Ultrasound in Bone Fractures: From Assessment to Therapy

Christiano B. Machado, PhD
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Series: Medical Procedures, Testing and Technology, Biomedical Devices and their Applications
BISAC: MED000000

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Volume 10

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Bone is a complex and specialized connective tissue with a degree of elasticity even with a high concentration of mineralized components in the extracellular space. After a fracture event, an acute response takes place with a molecular signaling cascade for bone induction called fracture healing. This phenomenon represents a multistage repair process with a well defined temporal and spatial sequence, and it can lead to severe complications such as nonunions, delayed unions and infections, whose treatment represents important negative consequences for patients and a socioeconomic burden, particularly due to the high costs in health care. Besides conventional X-rays and more recently, computed tomography, ultrasound techniques have been proposed to evaluate and monitor fracture regeneration. On the other hand, recent studies show that ultrasound stimulation can be considered a therapeutic tool for the enhancement of bone fracture healing.

Therefore, ultrasound has a twofold perspective for bone fracture healing: therapy and diagnosis/follow-up. This book is intended to give an overview of the field and consists of chapters detailing theoretical and experimental aspects of the interaction phenomena between ultrasound waves and bone. It was prepared for medical doctors, physical therapists and other health professionals, biomedical engineers and ultrasound researchers, and it shows recent findings on the application of ultrasound in clinical diagnosis (ultrasound imaging and quantitative ultrasound) and therapy for fractures. The basics of bone histology, mechanics and regeneration are presented, as well as an introduction to ultrasound physics, giving more insight for the comprehension of the several mechanisms involved. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical )

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgements

SECTION I - BONE TISSUE

Chapter 1. Bone Tissue Histology and Biology

Chapter 2: Bone Tissue Mechanics

Chapter 3: The Fracture Healing Phenomenon

SECTION II - BASICS OF ULTRASOUND PHYSICS

Chapter 4: Acoustic Wave Propagation

Chapter 5: The Piezoelectric Effect and Acoustic Transducers

Chapter 6: The Scattering of Ultrasound Waves and Ultrasound Imaging

Chapter 7: Ultrasound Propagation in Bones

SECTION III - ULTRASOUND AS A CLINICAL ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR FRACTURE HEALING

Chapter 8: Ultrasound Imaging and Bone Fractures

Chapter 9: Quantitative Ultrasound Techniques and Bone Fractures

SECTION IV - ULTRASOUND AS A THERAPEUTIC TOOL FOR FRACTURE HEALING

Chapter 10: Bioeffects of Ultrasound in Fracture Regeneration

Chapter 11: Therapeutic Ultrasound in Fractures: State of the Art

Index

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