Zirconia and Alumina Bioceramic Biocompatibility


Giulio Maccauro
Institute of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Catholic University, Rome, Italy

Pierfrancesco Rossi Iommetti
Department of Oral Sciences, Catholic University, Rome, Italy

Luca Raffaelli
Department of Oral Sciences, Catholic University, Rome, Italy

Paolo Francesco Manicone
Department of Oral Sciences, Catholic University, Rome, Italy

Series: Chemical Engineering Methods and Technology, Materials Science and Technologies
BISAC: TEC009000

Different ceramics have been proposed as materials for medical devices. Alumina, zirconium oxide and zirconia toughened alumina are the most studied ceramic materials for biomedical applications. These materials were proposed firstly for orthopaedic prostheses and successively for other purpose such as dental restorations. Alumina showed atoxicity and is well tolerated by bone and soft tissue. Solid specimens showed to be well tolerated by fibroblasts and osteocites. Also inflammatory reaction of alumina, compared with titanium appears lower. Alumina biocompatibility resulted to be comparable to other dental ceramic. Zirconia biocompatibility was studied in vivo and in vitro. In vivo studies were the first to be performed since 1970.

Bone and muscle reaction after insertion of a zirconia sample was evaluated. No adverse response was evidenced in these studies. In vitro studies focused on different topics: tissue reaction, mutagenic and carcinogenic power, cell behaviour. Tissue reaction was influenced by the specimen, but in general bulk samples didn’t result to be citotoxic. Zirconia didn’t show ability to generate mutation or degeneration on cell cultures. Moreover fibroblast showed great ability to grow on zirconia surface. Moreover both zirconia and alumina showed less proinflammatory properties if compared with other biocompatible specimens such as titanium and high density polyethylene. (Imprint: Nova)

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Table of Contents






Zirconia toughened Alumina






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