Water Purification by Micelle-Clay Nano-Particles

Shlomo Nir
University of Jerusalem, The R.H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Rehovot, Israel

Uri Shuali
Research Scientist (Retired), Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR), Israel

Series: Air, Water and Soil Pollution Science and Technology
BISAC: SCI026000

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$195.00

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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This book focuses on water purification by micelle-clay nano-particles. The micelle-clay complex is composed of an organic cation (surfactant) with a long alkyl chain, e.g., ODTMA (octadecyltrimethylammonium) that spontaneously forms micelles of several nm in diameters at small concentrations. The positively charged micelles interact with a negatively charged clay (bentonite) at optimal ratios. The resulting complex has a large surface area per weight; it includes large hydrophobic parts and has an excess of a positive charge. The complex is insensitive to higher temperatures (50 0C), to pH values in the range of 2-11, or ionic strengths. Production of powdered and granulated complexes is described. The material characteristics of the micelle-clay complex differ from those of organo-clay of the same composition, which is formed by the interaction of monomers of the surfactant with the clay (Chapters One and Two). Model calculations enable simulations and predictions of removal of pollutants from water in batch or filtration experiments, and can yield cost estimates (Chapter Three).

Laboratory and pilot experiments (Chapter Four) yield efficient removal from the water of (i) hydrophobic and anionic organic molecules: herbicides, humic acid, dissolved organic matter, and pharmaceuticals; (ii) inorganic anions, e.g., perchlorate; and (iii) microorganisms: bacteria, viruses, and parasites, e.g., cryptosporidium, which is resistant to chlorination. The (above) use of a micelle-clay complex indicated a big advantage in comparison with activated carbon. Low cost regeneration of used filters after bacteria adsorption is described. Biocidal effects of cations, e.g., ODTMA are demonstrated; released cations during filtration enhanced the filter efficiency. The released cations are removed from water before consumer use by another filter containing activated carbon. Drinking water from lakes is forbidden during cyanobacteria bloom due to harmful toxins. Filtration by the granulated micelle-clay complex and killing of cyanobacteria by ODTMA cations are described.

Water purification by other clay-composites such as liposome- and polymer-clay is described in Chapter Five. Collaboration between technologies of water purification are found in Chapter Six: (i) Incubation of grey water in a moving bed biological reactor followed by filtration by the micelle-clay granulated complex enables water reuse at low cost. (ii) Filtration combined with degradation by solar photo-Fenton processes is a promising tertiary treatment of wastewater, including efficient removal of problematic pharmaceuticals. (iii) A new design of the micelle-clay complex may yield enhanced capacity for removal of microorganisms from water by combining filtration with biocidal action of free cations.

This book describes inventions in material science and developments of computational procedures for simulations and predictions, and is an authoritative and stimulating reference for researchers, engineers and students involved in water treatment and adsorption processes. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Preparation and Structures of Micelle-Clay Complexes

Chapter 3. Modeling of Adsorption of Solutes in Dispersion and During Filtration

Chapter 4. Purification of Water by Micelle-Clay Composites: Experimental and Calculated Values of Emerging Pollutants and Capacities

Chapter 5. A Mini Review of Water Purification by Liposome- and Polymer- Clay Composites

Chapter 6. General Discussion: Clay-Composites in Combination with Other Technologies

Index

"Professor Nir has utilized his vast experience in the sciences, ranging from intermolecular forces, quantum biophysics, and cation-membrane interactions to the kinetics and mechanisms of membrane fusion in liposome and virus-cell systems, in developing the new field of water purification using clay-micelle complexes. The success of this new approach to water purification has been described in detail in this book, which is recommended reading for students and practitioners of water quality assurance and reuse." - Dr. Nejat Duzgunes, Professor of Microbiology, School of Dentistry, The University of the Pacific at San Francisco, CA

"This is an interesting book for any person involved in the field of research of clay-organic interactions and potential applications by going further on the laboratory scale. The authors do not only provide a comprehension of the mechanistic of these interactions but also a compendium of mathematical tools for implementation of the observations from preparation of these materials from the lab- to pilot-scale." - Dr. Tomas Undabeytia, Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology (IRNAS-CSIC) Reina Mercedes, Sevilla. Spain

"This book is well written and treats the subject matter it covers in a comprehensive manner. It may serve as an important reference for scientists interested in the surface interactions of organic species with clay-surfactant complexes as well as for any person interested in the removal of organic pollutants from liquid systems or in the controlled release of organic compounds." - Uri Mingelgrin, Ph.D., Professor, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel

Professor Sabino A. Bufo, Ph.D., Department of Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy - To read the review, click here.

Keywords: Water treatment, Grey water, Micelle-clay composites, Liposome-clay composites, Polymer--clay composites, Adsorption equations, Adsorption models, Filtration equations, Filtration models, Removal of bacteria from water, Cyanobacteria, Algal blooms, Perchlorate removal, Removal of cyanides, Removal of parasites from water, Regeneration of composites, Removal of pesticides, Removal of pharmaceuticals, Removal of pesticides, Langmuir equation, Matrix formulation of Langmuir equation, Combination of filtration and degradation, Membrane fouling, Domestic filters

The book describes inventions in material science, and developments of computational procedures for simulations and predictions of adsorption in dispersion and by filtration in the presence of several solutes. It is intended for researchers, engineers and students involved in water treatment and adsorption processes. The examples shown can be useful for researchers and students in all Natural Sciences.

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