Vancomycin: Biosynthesis, Clinical Uses and Adverse Effects

Abu Gafar Hossion, PhD (Editor)
The University of Oklahoma College of Pharmacy, Oklahoma City, OK, USA

Series: Pharmacology – Research, Safety Testing and Regulation
BISAC: MED058170

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Volume 10

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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There have been news reports with the tales of many community acquired bacterial infections that lead to serious hospitalization. The last resort drug for these infections is vancomycin; an FDA approved glycopeptide antibiotic for the treatment of several bacterial infections, including infections caused by susceptible staphylococcus, streptococcus, enterococcus, and diphtheroid organisms. Around the world in 1997, initial reports of reduced vancomycin susceptibility in clinical isolates of staphylococcus aureus generated significant concern in the medical community.

There has been uncertainty regarding optimal laboratory tests and the clinical relevance of reduced vancomycin susceptibility in S. aureus; changes in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints for vancomycin against S. aureus; and increasing concern regarding the efficacy of vancomycin for the treatment of infection due to gram-positive bacteria, such as S. aureous. Vancomycin can be administered either intravenously or orally, but in order to treat systemic infections, vancomycin must be administered intravenously. Identifying the changes in genome content or expression, which are associated with the acquisition of the different types of vancomycin resistance, is an important step in the process of understanding the molecular basis of resistance with the potential to provide leads both for new drug targets and diagnostic biomarkers. However, considering that vancomycin has a slow bactericidal activity, clinicians have to adequately prescribe vancomycin to avoid the acquisition of resistance under therapy and to facilitate the cure. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical )

Preface

Chapter 1. Pharmacodynamic Dosing of Vancomycin: Concepts and Clinical Evidence
(Ryan P. Moenster and Travis W. Linneman, St. Louis College of Pharmacy, St. Louis, Missouri, USA)

Chapter 2. Comparative and Functional Genomics as Tools for Understanding Vancomycin Resistance in Bacteria
(Andy Hesketh and Hee-Jeon Hong, Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, UK)

Chapter 3. Vancomycin: Use, Dosing and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
(Iris Usach, Virginia Melis and Jose-Esteban Peris, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Spain)

Chapter 4. Clinical Use of Vancomycin in Cardiovascular Homograft Banking
(Wee Ling Heng, Yeong Phang Lim, Chong Hee Lim, Linda Manning, National Cardiovascular Homograft Bank, National Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore, and others)
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Chapter 5: Common and Uncommon Adverse Effects of Vancomycin
(Florent Valour, Judith Karsenty, Sandrine Leroy, Anissa Bouaziz, Sarah Milley, Benoit Bensaid, Frédéric Laurent, Florence Ader, Christian Chidiac and Tristan Ferry, Infectious Diseases Department, Croix-Rousse Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Franc, and others)

Chapter 6. Clinical Use of Vancomycin in Methicillin-Resistant S. aureous or Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus Bacterremia, Catheter-Related Bacteremia and Endocarditis
(Alicia Marquet, Florent Valour, Anissa Bouaziz, Judith Karsenty, Florence Ader, Christian Chidiac and Tristan Ferry, Infectious Diseases Department, Croix-Rousse Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, France, and others)

Chapter 7. Clinical Use of Vancomycin in MRSA Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
(Nader Chebib, Agathe Sénéchal, Jean-Christophe Richard, Claire Tissot, Alicia Marquet, Judith Karsenty, Florence Ader, Christian Chidiac and Tristan Ferry, Infectious Diseases Department, Croix-Rousse Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, France, and others)

Chapter 8. Clinical Use of Vancomycin in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci Bone and Joint Infection
(Florent Valour, Anissa Bouaziz, Judith Karsenty, Thomas Barba, Sandrine Leroy, Alicia Marquet, Julien Saison, Frédéric Laurent, Sébastien Lustig, Christian Chidiac and Tristan Ferry, Infectious Diseases Department, Croix-Rousse Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, France, and others)

Index

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