Theobroma cacao: Production, Cultivation and Uses

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Miki Løvstrøm (Editor)

Series: Plant Science Research and Practices
BISAC: SCI011000

The opening study in this compilation compares variations of the fatty acid profile from cocoa butter as a function of the harvest periods, extraction methods and roasting treatments. The cocoa butter extraction is performed using Soxhlet solvent extraction according to AOAC, 2000 and mechanical pressing following the procedure reported by Bernardini, 1981.

Following this, the aroma compounds from fermented, dried and roasted beans from fine-flavored Criollo cocoas of Venezuela are studied. These compounds are associated with nice odoriferous notes.

The authors also examine Cuban cacao, the closest relation to the original introduction in Cuba which is endangered by its progressive replacement by commercial clones.

Additionally, the authors study some structural and physicochemical changes of cocoa beans fermented in plastic baskets covered with Musaceae leaves for five days in Barlovento, Miranda state, Venezuela.

The origin of fine-flavored cocoa is discussed based on its requirements for optimal production of highly aromatic fruits as a function of growth requirements such as humid terrain, warm climate, recurrent rain and characteristic fauna and flora.

The closing study focuses on control methods for cacao frosty pod rot, an aggressive disease responsible for great losses and the deterioration of raw material in Colombia for over two centuries.

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Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1. Fatty Acids Profile Variations of Cocoa Butter from Chuao, Venezuela as a Function of the Harvest Periods, Extraction Methods and Roasting Treatments
(Mary Lares, Elevina Pérez and Clímaco Alvarez, Escuela de Nutrición y Dietética, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela, and others)

Chapter 2. Volatile Compounds of Fermented, Dried, and Roasted Venezuelan Criollo Fine-Flavored Cocoa
(Clímaco Álvarez, Elevina Pérez and Mary Lares, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas, Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Producción Agrícola y Tierras, Sector Tapipa, Estado Bolivariano de Miranda, Venezuela, and others)

Chapter 3. Traditional Cuban Cacao: Origin, Distribution, Morphological and Genetic Diversity, and Classification
(Igor Bidot Martínez, Marlyn Valdés de la Cruz, Manuel Riera Nelson and Pierre Bertin, Center of Agropecuary and Forestry Technologies Studies, University of Guantánamo, Guantánamo, Cuba, and others)

Chapter 4. Structural and Chemical Changes during the Fermentation of Cocoa Beans
(Romel E. Guzmán, Elevina Pérez and María Raymundez, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado, Caracas, Venezuela, and others)

Chapter 5. Venezuelan Fine-Flavored Cocoas
(Elevina E. Pérez Sir, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela)

Chapter 6. Labor for the Cultural Control of the Cacao Frosty Pod Rot Disease (Moniliophthora Roreri (Cif. & Par.) Evans et al.)
(Gabriel Cubillos, Agronomist Engineer, Medellín, Antioquia Department, Colombia)

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