Western Civilization in the 21st Century

Andrew Targowski
Western Michigan University, MI, USA
President Emeritus of the International Society for the Comparative Study of Civilizations (2009-2013)

Series: Focus on Civilizations and Cultures
BISAC: HIS037080

Clear

eBook

Digitally watermarked, DRM-free.
Immediate eBook download after purchase.

Product price
Additional options total:
Order total:

Quantity:

Browse Wishlist
Browse Wishlist

Details

This book took the task of conceptualizing Western civilization in the 21st century. It examines Western Civilization and its encounters from a viewpoint of the impact of rising Global civilizations in the 21st century. This political and technological success of Western civilization in the last 500 years triggered a dream of spreading around the globe Democracy and liberal Capitalism. Western society was held together by Christian morality (regardless whether someone was a believer or a non-believer or agnostic).

The medicine for all shortcomings faced by Western civilization in the 21st century is offered by Al Gore in his book “The Future: Six Drivers of Global Change” (2013). He thinks that inventions and technology will save Western civilization. The author of this book argues that vice versa, the rise of certain technologies are the main reason for the decline of Western civilization. These kind of issues will be investigated in this book and the message is not optimistic, since Westerners, when are poor are wise, and when are better off are stupid. Hence, without practicing wisdom, Western civilization cannot be revived. (Imprint: Nova)

PREFACE

FOREWORD

PART I CIVILIZING AND GLOBALIZING SOCIETY

Chapter 1. The Civilization Index and Western Civilization

Chapter 2. Spatio-Temporal Boundaries of Western Civilization

Chapter 3. The Life Cycle of Western Civilization

Chapter 4. Legacy of Western Civilization

Chapter 5. Western Civilization in Transformation to Global and Virtual Civilizations in the 21st Century

Part II GLOBALIZING AND VIRTUALIZING CULTURE

Chapter 6. Culture Fragmentation of Western-Global-Virtual Civilization

Chapter 7. From Multiculturalism to Hybrid Culture in Western-Global-Virtual Civilization

PART III GLOBALIZING AND VIRTUALIZING INFRASTRUCTURE

Chapter 8. The Expanding Infrastructure of Western-Global-Virtual Civilization

Chapter 9. Western-Global-Virtual Civilization and the Clash of Civilizations in the 21st Century

AFTERWORD

INDEX

Foreword

Friedman, Th. (2005). The world is flat. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Friedman, Th. and M. Mandelbaum (2012). That used to be us: how America fell behind in the world it invented and how we can come back. New York: Picador/Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Fukuyama, F. (1992). The end of history and the last man. New York: Penguin Group.
Gore, Al. (2013). The future: six drivers of global change. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks
Huntington, S. P. (1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Targowski, A. (2013). Harnessing the power of wisdom. New York: NOVA Science Publishers.
Targowski, A. (2014). Global civilization in the 21st century. New York: NOVA Science Publishers.
Targowski, A. and B. Han (2014). Chinese civilization in the 21st century. New York: NOVA Science Publishers.

Chapter 1

Bosworth, A. (2003). “The genetics of civilization: an empirical classification of civilizations based on writing systems,” Comparative Civilizations Review, 49(9).
Colegio Woodville (2013). Latin American history from 1800 to 1914. Colegio Woodville, http://www.woodville.org/documentos/130506latinamericanhistory-summary.pdf, Retrieved 9-5-2014.
Coulborn, R. (1966).

“Structure and process in the rise and fall of civilized societies,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, VIII-4(404).
Dexter, R. (2014). China wants its people in the cities. BloombergBusinessWeak, March 20.
Donghi, T. (1970). Historia contemporánea de América Latina (2. ed.). Madrid: Alianza Editorial:148-149.
Easterbrook, W.T.(1995). Recent contributions to economic history: Canada. Journal of Economic History (19):98.
Fernandez-Armesto, F. (2001). Civilizations, culture, ambition, and the transformation of nature. New York: A Touchstone Book.
Foster, J.B. and H. Holleman (2010). The financial power elite. MONTLY REVIEW. 62(1).
Fukuyama, F. (1992). The end of history and the last man. New York: Penguin Group.
Hall, A. (2012). Secret files reveal 9,000 Nazi war criminals fled to South America after WWII. London: Mail Online. Retrieved 6-12-2014.
Hord, J. (1992). Civilization: a definition part ii. the nature of formal knowledge systems. The Comparative Civilization Review, (26):111-135.
UNDP (2014). Sustaining human progress: reducing vulnerabilities and building resilience. New York: Human Development Report.
Huntington, S. P. (1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Ortiz, I. and M. Cummins (2011). Global inequality: beyond the bottom billion. UNICEF. p. 26.
Racine, K. (2010). This England and this now: British cultural and intellectual influence in the Spanish American Independence Era. Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 90(3):423–454.
Tacon, P. (1982). Carlinhos: the hard gloss of city polish. UNICEF news.
Targowski, A. (2004a). From global to universal civilization. Dialogue and Universalism, XIV(3-4), pp. 121-142.
Targowski, A. (2004b). The civilization index. Dialogue and Universalism, XIV(10-12): 71-86.
Targowski, A. (2004c). A grand model of civilization. Comparative Civilizations Review. (51):81-106.
Targowski, A. (2009a). Information technology and social development. Hershey, PA & New York: IGI Publishers.
Targowski, A. (2009b). Towards a composite definition and classification of civilization. Comparative Civilization Review. (60):79-98.
Toynbee, A. (1935). A study of history, 2d ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chapter 2

Anderson, J., M. (2000). The history of Portugal. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Barbante, A. L. et al. (2004). Eight glacial cycles from an Antarctic ice core. Nature 429 (6992):623–8.
Contreni, J.G. (1984). The Carolingian renaissance, in Warren T. Treadgold, ed. Renaissances before the Renaissance: cultural revivals of late antiquity and the Middle Ages.
Courtois, St. (1999). The black book of Communism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Huntington, S. (1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Harvey, W. (1978). De motu cordis, cited in Allen G. Debus, Man and nature in the Renaissance, (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, p. 69.
Fogel, R.W. (2004). The escape from hunger and premature death, 1700-2100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Friedman, Th. (2005). The world is flat. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Fukuyama, Fr. (1992). The end of history and the last man. New York: Free Press.
Kieffer, J. (2014).

Contributions of Rome

. Accessed 7-22-2014 http://www.aasd.k12.wi.us/ staff/hermansenjoel/apmuseum/kiefferkerkhoff/webpage/contributions.htm.
Kobyliński, Zb. (2008). The Slavs in Paul Fouracre. The New Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 530–537
Kreis. St. (2006). The history guide. Accessed 7-22-2014 http://www.historyguide.org/ ancient/lecture10b.html.
Maddison, A. (2000). The world economy, a millennial perspective. Paris: OECD.
McLuhan, M. (1962). The Gutenberg galaxy: the making the typographic man. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
McNall, B. et al. (1982). World civilizations. New York: W.W.W. NORTHON & COMPANY.
Miller, J. (1999). The Glorious Revolution. Longman, 2nd edn.
Palmer, R.R. (1964). The age of the democratic revolution: a political history of Europe and America, 1760–1800. Princeton, vol. 1, 1959; vol. 2.
Anderson, S. (1995). Civilizations and world systems. Walnut Creek, London, New Delhi: Altamira Press.
Scalgier, Ch. (2012). Rise of Christendom. New American. Accessed 7-22-2014 http://www.thenewamerican.com/culture/history/item/13808-rise-of-christendom.
Smith, J. (2005). Europe after Rome. Oxfrod, UK: Oxfrod University Press.
Snider, L.D. (1999). Macro-history, a theoreticasl approach to comparative world history. Lwiston: New York: The Edwin Mellen Press.
Sootin, H. (1995). Isaac Newton. New York: Messner.
Spivey, N. (1997). Etruscan art. London: Thames and Hudson.
Stark, R. (2014). How the West won, the neglected story of the triumph of modernity. Wilmington, Delaware: ISI Books.
Targowski, A. (1980). Informatyka, modele systemów i rozwoju (Informatics, models of systems and development). Warsaw: PWE.
Targowski, A. (1982). Red Fascism. Lawrenceville, Virginia: Brunswick.
Targowski, A. (2004). A Dynamic Model of an Autonomous Civilization. Dialogue and Universalism. Vol. XIV(1-2):77-90.
Targowski, A. (2009). Information technology and societal development. Hershey, New York: Information Science Reference (IGI).
Targowski, A. (2013). Historia, teraźniejszość i przyszłość informatyki (History, presence, future of information technology). Lódź (Poland): Wydawnictwa Politechniki Łódzkiej.
Targowski, A. (2014a). Global civilization in the 21st century. New York: NOVA Science Publishers.
Targowski, A. (2014b). Virtual civilization in the 21st century. New York: NOVA Science Publishers.
Targowski, A. (2014c). The deadly effect of informatics on the Holocaust. Mustang, OK: Tate Publishing.
Toynbee, A. (1934). A study of history. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Vallance, E. (2006). The Glorious Revolution: 1688 and Britain’s fight for liberty. New York: Little, Brown and Co.
Van Doren, Ch. (1991). A history of knowledge. New York: Ballantine.
Wood, G. (1992). The radicalism of the American Revolution. New York: A.A. Knopf.

Chapter 3

Blaha, St. (2002). The life cycle of civilizations. Auburn, NH: Pingree-Hill Publishing.
Huntington, S. (1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Friedman, Th. (2005). The world is flat. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Kobyliński, Zb. (2008). The Slavs in Paul Fouracre. The New Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 530–537
Kreis. St. (2006). The history guide. Accessed 7-22-2014 http://www.historyguide.org/ ancient/lecture10b.html.
Laszlo,E. (1991). The age of bifurcation, understanding the changing world. Philadelphia & Paris: Gordon and Breach.
Maddison, A. (2000). The world economy, a millennial perspective. Paris: OECD.
McNall, B. et al. (1982). World civilizations. New York: W.W.W. NORTHON & COMPANY.
Melko, M. (1969). The nature of civilizations. Boston: Porter Sargent Publisher.
Melko, M. and L. Scott. (1987). The boundaries of civilizations in space and time. Lanham, MD, New York, London: University Press of America.
Quigley, Carroll (1961). The evolution of civilizations. Indianapolis: A Liberty Press Edition.
Anderson, S. (1995). Civilizations and world systems. Walnut Creek, London, New Delhi: Altamira Press.
Snider, L.D. (1999). Macro-history, a theoreticasl approach to comparative world history. Lwiston: New York: The Edwin Mellen Press.
Spengler, O. (1932). Decline of the west. London: Allen and Udwin.
Stark, R. (2014). How the West won, the neglected story of the triumph of modernity. Wilmington, Delaware: ISI Books.
Targowski, A. (1980). Informatyka, modele systemów i rozwoju (Informatics, models of systems and development). Warsaw: PWE.
Targowski, A. (2004). A dynamic model of an autonomous civilization. Dialogue and Universalism. Vol. XIV(1-2):77-90.
Targowski, A. (2009). Information technology and societal development. Hershey, New York: Information Science Reference (IGI).
Targowski, A. (2014c). The deadly effect of informatics on the Holocaust. Mustang, OK: Tate Publishing.
Tonomura, N. (2013). Eight Major Civilization. Asahi Press.
Toynbee, A. (1934). A study of history. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Vallance, E. (2006). The Glorious Revolution: 1688 and Britain’s fight for liberty. New York: Little, Brown and Co.
Van Doren, Ch. (1991). A history of knowledge. New York: Ballantine.

Chapter 4

Auden, W.H. ed. (1952). The portable Greek reader. New York: Viking.
Bell, D. (1973). The coming of post-industrial society: a venture in social forecasting. New York: Basic Books.
Burckhardt, J. (2010). The civilization of the renaissance in Italy. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications.
Draper, H. (1990). Karl Marx's theory of revolution, volume IV: critique of other socialisms. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Duchesne, R. (2011). The uniqueness of Western Civilization. Leiden & Boston: BRILL.
Eisenstein, E. (1978). The printing press as an agent of change. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Ellul, J. (1964). The technological society. New York: VINTAGE BOOKS.
Farrington, B. (1961). Greek science. Baltimore: Penguin Books.
Gilbet, F. (1965). Machiavelli and Guicciardini. Princeton, NJ: University Princeton Press.
Guizot, F. (2013). The history of civilization in Europe. Translated by W. Hazlitt. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.
Jameson, F. (1991). Postmodernism or the cultural logic of late capitalism. Durham,, NC: Duke University Press.
Labriola, A. (1952). Giordano Bruno: martyrs of free thought no.1. Rome: P & G.
Machiavelli, N.(1961). The prince, trans. By G. Bull. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books.
McNeill, H. (1986). History of Western civilization, a handbook. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Maddison, A. (2000). The world economy, a millennial perspective. Paris: OECD
Morris, I. (2010). Why the West rules-for now. Goggle Books.
Perry, M. et al. (1989). Western civilization, ideas, politics, & society from 1400. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
Postman, N. (1992). Technopoly, the surrender of culture to technology. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Stangroom, J. and J. Garvey (2005). The Great Philosophers. London: Arcturus Publishing.
Stark, R. (2014). How the West won, the neglected story of the triumph of modernity. Wilmington, Delaware: ISI Books.
Targowski, A. (1982). Red fascism. Lawrenceville, VI: Brunswick.
Targowski, A. and A. Ajnenkiel. (2000). Losy Polski i świata. (The fates of Poland and the World). Warsaw: Bellona.
Targowski, A. (2009). Information technology and societal development. Hershey & New York: Premier Reference Resource (IGI).
Targowski, A. (2011). Cognitive informatics and wisdom development. Hershey, PA & New York: IGI Global
Targowski, A. (2013). Harnessing the power of wisdom. New York: NOVA Science Publishers.
Williams, T.I. (2003). A history of inventions, from stone axes to silicon chips. London: timewarner books.

Chapter 5

Big Question: How is globalization changing culture? CULTURE AND HISTORY. Retrieved 10/7/2012.
Bruenig, M. (2014). You call this a meritocracy? How rich inheritance is poisoning the American economy. March 24. SALON. Retrieved 8-15-2014.
Buchheit, P. (2013). 5 ways super-rich are betraying America. AlertNet, Retieved 8-15-2014
CNN MONEY (2009). Americans' wealth drops $1.3 trillion. CNNMoney.com. June 11.
Campos, P. (2014). The law school scham. The Atlantic, September.
Congressional Budget Office (2011). Trends in the distribution of household income between 1979 and 2007. October 2011.
Grey. J. (2007). Black mass, apocalyptic religion and the death of utopia. New York: Farrat, Straus, Giroux.
Friedman, Th. (2005). The world is flat. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Helman, Ch. (2013). The world's happiest (and saddest) countries, 2013. Forbes, October 29.
Kite, M. (2009). A virtual life is easier than real life, but it is really no life at all. The Telegraph. Retrieved 1-23-2014.
Legrain, Ph. (2003). Cultural globalization is not Americanization. The Chronicle of Higher Education. May 9.
Leonhart, D. and K. Quealy. (2014). The American middle class is no longer the world’s richest. New York Times, April 22.
Miron, G. (2014). Multiple choice: charter school performance in 16 states. Pal Alto, CA: Center for Research on Education Outcomes (CREDO).
Murray, Ch. (2013). Coming apart, the state of white America, 1960-2010. New York: Crown Forum.
Padinani, A. (2013). Anatomy of Detroit’s decline. New York Times, December 8.
Packer, G. (2011). The broken contract. Foreign Affairs, November/December.
Pelosi, N. (2006). The middle class-squeeze. Retrieved 6-15-2010.
Pikietty, Th. (2014). capital in the twenty-first century. Cambridge, MA & London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Resmovitz, J. (2014). Charter school growth in Michigan brings cautionary tale on quality. HUFFPOST DETROIT, August 18.
Smith, A. (2011). Americans and text messaging. PewResearch Center. http://
pewinternet.org/Reports/2011/Cell-Phone-Texting-2011.aspx. Retrieved 10-12-2012.
Smith (2014). Don’t let your children grow up to be farmers. New York Times, August 9.
Targowski, A. (1982). Red fascism. Lawrenceville, Virginia: Brunswick.
Targowski, A. (2014a). The global civilization in the 21st century. New York: NOVA Science Publishers.
Targowski, A. (2014b). The virtual civilization in the 21st century. New York: NOVA Science Publishers.
Volokh, S. (2014). Are private prisons better or worse than public prisons? Washington Post, February 24.
Wealth gap widens in rich countries as austerity threatens to worsen inequality: OECD. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
Williams, C.J. (2012). Euro crisis imperils recovering global economy, OECD warns. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 15, 2012.
Wiseman, P. (2013). "Richest 1 percent earn biggest share since '20s." apnews.excite.com/ article/20130910/DA8NN7U02.html, Retrieved 8-14-2014.
Wolf, E. N. and M. Gittleman (2011). Inheritance and the distribution of wealth or whatever happened to the great inheritance boom? Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.

Chapter 6

Barzun, J. (2001). From dawn to decadence. New York: Perennial.
Danesi, M. (2012). Popular culture. Lanham & New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Dastin, K. (2014). Pop culture freaks, identity, mass media, and society. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Dawson,Ch. (1950). Religion and the rise of Western culture. New York: Image Books, Doubledy.
Donn (2014). Mr. Donn’s social study site. http://www.mrdonn.org/index.html, Retrieved 8-25-2014.
Ecological footprint. (2014). List of countries by ecological footprint. Retrieved 8-24-2014.
Lerner, D. (1980). Comfort and fun, morality in a nice society. The paper presented at the Faculty Seminar of the MIT Institute for religion and Social Studies. Cambridge, MA: MIT. Retrieved 8-26-2014.
Mosse, G.L. (1988). The culture of Western Europe, the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Nerdwallet finance (2014). American household credit card debt statistics: 2014. Retrieved 8-17-2014.
Outsborne, J. (2013). Reading pop culture. Boston: Bedford’/St. Martin’s.
Targowski, A. (2014). Global civilization in the 21st century. New York: NOVA Science Publishers.
Wallece, L. (2013). Can video games teach us how to succeed in the real world? In Outsborne, J. (2013). Reading pop culture. Boston: Bedford’/St. Martin’s.
Williams, P. (2013). Is the truth politically correct? ChristianStandard, March 6. Retrieved 8-26-2014.

Chapter 7

Ardizzoni, M. (2009). Mediating urban cultural borders. http://flowtv.org/ 2009/05/mediating-urban-cultural-borders-by-michela-ardizzoni-university-of-colorado-boulder/ Retrieved 9-23-2014.
Becker, J. (2007). Dragon rising: an inside look at China today. Des Moines, IA: National Geographic.
Brown, J. M. (1994), Modern India: the origins of an Asian democracy, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Butler, J. and G. Ch. Spivak. (2007). Who signs the nation-state? Language, Politics, Belonging. Salt Lake City, UT: Segull Books.
Bruno, W. (2005). Multiculturalism – Tribalism Recycled. http://wolfgangbruno.blog
spot.com/2005/10/multiculturalism-tribalism-recycled.html, retrieved 2-6-2008.
Buchannan, P. Jr. (2002). The death of the west: how dying populations and immigrants invasions imperil our country and civilization. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Burgess, A. C. and T. Burgess. (2005). Guide to Western Canada (7th ed.). Globe Pequot Press. p. 31.
Burman, St. (2007). The state of the American Empire. Berkley, Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Cooper, D. (2004). Challenging diversity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Cromwell, O. C. (1970). Caste, class, and race. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Dogakinai, A. http://www.lclark.edu/~krauss/advwrf99/causeeffect/akikocause.html, retrieved 2-9-2008.
D'Souza, D. (1991). Il liberated education: the politics of race and sex on campus. Glencoe, Ill: Free Press.
Friedman, Th. (2014). Three cheers for pluralism over separatism. New York Times, September 21, Sunday Review, p.1.
Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations of nationalism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Goldberg, D. (1994). Multiculturalism, a critical reader. Oxford & Cambridge, UK: BLACKWELL.
Gordon, A. A. and Gordon, D. L. (1996). Understanding contemporary Africa. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Gress, D. (1999). Multiculturalism in the World History. The Newsletter of FPRI’s Marvin Wachman Fund for International Education, Vol. 5, No. 8.
Grillo, R.D. (1998). Pluralism and the Politics of Difference. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Grunitzky, Cl (2004). Transculturalism: how the world is coming together. London: True Agency.
Harvey, P. (1990). An introduction to Buddhism: teachings, history and practices. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Huntington, S.P. (1998). Clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order. The

. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Hechter, M. (2001). Containing nationalism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hobsbawm, E. and Ranger, T. (1983). The invention of tradition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Jack, A. (2006). Inside Putin’s Russia. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
Malik, K. (2013). Multiculturalism and its discontents. London, New York, Calcutta: Seagull Books.
Macionis, J. J. (2006). Society: the basics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Moynihan, D. P. (1994). Pandemonium: ethnicity in international politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Muller, J. (2008). Us and them. Foreign Affairs, 87(2):18-34.
Neary, I. (1997). Japan's minorities: the illusion of homogeneity. London: Routledge.
Parekh, B. (2000). Rethinking multiculturalism: cultural diversity and political theory. Basingstoke: Palgarve.
Pieterse, J. N. (2007). Ethnicities and global multiculture. Plymouth, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Renshon. St. (2011). Multiculturalism in the U.S.: cultural narcissism and the politics of recognition. Center for Immigration Studies. http://cis.org/renshon/politics-of-recognition.
Philips, A. (2007). Multiculturalism without culture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Rosaldo, R. (1993). Culture and truth. Beach Press.
Schlesinger, Jr. A. M. (1992). The disuniting of America: reflections on a multicultural society. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Inc.
Smedley, A. (1999). Race in North America: origin and evolution of a worldview, 2nd ed. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Simon, D. R. (2007). Elite deviance. Boston: Allyn & Bycon.
Schmidt, A.J. (1997). The menace of multiculturalism, Trojan horse in America. Westport, CT & London: PRAEGER.
Smith, A., D. (1987). The ethnic origins of nations. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Targowski, A. (1982). Red Fascism. Lawrenceville, VA: Brunswick Publishing Co.
_____ . (2006). The emergence of global civilization. Comparative Civilizations Review. 55, Fall, 91-107.
_____ . (2008). Information technology and social development. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
_____ . (2014). Global civilization in the 21st century. New York: NOVA Science Publishers.
UN International Convention on the Elimination of All of Racial Discrimination, New York 7 March 1966.
Ward, C. (1997). On difference and equality. Legal Theory 3, 470-5.

Chapter 8

AFP (2011). Stuxnet worm brings cyber warfare out of virtual world. Google.com. Retrieved 8-15-2014.
Asimov, I. (1950). I robot. New York: Genome Press.
Automation,com (2014). http://www.automation.com/library/articles-white-papers/articles-by-jim-pinto/robotics-technology-trends, Retrieved 8-21-2014.
Bagwell, K. and R. Staiger (2004). The economics of the world trading system. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Brown, M. (2014). Robotic nation. http://marshallbrain.com/robotic-nation.htm, Retrieved 8-21.
Brunton, J. (2014). North Atlantic skies – the gateway to Europe. NATS Blog. Retrieved 8-22-2014, http://nats.aero/blog/2014/06/north-atlantic-skies-gateway-europe
Carbaough, R. (2005). International economics, 10th edition. Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western.
Csmonitor (2007). Estonia accuses Russia of 'cyberattack'. Csmonitor.com 17 May. Retrieved 8-10-2014.
Dulac, J. (2013). Global land transport infrastructure requirements. Vienna: IEA.
Dunn, R.M. and J.h. Mutti. (2004). International economics, 6th edition. New York: Routledge.
Elson, A. (2011). Governing global finance: the evolution and reform of the international financial architecture. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Faiola, A. and T.W. Farnam (2013). The rise of the bitcoin: virtual gold or cyber-bubble? Washington Post.
Globe and Mail (2010). Britain faces serious cyber threat, spy agency head warns. October 13, Retrieved 8-14-2014.
IFI Watch (2004). "The World Bank and the question of immunity". IFI Watch - Bangladesh 1 (1): 1–10. Retrieved 7-14- 2004.
James, P. W. and H. Patomäki. (2007). Globalization and economy, Vol. 2: Globalizing finance and the new economy. London, UK: Sage Publications.
Kurzweil, R. (2006). Singularity is near. New York: Penguin Books.
McLuhan, M. (1964). Understanding Media. Berkley, CA: Gingko Press.
Meyers, B. (2013). 2013 Offshoring from sea to shining sea. The Economic Populist, July 29.
NDTV (2010). Hacked by 'Pakistan cyber army', CBI website still not restored. Retrieved 8-22-2014 http://www.ndtv.com/article/india/hacked-by-pakistan-cyber-army-cbi-website-still-not-restored-70568?cp
Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. Horizon, vol. 9(3).
Postman, N. (1992). Technopoly, the surrender of culture to technology. New York: Alfred Knopf.
Sandel, M.J. (2012). What money can’t buy the moral limits of markets. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
Simon, H. A. (2001). Complex systems: the interplay of organizations and markets in contemporary society. Computational & Mathematical Organization Theory, (7):79-85.
Schwartau, W. (1994). Chaos on the electronic superhighway, information warfare. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press.
Targowski, A.(1991). Strategies and architecture of the Electronic Global Village, The Information Society, 7(3):187 – 202.
Targowski, A. (1996). Global information infrastructure. Harrisburg, PA: Idea Group Publishing.
Targowski, A. and I.V. Modrak. (2011). Is advance automation consistent with sustainable economic growth in developed world? Communications in Computer and Information Science Series, Springer, 2011, vol. 221.
Targowski, A. (2013). Harnessing the power of wisdom. New York: NOVA Science Publishers.
Targowski, A. (2014). Global civilization in the 21st century. New York: NOVA Science Publishers.
Toynbee, A. (1935). A study of history, 2d ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. I: 44-45.
World Bank (2007). Sovereign immunity. Washington, DC: World Bank Group Report.
Zuboff, Sh. (1988). In the age of the smart machine: the future of work and power. New York: Basic Books.

Chapter 9

Courtois, S. (1997). The black book of communism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Dmytryshyn, B. (1974). Modernization of Russia under Peter I and Catherine II. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, p.21.
D'Or.O.L. (2008). Russia as an empire. The Moscow News weekly. Retrieved 21 8-24-2014.
Eades, M. (2014). China targets western cultural threats. Foreign Policy Association, January 15. Retrieved 8-29-2014.
Gable, L.H. (2013). Is a military conflict between China and the United States possible in the future? Council on Foreign Relations Blog. Retrieved 8-29-2014.
Huntington, S.P. (1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
History of 9/11 Attack (2014). Follow history. Retrieved 8-20-2014.
International Tribunal (1995). ICTY; Karadzic indictment. Paragraph 19. ICTY.org. Retrieved 8-20-2014.
Kuhner, T.K. (2014). Capitalism v. democracy, money in politics and the free market constitution. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Lerche, Ch.O. (2014). The conflict of globalization. The International Journal of Pease Studies. Retrieved 8-29-2014.
Robertson, R. (1992). Globalization: social theory and global culture. London: Sage.
Rosenau, J. (1990). Turbulence in world politics: a theory of change and continuity. Princeton N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Scholte, J. A. (1997). "Constructions of collective identity in a time of globalization." http://nexxus.com.cwru.edu/amjdc/papers/76.
Schumpeter, J. (1942). Capitalism, socialism and democracy. New York: Harper.
Sorokin, P. (1937). Social and cultural dynamics, vol iii, fluctuations of social relationships, war and revolution. New York: America Books Co.
Spybey, T. (1996). Globalization and world society. Cambridge U.K.: Polity Press.
Steingard, David S. and Dale E. Fitzgibbons. 1997. Challenging the juggernaut of globalization: a manifesto for academic practice. http://nexxus.com.cwru.edu/ amjdc/papers/85, April 6, 2014.
Toynbee, A. (1956). A study of history. Abridgement of Volumes 1-6 by D.C. Somervell. New York: Oxford University Press.
Waters, M. (1995). Globalization. London: Routledge.
Users.erols.com (2012). Huguenot religious wars, Catholic vs. Huguenot (1562–1598). Retrieved 2-15-2012.
White, M. (2011). The great big book of horrible things. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

You have not viewed any product yet.