Troponin: Informative Diagnostic Marker

J.-P. Jin, MD, PhD (Editor)
Department of Physiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Michigan, US

Series: Human Anatomy and Physiology
BISAC: SCI007000

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Contractions of vertebrate skeletal and cardiac muscles are controlled by Ca2+ signaling through the troponin complex in the sarcomeres, which are the contractile machinery consisting of interactive myofilaments. Since the abundance of troponin subunit proteins in myocytes and their muscle-specific expression, troponin I (TnI) and troponin T (TnT) have been broadly applied as serum biomarkers for the clinical diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and other heart and muscle injuries. Intensive research from protein structure to genetic diversity to posttranslational modification and pathological mutations has comprehensively established the molecular structure of troponin.

The advanced knowledge gained from basic research of troponin allows for a better understanding of the current methodology for troponin-based diagnostic applications. To help clinicians, diagnostic laboratory staff and methodology developers, this book provides comprehensive yet concise summaries of the current knowledge cover a broad range of topics including a detailed review of the structural features and adaptive modifications of troponin subunits and impacts on immunological detections; a comprehensive summary of the evolution of troponin assays; an evaluation of current assay platforms, quality specifications for cardiac troponin assays; the use of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays; electrochemical strategies for the detection of cardiac troponins; cardiac troponins in the evaluation of myocardial damage during and post percutaneous coronary interventions; troponin as markers of myocardial injury in trauma; and the significance of increased serum troponin in an acute stroke and other non-cardiac diseases. Contributed by experts in the field, this broad collection provides a unique reference for healthcare workers, medical students and research investigators who have an interest in troponin-based laboratory tests. Readers will not only acquire and in depth state-of-the-science understanding of troponin structure and diagnostic applications, but they will also be exposed to visions leading into future developments toward advancing troponin detection and improving clinical applications. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Acknowledgments

List of Contributors

Chapter 1 - Troponin Subunits: Isoforms, Structural Features, Posttranslational Modifications and Impacts on Immunological Detection (pp. 1-28)
J.-P. Jin, M.D., Ph.D. (Department of Physiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Michigan, US)

Chapter 2 - The Evolution of Cardiac Troponin Testing (pp. 29-60)
Jane S. C. Tsai, Ph.D., Grant L. Lin, B.Sc., H. Y. Huang, M.Sc., C. H. Yin, Ph.D., W. H. Kuo, M.Sc., P. S. Jiang, M.Sc. and T. S. Chen, Ph.D. (Biomedical Technology and Device Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan and others)

Chapter 3 - How to Use High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin Assays in Everyday Clinical Practice (pp. 61-72)
Johannes Mair, M.D., Fred S. Apple, Ph.D., Kristian Thygesen, M.D. and Allan Jaffe, M.D. (Department of Internal Medicine III – Cardiology and Angiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria and others)

Chapter 4 - Advanced Electrochemical Strategies for Cardiac Troponins Detection (pp. 73-90)
María Pedrero, Ph.D., Susana Campuzano, Ph.D. and José M. Pingarrón, Ph.D. (Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de CC. Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain)

Chapter 5 - Update on Quality Specifications for Cardiac Troponin Assays (pp. 91-104)
Johannes Mair, M.D., Fred S. Apple, Ph.D., Kristian Thygesen, M.D., and Allan S. Jaffe, M.D. (Department of Internal Medicine III – Cardiology and Angiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria and others)

Chapter 6 - Cardiac Troponins in the Evaluation of Myocardial Damage during Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (pp. 105-124)
Eugenio Genovesi, M.D., Marco Zimarino, M.D., Ph.D., Vincenzo Cicchitti, M.D. and Raffaele De Caterina, M.D., Ph.D. (Institute of Cardiology and Center of Excellence on Aging – “G. d’Annunzio” University – Chieti, Italy)

Chapter 7 - Post-Procedure Troponin Elevations in Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (pp. 125-140)
Bobby D. Ghosh, M.D., Luke K. Kim, M.D., Rajesh V. Swaminathan, M.D., and Dmitriy N. Feldman, M.D. (Division of Cardiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York, USA)

Chapter 8 - Troponin As a Marker of Clinically Significant Myocardial Injury in Trauma (pp. 141-158)
Mireille T. Gharib, M.D., Gurinder S. Sangha, M.D., and Douglas D. Fraser, M.D., Ph.D. (Department of Paediatrics, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada)

Chapter 9 - Troponin and Acute Stroke (pp. 159-206)
Atifur Rahman, F.R.A.C.P., F.C.S.A.N.Z. and Simon A. Broadley, Ph.D. F.R.A.C.P. (School of Medicine, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Australia and others)

Chapter 10 - Increased Troponin Concentration in Primary Non-Cardiac Diseases: Causes and Prognostic Significance (pp. 207-234)
Koracevic Goran, M.D., Ph.D. (Department for Cardiovascular Diseases, Clinical Center Nis, Medical Faculty, University of Nis, Serbia)

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