Using Space Techniques and GIS to Identify Vulnerable Areas to Natural Hazards along the Jeddah-Rabigh Region, Saudi Arabia

Mashael M. Al Saud
Space Research Institute, King Abdel Aziz City for Science and Technology, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Series: Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
BISAC: TEC010000

Clear

$195.00

eBook

Digitally watermarked, DRM-free.
Immediate eBook download after purchase.

Product price
Additional options total:
Order total:

Quantity:

Details

Natural hazards have become the foremost geo-environmental issue in many regions worldwide, since rarely a year goes by without any catastrophic event that harms both urban structure and human life. These natural hazards are exacerbated by a number of physical and demographic factors and variables. The most common aspects of these hazards are floods and their related processes of soil and rock erosion of different types, landslides, volcanic activities, seismic movements of different magnitudes, as well as coastal erosion and sea floods on coastal zones. It is extremely dangerous to have all these natural catastrophic aspects within one region, which makes it susceptible to natural disturbances. A typical example is the area located along the Western coast of Saudi Arabia, between Jeddah and Rabigh. This area is currently witnessing an obvious development trend and dramatic urban growth, including a miscellany of urban and tourist settlements, in addition to mushrooming academic centers. However, the region’s susceptibility to natural hazards was not considered during this development. The area comprises mountain chains of igneous rocks and complexes with extensive rock structures, including volcanic dykes and fault systems, which are susceptible to movement at any time. In addition, the area extends to the coastal plain to the west, which is almost covered by interbedded rocky and soil materials due to the transgression and regression processes that have taken place in the past. This makes the region vulnerable to sea flooding. The hydrological records, with a special emphasis on floods, along with the seismic frequency records show a recurrence of catastrophic events. These observations have been made in addition to physical observations in geologic and geomorphologic maps as well as satellite images, which point out the high vulnerability of the area to natural hazards at a time when the population growth is continuously developing. Based on these principles, the study aims to utilize space tools to extract physical data in a comprehensive approach as well as analyze and manipulate this data in the Geographic Information System (GIS), thus determining the areas vulnerable to natural hazards. More specifically, the study aims to produce thematic maps for each type of existing natural hazards, among which geographic zones can be classified with respect to different risk levels. It is a complete report that decision makers can utilize in order to apply tangible implements to mitigate the risk magnitude and thus identify areas with less risk. The authors hope that these areas can be considered in urban management and planning approaches.

List of Figures

List of Tables

Foreword

Summary

Preface

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Space Techniques and Gis

Chapter 3. Physical and Anthropogenic Parameters

Chapter 4. Identification of Natural Hazards

Chapter 5. Terrain Instability

Chapter 6. Seismic Activities

Chapter 7. Flood-Prone Areas

Chapter 8. Coastal Flood

Chapter 9. Erosion

Chapter 10. Conclusion and Discussion

About the Author

Index

Chapter 1
Abdulrazzak M., Sorman, A., Onder, K., and Al-Sari, A. 1995. Flood Estimation and Impact: Southwestern Region of Saudi Arabia. Project No. ARP-10-51. Riyadh. Saudi Arabia: King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology.
Al Saud, M. 2010. “Assessment of Flood Hazard of Jeddah Area 2009, Saudi Arabia.” Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) 2(9): 839–847.
Al Saud, M. 2011. Flood Controls Management for Jeddah City and the Surrounding. Technical study. 174.
Al Saud, M. 2015. Flood Control Management for the City and Surroundings of Jeddah. Saudi Arabia: Springer Publisher.
Berz, G., Kron, W., Loster, T., Rauch, E., Schimetschek, J., Schmieder, J., Siebert, A., Smolka, A. and A. Wirtz.. 2001. “World Map of Natural Hazards – A Global View of the Distribution and Intensity of Significant Exposures.” Natural Hazards Journal 23(2–3): 443–465.
EM-DAT (Emergency Events Database). 2016.

Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED). Available at: http://www. emdat.be/
Ishaq A., M. 1985. A Storm Water Management Model for Saudi Arabia. Project No. ARP-1-55. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology.
Kevin, S. 2010. Economics of Natural Hazards. Available at: http:// kevinmsimmons.blogspot.co.uk/2010/02/
Nouh, M. A. 1988. “Estimation of Floods in Saudi Arabia Derived from Regional Equations.” J. Eng. Sci. 14(1):1–26.
Sadagah, B., Ghouth-Ali, A., Qari, M., and Aazam, M. 2005. Landslides: Investigation, Mitigation, Monitoring and Safety Measures of Al-Baha Descent. Project No. AT-19-33. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology.
Sorman, A., Abdulrazzak, M. J., and Onder, H. 1991. “Analysis of Maximum Flood Events and their Probability Functions under Arid Climate Conditions in Saudi Arabia.” International Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium, Perth.
Subyani, A. M. 2007. “Hydrology and Floods Assessment of Some Arid Basins in Western Saudi Arabia.” IV Int’l Symposium on Environmental Hydrology. Kushing. Malaysia.
Subyani, A., Qari, M., Matsah, M., Al-Modayan, A. and Al-Ahmadi, F. 2009. Utilizing Remote Sensing and GIS Technologies to Produce Hydrological and Environmental Hazards in Some Wadis, Western Saudi Arabia (Jeddah-Yanbu). Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Department of Hydrology, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology.
Swolfs, S. 1995. Listening to Earthquakes in the Arabian Tectonic Plate. U.S. Geological Survey, Saudi Arabian Mission Data. Final Report, USGS-DFR-95-1, 47.
World Bank. 2017. Natural Disasters in the Middle East and North Africa: A Regional Overview. Documents and Reports. Available at: http:// www.worldbank.org/en/region/mena/publication/natural-disasters-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa.

Chapter 2
Chorowicz, J., Ichoku, C., Riazanoff, S., Kim, Y., Cervelle, B. 1992. “A Combined Algorithm for Automated Drainage Network Extraction.” Water Resources Research 28: 12931302.GW (Geospatial World). 2017. http://www.gisdevelopment.net/tutorials/ tuman008.htm.
Ichoku, A., Meisels, A., Chorowicz, J. 1996. “Detection of Drainage Channel Networks on Digital Satellite Images.” International Journal of Remote Sensing 17, no. 9: 16591678.
Jaja, S. 2014. Atmospheric Correction, http://www.umiacs.umd.edu/labs/ GC/atmo/index.html.
Martinez-Casasnovas, J., Stuiver, H. 1998. “Automated Delineation of Drainage Networks and Elementary Catchments from Digital Elevation Models.” ITC Journal 3/4: 198–208.
Qudaisat, M. “Geographic Information System.” Proceedings of the Training Course on Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS Techniques in Hydrology and Hydrogeology. ESCW/ENR. Amman, December 2-12, 1997.
Tribe, A. 1991. Automated Recognition of Valley Heads from Digital Elevation Models. Earth Surface Processes Landforms 16: 3349.

Chapter 3
Al Saud, M. 1986. Sand Dunes and their Granular Characteristics in Ad-Dahnaa Desert. 1st edition. King Saud University. (In Arabic)
Al Saud, M. 2011. Flood Controls Management for Jeddah City and the Surrounding. Technical Study. 174.
Al Saud, M. 2012. Use of Remote Sensing and GIS to Analyze Drainage System in Flood Occurrence, Jeddah - Western Saudi Coast. Book on “Drainage systems”. InTech.
Almazroui, M., Nazrul Islama, M., Jones, P., Athar, H., and Rahman, M. 2012. Recent Climate Change in the Arabian Peninsula: Seasonal Rainfall and Temperature Climatology of Saudi Arabia for 1979–2009. Atmospheric Research 11: 29–45.
Alsayari, S., and Zotl, J. 1978. Quaternary Period in Saudi Arabia. Vienna, Austria: Springer-Verlag.
Alyamani, M., and Şen, Z., 1992. Regional Variation of Monthly Rainfall Amounts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J. KAU: FES. 6: 113–133.
Blank, H. 1977. Aeromagnetic and Geologic Study of Tertiary Dikes and Related Structures on the Arabian Margin of the Red Sea. Saudi Arabian General Directory of Mineral Resources. Bulletin 22.
Brown, G. F., Schmidt, D. L., and Huffan Jr, A. C. 1989. Geology of the Arabian Peninsula, Shield Area of Western Saudi Arabia. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 560-A.
Brown, G. F., Jackson, R. O., Bogue, R. G. and Elberg, E. L., Jr. 1963. Geologic Map of the Northwestern Hijaz Quadrangle, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map I-204A (scale 1:500,000).
GCFEP (General Corporation for Forecasting and Environmental Protection). 2017. Daily Report from GCFEP.
Georgel, J. M., Bobillier J., Delom, J., and Bourlier M. 1985. Total-Intensity Residual Aeromagnetic Maps of the Arabain Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources Technical Record. BRGM-TR-O5-1-40.
IPCC Report. 2007. The Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), March 14th 208. Available at: http://www.ipcc.ch/
Italconsult. 1967. Water Supply Survey for Yeddah-Makkah-Taif Area. Special Report. No. 3. Geological investigation. Ministry of Agriculture and Water.
Karpoff, R. 1957. “Esquisse Géologique de l'Arabie Séoudite.” ["Geological Sketch of Saudi Arabia."] Extract Bull. Soc. Géol.
Kotwicki, V., and Al-Sulaimani, Z. 2009. “Climates of Arabian Peninsula, Past, Present and Future.” International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management 1(3): 297–310.
Ministry of Water and Electricity. 2007. Climate Data Reports. Reyadh, Saudi Arabia: Hydrology Division.
Moor, A., and AL-Rehaili, M. 1989. Geological Map of Makka Quadrangle Sheet 21D. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources.
Nasrallah, A., Nieplovab, N., and Ramadanc, E. 2004. Warm season extreme temperature events in Kuwait. Journal of Arid Environments. 65 (2): 357-71.
Nebert, K. 1969. “Geology of Jabal Samran and Jbal Farasan Region, Saudi Arabia.” Deputy Ministry of Mineral Resources Bulletin 4: 32p.
Noory, M. 1983. Water and the Progress of the Development in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (in Arabic). Jeddah: Tihamah Publisher.
Rexworthy, S. 1972. “Geology and Mineralization of the Precambrain Metavolcanics and Intrusives of Jabal Samran-Wadi Hawarah Region of the Southern Hijaz.” Unpublished Ph. D thesis, University of London.
Roobol, M., and Kadi, K. 2008. Cenozoic faulting in the Rabigh area, Central-West Saudi Arabia, including the sites of King Abdullah Economic City and King Abdulla University of Science and Technology. Technical Report. SGS-TR-2008-6. 12P.
Şen, Z. 1983. Hydrology of Saudi Arabia. Symposium on Water Resources in Saudi Arabia. Riyadh. A68-A94.
Skiba, W., Gilboy, C., and Smith, J. 1986. Geological Map of Rabigh Quadrangle Sheet 22 D. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources.
Smith, J. 1980. Reconnaissance Geologic Map of Wadi Mahani Quadrangle, Sheet 22/40 A. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry of Mineral Resources, Geologic Map GM-35, 18P.
Smith, J. 1982. Reconnaissance Geologic Map of Wadi Hammah Quadrangle, Sheet 22/40 C. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry of Mineral Resources, Geologic Map GM-65, 19P.
Subyani, A. M. 2004. “Geostatistical Study of Annual and Seasonal Mean Rainfall Patterns in Southwest Saudi Arabia.” Hydrological Sciences Journal 49(5): 803–817.
Subyani, A., Qari, M., Matsah, M., Al-Modayan, A. and Al-Ahmadi, F. 2009. Utilizing Remote Sensing and GIS Technologies to Produce Hydrological and Environmental Hazards in Some Wadis, Western Saudi Arabia (Jeddah-Yanbu). Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Department of Hydrology. King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology. General Directorate of Research Grants Program. TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Mapping Mission). 2016. http://disc2.nascom. nasa.gov/Giovanni/tovas/TRMM_V6.3B42.2.shtml
UNESCO. 1979. “Map of the World Distribution of Arid Regions: Map at Scale 1:25,000,000 with Explanatory Note.” MAB Technical Notes 7. Paris: UNESCO.
USGS-ARAMCO. U. S. Geological Survey-Arabian American Oil Company. 1963. Geologic map of the Arabian Peninsula: U.S. Geological Survey Misc. Inv. Map I-270 A, scale 1:2,000,000.

Chapter 4
Al Saud, M. 2007. “Using Satellite Imageries to Study Drainage Pattern Anomalies in Saudi Arabia.” Environmental Hydrology Journal 15, no. 30: 1–15.
Al Saud, M. 2015a. Flood Control Management for the City and Surroundings of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Springer Publisher.
Al Saud. M. 2015b. Concepts on the National Strategic Plan for Disastrous Mitigation in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Unpublished Technical Report (In Arabic). 18pp.
Basher, R. 2006. “Global Early Warning Systems for Natural Hazards: Systematic and People-centered.” Philosophical Transections 364: 2167–2182.
Cuny, Frederick C. 1983. Disasters and Development. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gens R., and Genderen J. L. Van. 1996. “SAR Interferometry – Issues, Techniques, Applications.” International Journal of Remote Sensing 17: 1803–1835.GSA (Geological Society of America). 2008. http://www.geosociety. org/positions/pos3_mapping.pdf.
Guo Z., Hu G., and Qian S. 2001. “Spatial Detection Technology Applied on Earthquake’s Independent Forecast.” 22nd Asian Conference on Remote Sensing, Singapore, November 5–10, 295–299.
Klemas, V. 2013. “Remote Sensing of Coastal Hazards.” In Coastal Hazards, edited by Charles Finkl. Springer Publishers.
Kohiyama M., and Yamazaki F. 2005. “Image Fluctuation Model for Damage Detection using Middle-resolution Satellite Imagery.” International Journal of Remote Sensing 26, no. 24: 5603–5627.
Ostir, K and Veljannovski, T. 2006. Application of Satellite Remote Sensing in Natural Hazard Management: The Mount Mangart Landslide Case Study. Unpublished Report. Scientific Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Ljubljana (Slovenia). http://www.mountaincartography.org/publications/papers/papers_bohinj_06/14_Ostir_Veljanovski.pdf.
SIC (Satellite Imaging Cooperation). 2017. Hurricane Mitigation. http://www.satimagingcorp.com/applications/environmental-impact-studies/natural-disasters/hurricane-mitigation/
Tarchi, D., Cassaglie, N., Moretti, S., and Sieber, A. 2003. “Monitoring Landslide Displacements by Using Ground-based Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry: Application to the Ruinon landslide in the Italian Alps.” Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres 108, no. 8.Tools and Techniques for Natural Hazard Assessment. http://www.oas.org/ dsd/publications/unit/oea54e/ch13.htm#2.%20remote%20sensing%20in%20natural%20hazard%20assessments.
UNDP. 2014. Human Development Report 2014. Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience. UNDP, New York.

Chapter 5
Al Saud, M. 2008. “Using ASTER Images to Analyze Geologic Linear Features in Wadi Aurnah Basin, Western Saudis Arabia.” The Open Remote Sensing Journal, 1: 7–16.
Al Saud, M. 2010. “Mapping Potential Areas for Groundwater Storage in Wadi Aurnah Basin, Western Arabian Peninsula, Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques.” Hydrogeology Journal, 18(6): 1481–1495.
Al Saud, M. 2012. Use of Remote Sensing and GIS to Analyze Drainage System in Flood Occurrence, Jeddah – Western Saudi Coast. Book on “Drainage systems”. InTech Publishing. DOI: 10.5772/34008.


Al-Harthi S. G., Youssef A. M., Bulkhi A. B., Katheeri M. M., and Al-Ammawi F. A. 2009. Stability of Rock Slopes along Samma escarpment road, Asir area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. SGS-TR-
2009-3.
Bankher, K. 1996. “Engineering Geological Evaluation of Earth Fissures in Wadi Al-Yutamah South Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah.” MSc thesis, FES, Jeddah.
Benda, L. E. and T. W. Cundy. 1990. “Predicting Deposition of Debris Flows in Mountain Channels.” Can. Geotech. J. 27:409–417.
Brawner, C. O. 1994. Participant workbook for rockfall hazard mitigation methods. U.S. Department of Transportation, NHI Course No. 13219
Budetta, P. 2004. Assessment of Rockfall Risk along Roads. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 4:71–81
Bunce C. M., Cruden D. M., and Morgenstern N. R. 1997. “Assessment of the Hazard from Rockfall on a Highway.” Can Geotech J 34:344–356.
Chatwin, S. C., D. E. Howes, J. W. Schwab, and D. N. Swanston. 1994. A Guide for Management of Landslide-Prone Terrain in the Pacific Northwest. B.C. Ministry of Forests, Land Manage. Handb. No. 18 (2nd ed.). Victoria, B. C.
Church, M. 1983. Concepts of Sediment Transfer and Transport on the Queen Charlotte Islands. FFIP Working Paper 2/83, Fish Forestry Interaction Program, B.C. Ministry of Forests, B.C. Ministry of Environment, Canada Department of fisheries and Oceans.
Dai, A., Wigley, T. M. L., Boville, B. A., Kiehl, J. T. and Buja, L. E. 2002. “Climates of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries simulated by the NCAR climate system model”, Journal of Climate, Vol. 14 No. 4, pp. 485-519.
Das, D. 2000. GIS Application in Hydrogeological Studies. www. gisdevelopment.net.
Edet, A., Okereke, S., Teme, C., and Esu, O. 1998. “Application of Remote Sensing Data to Groundwater Exploration: A Case Study of the Cross River State, Southeastern Nigeria.” Hydrogeology Journal, Springer-Verlag 6(3): 394–404.
Fish, M., and Lane, R. 2002. Linking New Hampshire’s Rock Cut Management System with a Geographic Information System. Transportation Research Record, 1786, Paper number 02–2775.
Greenbaum, D. 1985. “Review of Remote Sensing Applications to Groundwater Exploration in Basement and Regolith.” British Geological Survey Report OD 85(8): 36p.
Gustafsson, P. 1994. “SPOT Satellite Data for Exploration of Fractured Aquifers in a Semi-Arid Area in Botswana.” Hydrogeology Journal 2(20): 9–18.
Holzer, T. L. 1984. “Ground Failure Induced by Ground-Water Withdrawal from Unconsolidated Sediment.” In: Man-induced Land Subsidence, edited by Holzer T. L. Rev Eng Geol, VI, the Geological Society America, 67–105.
Hooker, J., Laubach, S., and Marrett, R. 2014. “A Universal Power-Law Scaling Exponent for Fracture Apertures in Sandstones.” GSA Bulletin 126: 9–10.
Hungr, O., G. C. Morgan, and R. Kellerhals. 1984. “Quantitative Analysis of Debris Torrent Hazards for Design of Remedial Measures.” Can. Geotech. J. 21: 663–677.
MacMillan, R., McNabb, D., and Jones, R. 2000. “Automated Landform Classification Using Dems: A Conceptual Framework for a Multi-Level, Hierarchy of Hydrologically and Geomorphologically Oriented Physiographic Mapping Units.” Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modelling (GIS/EM4): Problems, Prospects and Research Needs. Banff, Alberta, Canada, September 2–8.
Ministry of Agriculture and Water. 1986. Land Resources Map of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Land Management Department.
Pradhan, B. 2013. “A Comparative Study on the Predictive Ability of the Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine and Neuro-Fuzzy Models in Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Using GIS.” Comput Geosci-UK 51(1): 350–365.
Robinson, C., El-Baz, F., and Singhory, V. 1999. “Subsurface Imaging by RADARSAT: Comparison with Landsat TM Data and Implications for Groundwater in the Selima Area, Northwestern Sudan.” Remote Sensing Abstracts 25(3): 45–76.
Shaban, A., Khawlie, M., and Abdallah, C. 2006. “Use of Remote Sensing and GIS to Determine Recharge Potential Zones: The Case of Occidental Lebanon.” Hydrogeology Journal 14(4): 433–443.
Shehata W., Al-Saafin A., Harari, Z., Bader. T. 1990. Potential sabkha hazards in Saudi Arabia, 6th International Congress international Association of Engineering Geology 3: 2003–2010.
Skiba, W., Gilboy, C. and Smith, J. 1986. “Geological Map of Rabigh Quadrangle Sheet 22 D.” Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Ministry Of Petroleum and Mineral Resources.
Teeuw, M. 1995. “Groundwater Exploration Using Remote Sensing and a Low-Cost Geographic Information System.” Hydrogeology Journal 3(3): 21–30.
Varnes, D. J. 1978. Slope movement types and processes. In Special Report 176: Landslides: Analysis and Control, edited by Schuster, R. L. and Krizek, R. J., 11–33, Washington D. C.: Transportation and Road Research Board, National Academy of Science.
Youssef, A. M., Al-kathery, M., and Pradhan, B. 2014. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping at Al-Hasher Area, Jizan (Saudi Arabia) Using GIS-Based Frequency Ratio and Index of Entropy Models. Geosci J. DOI:10.1007/s12303-014-0032-8.
Youssef, A. M., Maerz, H. N., and Al-Otaibi, A. A. 2012. “Stability of Rock Slopes along Raidah Escarpment Road, Asir Area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.” J Geogr Geol 4(2) URL:http://dx.doi.org/ 10.5539/jgg.v4n2p48.

Chapter 6
Adams, R. D. and Barazangi, M. 1984. “Seismotectonics and seismology in the Arab region: A brief summary and future plans.” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 74(3): 1011–1030.
Al Amri, A. M. and Rodgers, A. J. 2013. “Improvement of seismicity parameters in the Arabian Shield and Platform using earthquake location and magnitude calibration.” In Lithosphere Dynamics and Sedimentary Basins: The Arabian Plate and Analogues, Edited by K. Al Hosani, F. Roure, R. Ellison, and S. Lokier. S. Berlin: Springer, pp. 281–293.
Al Damegh, K. S., Abou Elenean, K. M., Hussein, H. M. and Rodgers, A. J. 2013. “Source mechanisms of the June 2004 Tabuk earthquake sequence, Eastern Red Sea margin, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.” Journal of Seismology 13(4):561–576.
Al Saud, M. 2010. “Applying geoinformation techniques in studying flood and flash floods in Jeddah Region, 2009 a.d.” Arab Journal for Geoinformation. 3(1): 2010.
Cannon, T. 1994. “Vulnerability analysis and the explanation of natural disasters.” In Disasters, Development and Environment, edited by Ann Valery, 13–30. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Deif, A. and El-Hussain, I. 2012. “Seismic moment rate and earthquake mean recurrence interval in the major tectonic boundaries around Oman.” Journal of Geophysics and Engineering 9(6): 773–783.
Doocy, S., Daniels, A., and Aspilcueta, D. 2009. “Mortality and injury following the 2007 Ica earthquake in Peru.” American Journal of Disaster Medicine 4(1):15–22.
ENSN Catalog Events.2002. Seismic data for the western Arabian Peninsula 1956–2002.
Hussein, M. T. and Zaidi, F. K. 2012. “Assessing hydrological elements as key issue for urban development in arid regions.” In Urban Development, edited by S. Polyzos, 129–158. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech.
Innocenti, D. and Albrito, P. 2011. “Reducing the risks posed by natural hazards and climate change: The need for a participatory dialogue between the scientific community and policy makers.” Environmental Science & Policy 14(7).
KACST. 2005. Seismic data for the western Arabian Peninsula 2004–2005, King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology, KSA.
KSU. 2004. Seismic data for the western Arabian Peninsula 2002–2004, King Saud University, KSA.
Mitsui, Y. 2015. “Types of Earthquake Sources.” Earth, Planets and Space, 67(1).
PMC (PubMedical Centra). 2016. US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/
Rodgers, A., Walter, W., Mellors, R., Al-Amri, A. and Zhang Y. 1999. “Lithospheric structure of the Arabian shield and platform from complete regional waveform modeling and surface wave group velocities.” Geophysical Journal International, 138(3):871–878.
Serva, L. 1994. “Ground effects in intensity scales.” Terra Nova, 6:441–416.
SGS. 2010. Seismic data for the western Arabian Peninsula 2005–2010, Saudi Geologic al Survey, KSA.
Stern, R. J., and Johnson, P. (2010). “Continental lithosphere of the Arabian Plate: A geologic, petrologic, and geophysical synthesis.” Earth-Science Reviews, 101(1):29–67.
USGS. 2016. Earth hazards program. Measuring the size of an earthquake. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/topics/measure.php.


Valensise, G. and Guidoboni, E. 2000. “Earthquake effects on the environment: From historical descriptions to thematic cartography.” Annali di Geofisica 43(4):414–416.
Wisner B, Blaikie P, Cannon T, and Davis I. 2008. At Risk: Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability and Disasters (2nd Edition). New York: Routledge, 275.
www.emdat.be/, 2010.

Chapter 7
Abdulrazzak M., J., Sorman, A., Onder, K., and Al-Sari, A. 1995. Flood estimation and impact: Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology; Project No. ARP-10-51, Riyadh. Saudi Arabia.
Al Saud M. 2009. “Morphometric Analysis of Wadi Aurnah Drainage System, Western Arabian Peninsula.” The Open Hydrology Journal 3: 1–10.
Al Saud M. 2012. Use of Remote Sensing and GIS to Analyze Drainage System in Flood Occurrence. Jeddah-Western Saudi Coast, published Chapter, Online publication of the book in the InTech, Open Science (Drainage Systems) ISBN: 978-953-51-0243-4.
Al Saud, M. 2004. “Study of Environmental Problems in Jeddah – Saudi Arabia and the Ways to Address Them.” Geographical studies (In Arabic), 10. Saudi Geographical Society, 109.
Al Saud, M. 2010a. “Assessment of Flood Hazard of Jeddah Area 2009, Saudi Arabia.” Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) 2(9): 839–847.
Al Saud, M. 2010b. “Application Geo-Informatics Techniques in the Study of Floods and Torrents in Jeddah in 2009.” Arab Journal of Geographic Information Systems 3(1), (Arabic edition).
Al Saud, M. 2010c. “Map Flood Risk and Floods in Jeddah.” Geographical Research Journal, Saudi Arabia, number, 91 (Arabic edition).
Al Saud, M. 2011. Flood Controls Management for Jeddah City and the Surrounding. Technical study. 174 pp.
Al Saud, M. 2015a. Flood Control Management for the City and Surroundings of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Springer Publisher, 169 pp.
Al Saud, M. 2015b. Flood-prone Areas in Riyadh Region, Scale 1:25:000. Ar-Riyadh Development Authority (In Arabic).
Chorley, R., Schumm, S., and Sugden, D. 1984. Geomorphology. Methuen, London, 607 pp. disc2.nascom.nasa.gov/Giovanni/tovas/TRMM_V6. 3B42.2.shtml.


EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED. 2010. International Disaster Database, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Bel. Data version: v11.08. www.emdat.be/
Es-Saeed, M., Sen, Z., Basamad, A., Dahlawi, and A. Al-Bardi, W. 2004. Strategic groundwater storage in Wadi Naáman, Makka region, Saudi Arabia. Technical Report (in Arabic), Saudi Geological Survey-TR-2004-1. 32p.
Funk, C., Peterson, P., Landsfeld, M., Pedreros, D., Verdin, J., Shukla, S., Husak, G., Rowland, J., Harrison, L., Hoell, A., and Michaelsen, J. 2015. “The Climate Hazards Infrared Precipitation with Stations – A New Environmental Record for Monitoring Extremes.” Scientific Data. DOI: 10.1038/sdata.2015.66.
Huszar, S., and Fantin-Cruz, I. 2007. Implications of the Flood Pulse on Morphometry of a Pantanal Lake (Mato Grosso state Central Brazil). Acta Limnol. Bras., 19(4):453–461.
IPCC Report. 2007. The Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), March 14th 2008. Available at: http://www.ipcc.ch/
Kates, R. W. and Kasperson, J. X. 1983. Comparative Risk Analysis of Technological Hazards (a review). Proceedings of National Academy of Science, USA 80:7027–7038.
Khosrowpanah, Sh., Heitz, L., Wen, Y., and Park., M. 2007. Developing A GIS-Based Soil Erosion Potential Model of the Ugum Watershed. Technical Report. Water and Environmental Research Institute (WERI) of the Western Pacific. University of Guam. 103 pp.
Miller, V., 1953. A Quantitative Geomorphic Study for Drainage Basin Characteristics in the Clinch Mountain Area, Virginia And Tennessee, Technical Report No. 3, Geology Department, Colombia University, I-30, N6 ONR 271-30.
Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Arial Survey Department. 1982. Topographic maps of Saudi Arabia, 1;250.000.
Morisawa, M. 1976. Geomorphology Laboratory Manual. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc., pp. 1–253.
Nouh, M. A. 1988. “Estimation of Floods in Saudi Arabia Derived from Regional Equations.” J. Eng. Sci. 14(1):1–26.
Oruonye, E. 2016. “Morphometry and Flood in Small Drainage Basin: Case Study of Mayogwoi River Basin in Jalingo, Taraba State Nigeria.” Journal of Geography Environmental and Earth Science International. 5(1): 1–12.
Pike, R., and Wilson, S., 1971. “Elevation-relief ratio. Hypsometric Integral and Geomorphic Area-Altitude Analysis.” GSA Bull., 82: 1079–1084.
Qari, M. 2009. “Geomorphology of Jeddah Governate, With Emphasis on Drainage Systems.” Journal of King AbdulAziz University (JKAU): Earth Science 20(1): 93–116.
Samson, S., Eludoyin, A., Ogbole, J., Alaga, A., Oloko-Oba, Okeke, U., and Popoola, O. 2016. The Journal of Environment, Geography and Earth Science International 4(3): 1–8.
Schumm, S, 1956. “The Elevation of Drainage Systems and Slopes in Badlands at Perth Amboy, New Jersey.” Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull., 67: 597–646.
Skiba, W., Gilboy, C. and Smith, J. 1986. Geological Map of Rabigh Quadrangle Sheet 22 D. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources.
Sorman, A., Abdulrazzak, M., J., and Onder, H., 1991. Analysis of Maximum Flood Events and their Probability Functions Under Arid Climate Conditions in Saudi Arabia, International Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium, Perth.
Strahler, A. 1958. Dimensional Analysis Applied to Fluvial Eroded Landforms. Geol.Soc.America. Bull. 69: 279−300.
Subyani, A., Qari, M., Matsah, M., Al-Modayan, A. and Al-Ahmadi, F. 2009. Utilizing Remote Sensing and GIS Technologies to Produce Hydrological and Environmental Hazards in Some Wadis, Western Saudi Arabia (Jeddah-Yanbu). King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology: Department of Hydrology. General Directorate of Research Grants Program. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
TRMM, 2014. Tropical Rainfall Mapping Mission. Rainfall Archives. NASA. http://disc2.nascom.nasa.gov/Giovanni/tovas/TRMM_V6. 3B 42.2.shtml.

Chapter 8
Abe, K. 1979. “Size of Great Earthquakes of 1837–1974 Inferred from Tsunami Data.” Journal of Geophysical Research 84:1561–1568.
Ahmed, F. and Sultan, S.A. 1993. “Tidal and Sea Level Changes at Jeddah, Red Sea.” Pakistan Journal of Marine Sciences 2(2):1–8.
Albarakati, Alaa. 2004. “Residual Currents in Coastal Waters Near Jeddah Desalination Plants, Red Sea.” Journal of King Abdulaziz University 15(1).
Aleem, A. A. 1989. “Impact of Urbanization and Industry on Red Sea Coastal Ecosystems near Jeddah. In “Wildlife Conservation and Development in Saudi Arabia.” Proceedings of the First Symposium on the Potential for Wildlife Conservation and Development in Saudi Arabia, 1987. (Abuzinada, A.H., Goriup, P.D. & Nader, I.A. eds), NCWCD Publication No. 3, pp 147-155. NCWCD, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Al-Sheikh, A. 2011. “Management of Environmental Degradation of Jeddah Coastal Zone, Saudi Arabia, Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems.” The Journal of American Science 7(5):665–673.
EAPFRM (European Action Programme on Flood Risk Management). 2000. The impacts of coastal flooding, flood mapping and planning. Technical Report. Common Implementation Strategy for the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). 35pp.
Gallien, W., Schubert, E., Sanders, F. 2011. “Predicting Tidal Flooding of Urbanized Embayments: A Modeling Framework and Data Requirements.” Coastal Engineering 58(6):567–577.
Gille, S. 2003. Bathymetry and ocean circulation. Charting the secret world of the ocean floor. The GEPCO Project 1903-2013, 9pp.GFDRR (Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery). 2017. Available at: https://www.gfdrr.org/sites/default/files/publication/soi-serbia.pdf
Hall, J. W., Sayers, P. B., Panzeri, M. and Deakin, R. 2007 “Quantitative Assessment of Driver Impacts on Future Flood Risk in England and Wales.” In Future Flooding and Coastal Erosion Risks, edited by Thorne, C.R., Evans, E. P. and Penning-Rowsell, E. C. Thomas Telford, 514.
http://thinkhazard.org/en/report/215-saudi-arabia/CF.
Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Arial Survey Department, 1982. Topographic maps of Saudi Arabia, 1;250.000.NOAA (National and Oceanic Atmosphere Administration). 2017. available at: https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/tides.html.
Pye, K. and Blott, S. J. 2006. “Coastal Processes and Morphological Change in the Dunwich-Sizewell Area, Suffolk, UK.” Journal of Coastal Research 22(3):453–473.
Ramsay, D., and Bell, R. (2008). Coastal Hazards and Climate Change. A Guidance Manual for Local Government in New Zealand. New Zealand: Ministry for the Environment. ISBN 978-0478331189.
Sammari, C. 2004. Technical mission to red sea tide gauge operating agencies. Tide gauge network on the red sea. 9-20 December 2004. IOC/GLOSS/PERSGA/ISESCO. Institut National des Sciences et Technologies de la Mer [National Institute of Science and Technology of the Sea].
Saudi Geological Survey. 2013. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Facts and numbers. SGS, 1st edition.
Skiba, W., Gilboy, C. and Smith, J. 1986. Geological map of Rabigh Quadrangle sheet 22 D, Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Wolf, J. and Woolf, D. K. 2006. “Waves and Climate Change in the North-East Atlantic.” Geophysical Research Letters 33: L06604. DOI:10.1029/2005GL025113.

Chapter 9
Al Bassm, A., Zaidi, F., Huessien, M. 2013. “Natural hazards in
Saudi Arabia
.” https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266848825_ Natural_hazards_in_Saudi_Arabia
Al Saud M. 2009. “Morphometric Analysis of Wadi Aurnah Drainage System, Western Arabian Peninsula.” The Open Hydrology Journal 3:1–10.
Al Saud, M. 2008. “Using ASTER Images to Analyze Geologic Linear Features in Wadi Aurnah Basin, Western Saudis Arabia.” The Open Remote Sensing Journal 1:7–16.
Al Saud, M. 2010. “Mapping Potential Areas for Groundwater Storage in Wadi Aurnah Basin, Western Arabian Peninsula, Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques.” Hydrogeology Journal 18(6):1481–1495.
Al Saud, M. 2012. Use of Remote Sensing and GIS to Analyze Drainage System in Flood Occurrence, Jeddah - Western Saudi Coast. Book on “Drainage systems”. InTech Publishing. DOI: 10.5772/34008.


Al Sheihk, A. 2011. “Management of Environmental Degradation of Jeddah Coastal Zone, Saudi Arabia, Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems.” Journal of American Science 7(5).
Alyamani, M., and Şen, Z. 1992. “Regional Variation of Monthly Rainfall Amounts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.” J. KAU: FES 6:113–133.
Aramco. 2004. Saudi Aramco Tide Tables, Red Sea. Daily high and low ware tide calendar graphs, hourly tide level prediction.
Arnold, J. G., Srinivasan, R., Muttiah, R. S., and William, J. R. 1998. “Large Area Hydrologic Modeling and Assessment Part I: Model Development.” Journal of American Water Resources Association 34 (1):73–89.
Bou Kheir, R., Girard, M-C., Shaban, A., Khawlie, M., Faour, G., and Darwich, T. 2001a. “Apport de la télédétection pour la modélisation de l’érosion hydrique des sols dans la région côtière du Liban.” [“Contribution of Remote Sensing for the Modeling of Soil Water Erosion in the Coastal Region of Lebanon”] Télédétection 2(2):91–102.
Cook, H. L. 1936. “The Nature and Controlling Variables of the Water Erosion Process.” Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc 1:60–64.Dotterweich, M. 2013. “The History of Human-Induced Soil Erosion: Geomorphic Legacies, Early Descriptions and Research, and the Development of Soil Conservation—A Global Synopsis.” Geomorphology 201:1–34.
Edet, A., Okereke, S., Teme, C., and Esu, O. 1998. “Application of Remote Sensing Data to Groundwater Exploration: A Case Study of the Cross River State, Southeastern Nigeria.” Hydrogeology Journal, Springer-Verlag 6(3):394–404.
Flangan, D. C., and Nearing, M. A. 1995. USDA water erosion prediction project: hillslope profile and watershed model documentation, NSERL Report No. 10. USDA-ARS National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory, West Lafayette, IN 47: 907-1194.
Gustafsson, P., 1994. “SPOT Satellite Data for Exploration of Fractured Aquifers in a Semiarid Area in Botswana.” Hydrogeology Journal, Springer Verlag 2(2):9–18.
Kirkby, M., McMahon, M. 1999. “MEDRUSH and the Catsop Basin—The Lessons Learned.” Catena. Elsevier 37(3–4):495–506.
Mangor, K. 2004. “Shoreline Management Guidelines”. DHI Water and Environment, 294pg.


Ministry of Agriculture and Water. 1986. Land Resources map of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Land management Department. 33pp.
Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources, Arial Survey Department, 1982. Topographic maps of Saudi Arabia, scale 1:250,000.
Morgan R. P. C., Quinton J. N., Smith R. E., Govers G., Poesen J. W. A., Auerswald K., Chisci G., Torri D., and Styczen M. E. 1998. “The European Soil Erosion Model (EUROSEM): A Dynamic Approach for Predicting Sediment Transport from Fields and Small Catchments.” Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 23:527–544.
NSW DPI (NSW Department of Primary Industry). 2017 b. Fact sheet 2: Indicators of erosion. Available at: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/ __data/assets/pdf_file/0004/255154/fact-sheet-2-indicators-of-erosion. Pdf.
Renard K. G., Foster G. R., Weesies G. A., and Porter J. P. 1991. “RUSLE: Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation.” Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 46(1): 30–33.
Renard K. G., and Freimund J. R. 1994. “Using Monthly Precipitation Data to Estimate the R Factor in the Revised USLE.” J Hydrol 157:287–306.
Robinson C, El-Baz F, Singhory V. 1999. “Subsurface Imaging by RADARSAT: Comparison with Landsat TM Data and Implications for Groundwater in the Selima Area, Northwestern Sudan.” Remote Sensing Abstracts 25(3):45–76.
Sammari, C. 2004... Technical mission to red sea tide gauge operating agencies. Tide gauge network on the red sea. 9-20 December 2004. IOC/GLOSS/PERSGA/ISESCO. Institut National des Sciences et Technologies de la Mer [National Institute of Science and Technology of the Sea].
Schmidt J, Werner M von, Michael A (1996) EROSION-2D: ein Computermodell zur Simulation der Bodenerosion durch Wasser. Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft, Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt und Geologie, Dresden Freiberg. [EROSION-2D: a computer model for simulating soil erosion by water. Saxon State Institute for Agriculture, Saxon State Office for Environment and Geology, Dresden Freiberg.]Şen, Z. 1983. “Hydrology of Saudi Arabia.” Paper presented at the Symposium on Water Resources in Saudi Arabia. Riyadh. A68-A94.
Shaban A, Khawlie M, Abdallah, C (2006) Use of remote sensing and GIS to determine recharge potential zones: the case of occidental Lebanon. Hydrogeology Journal 14(4): 433–443.
Skiba, W., Gilboy, C. and Smith, J. 1986.Geological map of Rabigh Quadrangle sheet 22 D, Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Teeuw M. 1995. “Groundwater Exploration Using Remote Sensing and a Low-Cost Geographic Information System.” Hydrogeology Journal 3(3):21–30.USGS (United States Geological Survey). 1997. Aeolian Processes. Available at: https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/deserts/eolian/
Van Remortel R. D., Maichle R. W., and Hickey R. J. 2004. “Computing the LS Factor for the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation through Array Based Slope Processing of Digital Elevation Data Using C++ Executable.” Computers and Geosciences 30:1043–1053.
Wischmeier W. H., and Smith D. D. 1978. Predicting Rainfall Erosion, Losses: A Guide to Conservation Planning, Agriculture Handbook. vol. 537. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, pp 58.
Zingg, A. W. 1940. “Degree and Length of Land Slope as It Affects Soil Loss in Runoff.” Agric. Eng. 21:59–64.

Chapter 10
Adams, R. D. and Barazangi, M. (1984). “Seismotectonics and seismology in the Arab region: a brief summary and future plans.” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 74(3): 1011–1030.
Al Saud, M. 2010. Map Flood Risk and Floods in Jeddah, Geographical Research Journal, Saudi Arabia, 91.
Al Saud, M. 2011. Flood Controls Management for Jeddah City and the Surrounding. Technical study. 174 pp.
Al Saud, M. 2015. Flood Control Management for the City and Surroundings of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Springer Publisher, 169 pp.
Al-Sharideh, K. A. (1999). “Modernization and Socio-Cultural Transformation in Saudi Arabia: An Evaluation.” Unpublished diss, Kansas State University.
Brawner, C. O. (1994) Participant workbook for rockfall hazard mitigation methods. U.S. Department of Transportation, NHI Course No. 13219.
EM-DAT (Emergency Events Database). 2016

. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED). Available at: http:// www.emdat.be/

If you have any questions or comments with regards to this book, please fill out the form below. Thank you!

You have not viewed any product yet.