TRiPs Across Epithelial and Endothelial Barriers in Health and Disease

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Alexander V. Zholos, PhD, DSc (Editor) – Department of Biophysics and Medical Informatics, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine
Prof. Ganna M. Tolstanova, PhD (Editor) – Institute of High Technologies, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine

Series: Cell Biology Research Progress
BISAC: SCI017000; SCI036000
DOI: https://doi.org/10.52305/KGOX9170

Life on Earth began some 4 billion years ago when the first primitive prokaryotes managed to isolate themselves from the rather hostile environment. The immediate challenge that these first life forms faced was to ensure an optimal balance between two apparently mutually exclusive tasks – protection and separation from the extracellular milieu on the one hand and an efficient exchange of ions, energy sources and metabolites with the very same milieu on the other hand.

The commencing evolutionary progress had to address even more challenging problems, such as how to delegate specific cell functions to discrete structures inside of the cell, called organelles (such as the nucleus), and, at the level of multi-cellular organisms, to ensure proper separation of different cell types (e.g. those found in different tissues and organs) while ensuring efficient communication between them. In fact, the human body is highly compartmentalized, from the cell level where local signals are generated and propagated in a highly ordered manner, to the whole body level.

This book aims to introduce the interested reader to the universe of these complex segregated compartments in mammals. It discusses how the integrity of different types of barriers – endothelial, epithelial – is normally maintained and what could go wrong when these barriers’ permeability becomes abnormally low or high in different disease states. We will focus on several such barriers, which are well studied and which are pivotal for a healthy well-being. In particular, we will focus on the skin, airways, the gut barrier, the endometrium, and cardiovascular and urinary systems.

Special reference throughout the book will be made to several most novel groups of potential molecular candidates for the correction of barrier-related dysfunctions, in particular Transient Receptor Potential channels. Hence the title of the book has a triple meaning – a trip in its common sense, TRP channels (as in TRiP database) and Translating Research Into Practice (TRIP).

Our team of authors is comprised of physiologists, pharmacologists, biophysicists and medics, including the national representative of Ukraine in the European Crohn’s and Colitis organization (ECCO) and a member of the Scientific Committee of the European Association of Urologists. We include clinical cases and discuss molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying such real-life problems in-depth.

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Table of Contents

Preface

Section I. Regulation of a Barriers’ Integrity is About Team-Play of Different Molecules

Chapter 1. Overview of TRP channels
(A.V. Zholos – Department of Biophysics and Medical Informatics, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine)

Chapter 2. Calcium-Dependent Regulation of Barriers’ Integrity with Focus on TRP Channels.
(A.V. Zholos – Department of Biophysics and Medical Informatics, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine)

Chapter 3. Inflammation and Its Mediators
(Ganna Tolstanova – Institute of High Technologies, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine)

Chapter 4. Gut Microbiota and Gap/Tight Junctions
(A. Dorofyeyev – Department of Internal Medicine, Shupyk National Healthcare University of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine)

Section II. Epithelial Barriers

Chapter 5. Role of TRP Channels and Calcium Signalling in Skin and Airways
(A.V. Zholos – Department of Biophysics and Medical Informatics, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine)

Chapter 6. Versatile Gut Barrier: One Barrier – Many Diseases
(Andriy Dorofyeyev, Ganna Tolstanova, and Natalia Stepanova – Department of Internal Medicine, Shupyk National Healthcare University of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine, et al.)

Chapter 7. The Exquisite Sensitivity of the Uterine Epithelium: Pregnant Vs. Non-Pregnant Status of the Endometrium
(Olesia Moroz – Department of Biophysics and Medical Informatics, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv, Ukraine)

Chapter 8. The Maze of the Epithelial Layers in the Kidney and Urethra
(Natalia Stepanova – Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, State Institution “Institute of Nephrology of the National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine,” Kyiv, Ukraine)

Section III. Endothelial barriers

Chapter 9. Role of Myoendothelial Gap Junctions in Vascular Tone Regulation with Special Focus on Hypoxia
(A. I. Soloviev and O. F. Moroz – Department for Pharmacology of Cellular Signaling Systems and Experimental Therapeutics, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Academy of Medical Sciences, Kyiv, Ukraine, et al.)

Chapter 10. Role of Endothelial Barriers in Health and Disease Including Arterial Hypertension, Diabetic Vascular Disease, Ionized Irradiation Impact and Covid-19 Intervention
(A. I. Soloviev – Department for Pharmacology of Cellular Signaling Systems and Experimental Therapeutics, Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Academy of Medical Sciences, Kyiv, Ukraine)

Index

Additional information

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