organic matter to the soil, which leads to improved soil structure and promotes a healthy, fertile soil; by using green manure or growing legumes to fix nitrogen from the air through the process of biological nitrogen fixation; and by microbes. Fertile soil contains all the major nutrients necessary to sustain basic plant nutrition (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium), as well as other nutrients needed in smaller quantities (e.g., calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, boron, molybdenum, nickel). The book focuses on global strategies with a possible solution for managing the fertility of soil. The book covers soil science, soil fertility, crop production, soil sustainability, and soil management with a modern scientific approach that is helpful for researchers, the scientific community, academicians, business farmers and policymakers.