Ultra Low Frequency Fields of Moving Bodies

Andrey (Andrew) Grigorievitch Semenov
Academician N.N., Andreev’s Acoustics Institute of RAS, Moscow, Russia

Series: Physics Research and Technology
BISAC: SCI003000

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A new approach to body detection and control based on its unavoidable ultra-low frequency (ULF) oscillation related to its motion in media (mainly, in the ocean) is presented. The main concept of this approach lies in enriching the list of moving body control enabling factors by influence of ULF oscillations on the body’s outer fields. It is shown that ULF oscillation of a moving body could be detected in the atmosphere or in the ocean directly with the aid of ambient fluid ULF pressure or velocity changes, say, observed inside an oceanic layer or on the ocean’s surface. But ULF oscillation’s indirect appearance is demonstrated to be the most important for submerged moving body detection. This appearance comprises an additional ULF modulation (distortion) of outer natural sound fields related to ocean wind noise and distant shipment noise in forward scattering. The physical analogy an indirect moving body ULF oscillation is justified in the book and could be partly compared to the recent universe gravity waves detection discovery in 2016 with the aid of electromagnetic wave distortion that is provided by gravity wave propagation. Specifics of sound scattering by flow inhomogeneity generated by a moving body were demonstrated in Acoustics of Moving Inhomogeneities, which was published recently by Nova Science Publishers. However, this very book is devoted in particular to the modulation of forward scattered sound fields of the ULF field provided by a moving body and the application of corresponding results to its control in the ocean, as well as mainly to submerged submarine control. Proposed detection methods are independent of a moving body’s self-noise level. Their application requires consideration of the ambient flow (including surface gravity wave flows) contribution to sound diffraction by the finite size moving body, mainly in forward scattering. A lot of known diffraction problem results should be revised in the light of a moving body ULF field. Examples of practical applications are presented, showing that moving body detection (especially in deep water ocean regions with the aid of natural outer field ULF modulation) is successfully achieved. Detection in shallow water regions is slightly worse due to a smaller wave inhomogeneity scale and when the natural ULF hydrodynamics’ noise field level increased. It is shown that body detection distances being thought as unachievable are realized in light of these new moving body ULF field effects. The book is aimed at providing a new approach to external fields of a moving body, mainly submarines. This version of submarine detection is practically substantiated and proven to be effective in Russia for various ocean regions with the aid of various types of arrays. Conclusions substantiated in the book are recommended for practical application. At the same time, additional efforts of scientists, hydroacoustics and naval equipment specialists related to various ULF field applications based on theory predictions are necessary. (Imprint: Nova)

Introduction

Chapter 1. Grounds of ULF Fields Application

Chapter 2. ULF Fields and Processes in Nature

Chapter 3. ULF Fields of Localized Source in Ocean

Chapter 4. ULF Flows around Moving Body

Chapter 5. Acoustics outside Moving Bodies

Chapter 6. Applications of Moving Body ULF Fields

Conclusion

References

“Dr. Semenov is among few scientists who have drawn attention of colleagues interested in moving body detection to its ultra-low frequency oscillations and provided theoretical background to prediction of corresponding additional hydrodynamic ultra-low frequency fields in atmosphere and ocean. The text is rich in physical details and experimental data explaining limits of known moving body detection methods and providing their comparison to detection method proposed as well as endorsing validity and reality of achieved results. The book is essential for scientists or naval engineers taking a serious interest in moving body detection progress.” - Professor Sergey N. Kulichkov, Deputy Director, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Laureate of Russian Government prize in the field of physical sciences

"This book provides substantial contribution to solution of basic problem of hydroacoustics related to detection of underwater objects, for instance submarines, in their self-noise reduction environment. Major part of the book is related to description of natural and man-made ultra-low frequency field’s behavior in ocean and atmosphere. It is important that scattering evaluation methods developed in the book allow evaluation of sound field scattered by slowly oscillating moving body capable of generating ambient flow field including gravity waves and ordinary wake predict their decisive contribution to forward scattered sound signals. These results provide grounds for alternative method of submerged moving objects detection in ocean. Examples of practical detection results achieved with aid of various underwater arrays either stationary or installed on ship board published by a number of authors in the web during last decades are also adduced. These results achieved at distance ranges from several to hundred miles support theoretical predictions and provide recommending the book for acoustician and naval engineers developing acoustic systems for outdoor observations as well as for naval specialists responsible for ocean shipping situation control." - Professor Alexander V. Evtushenko, Full Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science Department in Moscow State Linguistic University, Moscow, Russia

"This book is written by an experienced specialist in acoustics of moving media and underwater hydroacoustics Dr. Andrew (Andrey) Semenov from Acoustics Institute in Moscow, Russia. It shows insufficiency of current state-of-the art in naval hydroacoustics and moving media acoustics related to detected objects self noise noticeable reduction. Main chapters of the book are related to the detailed description of ultra low frequency field structure and its origins in ocean and to sound scattering by moving bodies taking into account specifics of slowly oscillating moving body ambient flow including gravity waves and wake arguing their decisive contribution to observed sound signals. This approach developed by the author since the very beginning of 1980s presented in ”Acoustical Physics” journal and in “Acoustics of Moving Inhomogeneities” book published recently by Nova Science was realized in pioneer methods of moving body detection in ocean inhomogeneous media. Another impressive and informative chapter of the book is related to body detection experimental results achieved on various underwater hydroacoustics arrays either stationary or installed on ships board. These results are demonstrated in various ocean regions for wide enough target distances ranges from several miles to hundred miles. In general, book will be useful for acousticians and naval engineers developing acoustic systems for underwater or atmosphere observations, and also for marine officers involved in application of underwater naval hydroacoustics arrays for targets control in ocean." - Professor Igor B. Esipov, Full Professor of Physics Department in I.M. Gubkin’s Oil and Gas University, Moscow, Russia, Vice Editor-in-Chief of “Acoustical Physics” journal, Russian Acoustical Society Executive Board member, Acoustical Society of America member

"This book provides substantial contribution to solution of actual naval hydroacoustics problems related to submarines self-noise reduction. Few chapters of the book are related to description of natural and artificial ultra-low frequency field sources in ocean and atmosphere. Moving bodies sound scattering evaluation methods taking into account ambient flow fields related to oscillating moving body including gravity waves and wake arguing their decisive contribution to observed sound signals, mainly, for submarines in ocean are developed in the book as well. It allows providing alternative method of submarine detection. Important portion of the book is devoted to submarine detection experimental results achieved with aid of various underwater hydroacoustics arrays. These results demonstrated for wide enough submarine distances ranges from several miles to hundred miles support theoretical predictions and allow recommending the book for acousticians and naval engineers developing acoustic observation systems as well as for specialists applying underwater hydroacoustics arrays for shipping control in ocean to provide dichotomy classification of the targets detected." - Professor Victor D. Svet, Leading Research Scientist, academician N.N. Andreev’s Acoustics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences

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