The United States of Europe in Place of the European Union: Economics, Law and Politics

Georgios I. Zekos, Ph.D.
Aristotle University, Democritus University, University of Hull, University of Peloponnese, TEI of Central Macedonia, Serres, Greece

Series: European Political, Economic, and Security Issues
BISAC: POL011000

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The signing of the Maastricht treaty created economic structure and institutions, and set in motion the process of adopting a common currency. The euro is, among many things, an economic project that sought to advance standards of living by escalating the competence of resource allocations, taking up the principles of comparative advantage, boosting competition, taking advantage of economies that were to scale and strengthening economic stability. The euro-zone is made up of 19 countries sharing a common currency – the euro – symbolizing the most modern stage of more than 50 years of European integration. Structurally, Europe is caught in a malfunction triangle between national politics, European policies and global markets. Moreover, the democratic politics of the EU have remained national, and a single currency is established without establishing a set of institutions facilitating a region of Europe’s diversity to operate efficiently. The euro-zone has been going through a lengthened period of weak economic activity and very low inflation. There is a need to strengthen Economic and Monetary Union based on political stability, so as to upsurge its resilience to economic shocks. To this extent, uncertainty and political fragmentation amplify significantly in the aftermath of financial crises that are particularly economically destructive, which makes crisis resolution more problematic. The crisis across Europe has led to a failure in confidence in European institutions, leading to a political fragmentation of positions among member states, stirring up nationalistic instincts that impede decision-making and avert the formation of a common growth strategy. Nevertheless, it is essential to move towards the establishment of the United States of Europe in order to avoid the collapse and disintegration of the EU. (Imprint: Nova)

Introduction

Chapter 1. Re-colonization by Means of Economic Globalization

Chapter 2. The Global Economic Background

Chapter 3. Federations’ Background and the United States of Europe

Chapter 4. Euro Zone is the Foundation Leading towards the USE/European Federation

Chapter 5. IPRs Stimulus on Foreign Direct Investment in the European Union

Conclusion

Appendices

References

Index

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[919] District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570, 625 (2008) (purporting to adopt original understanding of Second Amendment); People v. Nutt, 677 N.W.2d 1, 6 (Mich. 2004) (“Our goal in construing our Constitution is to discern the original meaning attributed to the words of a constitutional provision by its ratifiers.”).
[920] William Baude, Is Originalism Our Law?, 115 Colum. L. Rev. 2349, 2355 (2015) (justifying originalism on the positive ground that constitutional practice, in fact, makes original meaning “the ultimate criterion for constitutional law”); Keith E. Whittington, The New Originalism, 2 Geo. J.L. & Pub. Pol’y 599, 599 (2004) (“Originalism regards the discoverable meaning of the Constitution at the time of its initial adoption as authoritative for purposes of constitutional interpretation in the present.”).
[921] Christopher Serkin, Public Entrenchment through Private Law: Binding Local Governments, 78 U. Chi. L. Rev. 879, 882 (2011).
[922] Bruce Ackerman, We The People, Volume 3: The Civil Rights Revolution (2014) (arguing that the civil rights laws of the 1960s have landmark status and constitutional significance). Shelby County v. Holder, 133 S.Ct. 2612, 2631 (2013) (invalidating Section 4 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965).
[923] Robert Post, Theories of Constitutional Interpretation, 30 Representations 13, 19 (1990).Jeffrey A. Pojanowski, Statutes in Common Law Courts, 91 Tex. L. Rev. 479, 482–83 (2013) (applying modalities of constitutional interpretation to statutes).
[924] Larry Alexander & Emily Sherwin, Demystifying Legal Reasoning 221–22 (2008) (“interpreting a constitution is not different in any material way from interpreting a statute.”).Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc., 134 S. Ct. 2751, 2772 (2014) (stating that “nothing in the text of RFRA as originally enacted suggested that the statutory phrase ‘exercise of religion under the First Amendment’ was meant to be tied to this Court’s pre-Smith interpretation of that Amendment”).
[925] Lim Y.F., Cyberspace Law: Commentaries and Materials (OUP 2007). Forder J. and Svantesson D., Internet and E-Commerce Law (OUP 2007).
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[933] M. Barberis, John Austin, la teoria del diritto e l’universalità dei concetti giuridici, in “Materiali per una storia della cultura giuridica,” n. 2, December 2003, pp. 407-427. R. Saleilles, Le Code civil et la Méthode historique, in “Le Code Civil 1804-1904” Livre du Centenaire publié par la Societé d’Etudes Législatives, I, Paris, Librairie Edouard Duchemin, 1904, reprinted 1969, p. 127 “all legal thought is necessarily international and universal.”
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[945] John O. McGinnis, Ilya Somin, Federalism vs. States' Rights: A Defense of Judicial Review in a Federal System, Research Paper No. 04-08, p48.
[946] Daniel R. Pinello, Linking Party to Judicial Ideology in American Courts: A Meta-Analysis, 20 Justice Sys. J. 219 (1999) (citing studies and concluding that voting patterns support a “political” or “attitudinal” model which posits that judicial votes follow political ideology). Harry T. Edwards, The Effects of Collegiality on Judicial Decision making, 151 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1639, 1640-41 (2003) (“These scholars invariably ignore the many ways in which collegiality mitigates judges’ ideological preferences and enables us to find common ground and reach better decisions.”). Theodore W. Ruger, et al., The Supreme Court Forecasting Project: Legal and Political Science Approaches to Predicting Supreme Court Decision-making, 104 Colum. L. Rev. 1150, 1162 (2004) (“Because our study does not account for the content [of judicial decisions] there is much is does not, and cannot, say about the judicial process.”).
[947] 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 137 (1803).
[948] David Boies, Judicial Independence and the Rule of Law, 22 Journal of Law and Policy 57.
[949] Andrei Marmor, Constitutional Interpretation, USC Public Policy Research Paper No. 04-4, p10.
[950] Sotirios A. Barber, The Constitution of Judicial Power 50 (1993).
[951] Dickerson v. United States, 530 U.S. 428, 443-44 (2000); Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. (1 Cranch) 137 (1803).
[952] John E. Nowak and Ronald D. Rotunda, Constitutional Law § 3.5, at 129 (5th ed. 1995). The Declaration of Independence para. 1 (U.S. 1776). U.S. CONST. amend. XIV, § 1. (From the Declaration of Independence’s claim that “all men are created equal” to the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee of “equal protection of the laws,” our democracy has displayed a deep commitment to the principle of equal treatment. By adhering strictly to their own precedents, the courts help to strengthen that commitment.).
[953] Raoul Berger, Standing to Sue in Public Actions: Is It a Constitutional Requirement?, 78 YALE L.J. 816, 816 (1969) (arguing that “it is hardly to be doubted that the Framers contemplated resort to English practice for elucidation” of Article III). Robert J. Pushaw, Jr., Justiciability and Separation of Powers: A Neo-Federalist Approach, 81 Cornell L. Rev. 393, 400–07 (1996) (relying extensively on Blackstone and English legal authorities in exploring Founding-era attitudes toward the separation of powers and the judicial role).
[954] U.S. CONST. amend. XIV (“[N]or shall any State . . . deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal Protection of the laws.”).
[955] U.S. CONST. art. III, § 1. As Justice Marshall long ago recognized in Marbury v. Madison, “The very essence of civil liberty certainly consists in the rights of every individual to claim the protection of the law, whenever he receives an injury.” 5. U.S. 137, at 163 (1803). .Edward Brunet, Arbitration and Constitutional Rights, 71 N.C. L. REV. 81, 102 (1992).
[956] Judith Resnik, Fairness In Numbers: A Comment On Atandt V. Concepcion, Wal-Mart V. Dukes, And Turner V. Rogers, 2011 Harvard Law Review [Vol. 125:78.
[957] U.S. CONST. art. III, § 1, cl. 1. Henry Paul Monaghan, Article III and Supranational Judicial Review, 107 Colum. L. Rev. 833, 842 (2007) (arguing that international trade tribunals “raise no serious problems under Article III” because they are “only a recent instantiation of an age-old practice: the use of arbitration to resolve disputes by American nationals against foreign states and their nationals”).
[958] Retail Prop. Tr. v. United Bhd. of Carpenters & Joiners of Am., 768 F.3d 938, 947 (9th Cir. 2014) (“The well-pleaded complaint rule means that ‘a case may not be removed to federal court on the basis of a federal defense.’” (quoting Caterpillar Inc. v. Williams, 482 U.S. 386, 393 (1987))).
[959] Exxon Mobil Corp. v. Allapattah Servs., Inc., 545 U.S. 546, 584 (2005) (Ginsburg, J., dissenting). The additional requirements are found in 28 U.S.C. § 1332 (2012).
[960] G.P. Fletcher, Parochial versus Universal Criminal Law, in “Journal of International Criminal Justice,” n. 3, 2005, p. 4.
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[963] Barry Friedman and Scott B. Smith, The Sedimentary Constitution, 147 U Pa L Rev 1, 33 (1998) (“Originalism seeks to keep faith with our Founders, while living constitutionalism seeks to keep pace with the times.”).
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[966] William N. Eskridge, Jr and Gary Peller, The New Public Law Movement: Moderation as a Postmodern Cultural Form, 89 Mich L Rev 707, 708 (1991) (“[T]he legal process focus on institutional relationships, the process of lawmaking, and an overriding standard of purposive coherence continues to dominate public law scholarship.”).
[967] John Rawls, Political Liberalism 422 n 68 (Columbia expanded ed 2005) (embracing Cohen’s account of how “procedural justice depends on substantive justice”). Consider Morton J. Horwitz, The Transformation of American Law, 1870–1960 271 (Oxford 1992) (“The 1950s search for ‘neutral principles’ was just one more effort to separate law and politics in American culture, one more expression of the persistent yearning to find an Olympian position from which to objectively cushion the terrors of social choice.”). William N. Eskridge, Jr and Gary Peller, The New Public Law Movement: Moderation as a Postmodern Cultural Form, 89 Mich L Rev 707, 708 (1991) (“[T]he legal process focus on institutional relationships, the process of lawmaking, and an overriding standard of purposive coherence continues to dominate public law scholarship.”).
[968] Keith E. Whittington, The New Originalism, 2 Georgetown J L & Pub Pol 599, 601 (2004) (“[O]riginalism was a reactive theory motivated by substantive disagreement with the recent and then-current actions of the Warren and Burger Courts; originalism was largely developed as a mode of criticism of those actions.”). Antonin Scalia, Originalism: The Lesser Evil, 57 U Cin L Rev 849, 863 (1989) (criticizing fundamental values and related theories as an invitation to “judicial personalization of the law” and contending that “[m]ost if not all” such theorists “would strike down the death penalty”).
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[970] Kay Lehman Schlozman, Sidney Verba & Henry E. Brady, The Unheavenly Chorus (2012).
[971] Benjamin I. Page & Lawrence R. Jacobs, Class War? 14 (2009) (describing public opinion and concluding that “Majorities of Americans of all economic and political stripes actually agree that economic inequality has widened, that this is worrisome, and that the government should respond.”).
[972] Martin Gilens & Benjamin I. Page, Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens, 12 Persp. on Pol. 564, 573 (2014).
[973] Andreas Follesdal, The principle of subsidiarity as a constitutional principle in international law, 2 Glob. Const. 37–62 (2013).
[974] Benjamin I. Page, Larry M. Bartels & Jason Seawright, Democracy and the Policy Preferences of Wealthy Americans, 11 Persp. On Pol. 51 (March 2013). Martin Gilens & Benjamin I. Page, Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens, 12 Persp. On Pol. 564, 573 (2014).
[975] Randy E. Barnett, Restoring The Lost Constitution (2013); David E. Bernstein, Rehabilitating Lochner (2012); Richard A. Epstein, The Classical Liberal Constitution (2014).
[976] Joseph Fishkin & William E. Forbath, The Anti-Oligarchy Constitution, 94 B.U. L. REV. 669 (2014); David S. Grewal & Jedediah Purdy, Introduction: Law and Neoliberalism, 77 L. & Contemp. Problems 1 (2015).
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[978] Larry Bartels, Rich People Rule!, Wash. Post. Monkey Cage Blog, Apr. 8, 2014, http://www.washingtonpost. com/blogs/monkeycage/wp/2014/04/08/rich-people-rule/ (noting that this turn in political science is relatively recent). G. William Domhoff, Who Rules America? (7th ed. 2013).
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[992] Simon Caney, Justice Beyond Borders: A Global Political Theory (2005). ch. 5. Michael Blake & Patrick Taylor Smith, International Distributive Justice, in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2013), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2013/ entries/international-justice/.
[993] Andreas Follesdal, Subsidiarity and International Human Rights Courts, 79 Law Contemp. Probl. (2016). Loren King, Cities, Subsidiarity, and Federalism, in Federalism and Subsidiarity (James E. Fleming & Jacob T. Levy, Eds.) 291–331 (2014).
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[997] Jenna Bednar, Subsidiarity and Robustness. Building the Adaptive Efficiency of Federal Systems, in Federalism and Subsidiarity (Nomos Lv) 231, 231 (James E. Fleming & Jacob T. Levy eds., 2014). Steven G. Calabresi & Lucy D. Bickford, Federalism and Subsidiarity: Perspectives from U.S. Constitutional Law, in Federalism And Subsidiarity (James E. Fleming & Jacob T. Levy, Eds.) 123–189 (2014). Paul Craig, Subsidiarity: A Political and Legal Analysis, 50 J. Common Mark. Stud. 72–87, 80 (2012). Laurence H. Tribe, A Constitution We Are Amending: In Defense of a Restrained Judicial Role, 97 Harv. L. Rev. 433, 435–36, 436 n.13 (1983) (arguing that courts should play a highly limited role in reviewing the substance and procedure of constitutional change).
[998] Katherine Glenn Bass & Sujit Choudhry, Democracy Reporting Int’l, Constitutional Review In New Democracies 7 (Michael Meyer-Resende & Duncan Pickard eds., 2013), http://www.democracy-reporting.org/files/dri-bp-40_en_constitutional_review _in_new_democracies_2013-09.pdf (citing South Africa and Colombia as the examples of places demonstrating the benefits of robust judicial review); Helen M. Stacy, Human Rights For The 21st Century: Sovereignty, Civil Society, Culture 128–31, 167–68 (2009) (looking at Colombian, Indian, and South African courts as powerful guardians of judicially protected human rights); Jackie Dugard & Theunis Roux, The Record of the South African Constitutional Court in Providing an Institutional Voice for the Poor: 1995–2004, in Courts And Social Transformation In New Democracies: An Institutional Voice For The Poor? 107–52 (Roberto Gargarell et al. eds., 2006) (describing India, South Africa, and Colombia as having courts that could help provide a voice for the poor in the consolidation of democracy); Daniel Bonilla Maldonado, Introduction to Constitutionalism Of The Global South: The Activist Tribunals Of India, South Africa, And Colombia 21 (Daniel Bonilla Maldonado ed., 2013) (discussing how the Indian Supreme Court, the South African Constitutional Court, and the Colombian Constitutional Court are seen as “activist tribunals” that contribute to the “public and private spheres of their countries”); Nick Robinson, Expanding Judiciaries: India and the Rise of the Good Governance Court, 8 Wash. U. Global Stud. L. Rev. 1, 67 (2009) (discussing “a global shift to check representative institutions with increasingly broad principles of good governance”). (discussing the role of the Indian Supreme Court in the constitutional amendment process as “a court of good governance over the rest of the government.”); Andrew Arato, Redeeming the Still Redeemable: Post Sovereign Constitution Making, 22 Int’l J. Pol. Culture Soc’y 427, 429, 433 (2009) (describing the importance of judicial review in a post-sovereign form of constitution-making); Aharon Barak, Unconstitutional Constitutional Amendments, 44 Isr. L. Rev. 321, 336 (2011) (discussing the possibilities of judicial review in improving constitution-making politics);
[999] Samuel Issacharoff, Constitutional Courts and Democratic Hedging, 99 Geo. L.J. 961, 965 (2011) (discussing the possibilities of judicial review in improving constitution-making politics); Samuel Issacharoff, Constitutionalizing Democracy in Fractured Societies, 82 Tex. L. Rev. 1861, 1870–83 (2004) (looking at the South African constitutional example and noting that there is great significance to “the provisions that reaffirmed limitations on government and those that were struck down [by the court] for what may be termed an excess of majoritarianism”); Yaniv Roznai, Unconstitutional Constitutional Amendments—The Migration and Success of a Constitutional Idea, 61 Am. J. Comp. L. 657, 718 (2013); Po Jen Yap, The Conundrum of Unconstitutional Constitutional Amendments, 4 Global Constitutionalism 114, 136 (2015) (arguing that courts should declare constitutional amendments unconstitutional in response to attempts by dominant parties to use constitutional rules to entrench power or abuse rights).
[1000] David Landau, Constitution-Making Gone Wrong, 64 Ala. L. Rev. 923 (2013) (describing how extra-parliamentary process has given charismatic executives a democratic tool to circumvent parliamentary opposition in Venezuela and Bolivia). David Landau, Abusive Constitutionalism, 47 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 189, 191 (2013);
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[1002] Andrew Arato, Constitution-Making under Occupation: The Politics of Imposed Revolution in Iraq, at viii (2009). Victor Ferreres Comella, the Consequences of Centralizing Constitutional Review in a Special Court: Some Thoughts on Judicial Activism, 82 Tex. L. Rev. 1705, 1730 (2004) (arguing that specialized constitutional courts will tend to be relatively less deferential because “[a] constitutional court is not likely to earn its own space in the institutional system if it regularly upholds the statutes that are challenged before it”).
[1003] Nathan Brown, Decoder: Morsi, the Judiciary, and Acts of Sovereignty, ARABIST (Nov. 25, 2012), http://arabist.net/blog/2012/11/25/decoder-morsi-the-judiciary-and-acts-of-sovereignty.html (discussing the acts of sovereignty doctrine that Morsi relied on to raise the constituent assembly above judicial review).
[1004] European Commission for Democracy Through Law (Venice Commission), Report on Constitutional Amendment, Study No. 720/2008, CDL-AD (2010)001 (Jan. 19, 2010), http://www.venice.coe.int/webforms/documents/default.aspx?pdffile=CDL-AD%282010%29001-e . Tom Ginsburg & Mila Versteeg, Why Do Countries Adopt Constitutional Review?, 30 J.L. Econ. & Org. 587, 587 (2014) (“[B]y 2011, 83% of the world’s constitutions had given courts the power to supervise implementation of the constitution and to set aside legislation for constitutional incompatibility.”).
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[1006] David A. Wirth, Reexamining Decision-Making Processes in International Environmental Law, 79 Iowa L. Rev. 769, 779 (1994) (“Notwithstanding a meritorious legal claim . . . , one State may be reluctant to initiate a third-party dispute settlement process against another State for fear of jeopardizing other strategic or economic bilateral relationships.”). Andrei Marmor, An Institutional Conception of Authority, 39 Phil & Pub Aff. 238–40, 240 n.3 (2011).
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[1017] John Worrall, M. Elaine Nugent-Borakove (eds.), The Changing Role of the American Prosecutor (Albany: SUNY Press, 2014), 94-97.
[1018] Ekaternia Trendafilova and Werner Róth, “Report on the public prosecution service in Germany,” in Promoting Prosecutorial Accountability, Independence and Effectiveness. Comparative Research. Ed. Open Society Institute (Sofia: Open Society Institute, 2008), 237, citing German Code of Criminal Procedure (StGB) Sect. 160, https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/sites/default/files/promoting_ 20090217.pdf.
[1019] Gwladys Gilliéron, Public Prosecutors in the United States and Europe: A Comparative Analysis with Special Focus on Switzerland, France, and Germany (Switzerland: Springer 2014), 243, citing GVG Sect. 142 (1).
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[1023] Trendafilova and Roth, “Report on the public prosecution service in Germany,” 221 (citing Werner Beulke, Strafprozessrecht (2006) at marginal no. 85.
[1024] David Crawford & Mike Esteral, “Germany: Siemens Settlement Sets off Criticism of German Inquiries,” Wall Street Journal, October 8, 2007, http://www.wsj.com/articles/ SB119179176083751435. Senior Prosecutor Interview, [8HL], May 22, 2006. Stefan Mayr, “Brisante Aktenvermerke im Fall Schottdorf,” Süddeutsche Zeitung, January 26, 2015, http://www.sueddeutsche.de/bayern/ laboraffaere-brisante-aktenvermerke-im-fall-schottdorf-1.2319780.Senior Prosecutor Interview [16PP], April 30, 2008.
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[1026] Gilliéron, Public Prosecutors in the United States and Europe, 282.
[1027] Stefan Mayr, “Justiz im Zwielicht,”Süddeutsche Zeitung, October 20, 2015, http://www.sueddeutsche.de/bayern/affaere-schottdorf-justiz-im-zwielicht-1.2700023.
[1028] Beamtenrechtsrahmengesetz, Sect. 31 I (BRRG). [Act Defining the Scope of Civil Servants’ Rights and Duties].
[1029] “German Prosecutors investigate Internet Journalists for Treason,” Deutsche Welle, July 30, 2015, http://www.dw.com/en/german-prosecutors-investigate-internet-journalists-for-treason/a-18619254. Klaus Brinkbäumer, “Berlin’s NSA Fears: Treason Investigation Reveals Anxiety at the Top,” Der Spiegel, August 10, 2015, http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/german-treasoninvestigation-reveals-anxiety-among-leaders-a1047256.html. Pew Research Center’s 2014 Global attitudes Survey, http://www.pewglobal. org/2014/07/14/nsaopinion/country/germany/” Thousands March in Berlin over Journalist ‘Treason’ Claims,” Deutsche Welle, August 1, 2015, http://www.dw.com/en/thousands-march-in-berlin-over-journalist-treason-claims/a-18621978. Melissa Eddy, “Germany Drops Inquiry into Claims U.S. Tapped Angela Merkel’s Phone,” New York Times, June 12, 2015, http://www.nytimes. com/2015/06/13/world/europe/germany-dropsinquiry-us-tapped-angela-merkel-phone. html?_r=0. Ben Knight, “Outrage as Range Turns Netzpolitik Treason Storm into Constitutional Row,” Deutsche Welle, August 4, 2014, http://www.dw.com/en/outrage-as-range-turns-netzpolitiktreason-storm-into-constitutional-row/a-18626420. Ben Knight, “How the World Misunderstood Germany’s Netzpolitik Affair,” Deutsche Welle, August 5, 2015, http://www.dw.com/en/how-the-world-misunderstood-germanys-netzpolitik-affair/a- 18630649.
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[1032] John Blau, “Prosecutor Fired after Targeting Journalists,” Handlesblatt, August 5, 2015, https://global. handelsblatt.com/edition/234/ressort/politics/article/prosecutor-fired-for-targeting-journalists.
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[1034] Darryl K. Brown, Free Market Criminal Justice: How Democracy and Laissez Faire Undermine the Rule of Law, 2. Amita Kelly, “Does it Matter that Ninety Five Percent of Elected Prosecutors are White?” National Public Radio, July 8, 2015, http://www.npr.org/sections/itsallpolitics/2015/07/08/420913118/does-itmatter-that-95-of-elected-prosecutors-are-white.
[1035] “84 Recommendations for More Integrity: Transparency Germany Presents its National Integrity Assessment for Germany,” Transparency International Press Release, January 19, 2012, http://www.transparency. org/news/pressrelease/ 20120119_germany_nis. Ministry Interview [9RR], June 2, 2006. Shawn Marie Boyne, Prosecutorial Accountability in the Rechtsstaat: The Tension between Law, Politics, and the Public Interest, Robert H. McKinney School of Law, Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2016 – 29.
[1036] Council of Europe Committee of Ministers, Recommendation Rec (2000)19 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the role of public prosecution in the criminal justice system. Adopted October 6, 2000. Rec 13(b), https://wcd.coe.int/ ViewDoc.jsp?id=376859.
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[1038] William Hurst & Jessica Teets “Compliance, Resistance, Innovation, and Involution–Assessing the Politics of Experimentation and Diffusion” in Jessica C. Teets & William Hurst eds. Local Governance Innovation in China: Experimentation, Diffusion, and Defiance London: Rotuleddge, 2015– pp.174--‐ 179. William Hurst Local Governance Innovation in China: Experimentation, Diffusion, and Defiance (Routledge 2015).
[1039] United Nations (1999). Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court — Overview, It was adopted at a diplomatic conference in Rome on 17 July 1998 and it entered into force on 1 July 2002.
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[1041] Jessica Schulberg, 75 Senators Want to Punish Palestine Before it Can Accuse Israel, NEW REPUBLIC (Feb. 3, 2015), https://newrepublic.com/article/120953/senators-threaten-cut-palestinianfunding-over-icc-membership, Jack Snyder & Leslie Vinjamuri, Trials and Errors: Principle and Pragmatism in Strategies of International Justice, 28 Int’l Security, Winter 2003–04.
[1042] Karen J. The New Terrain of International Law: Courts, Politics, Rights (2014).
[1043] David Bosco, Rough Justice: The International Criminal Court in a World of Power Politics (2014).
[1044] Beth A. Simmons & Allison Danner, Credible Commitments and the International Criminal Court, 64 Int’l Org. 225, 232 (2010).
[1045] Hyeran Jo and Beth A. Simmons, Can the International Criminal Court Deter Atrocity? (Dec.18, 2014), http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id =2552820.
[1046] Karen Alter, The New Terrain Of International Law: Courts, Politics, Rights (2014).
[1047] ICC Press Release, CC - ICC Prosecutor receives Sealed Envelope from Kofi Annan on Post- Election Violence in Kenya (July 9, 2009), https://www.icc-cpi.int/en_menus/icc/situations%20and%20cases/situations/situation%20icc%200109/press%20releases/Pages/pr436.aspx. Is the International Criminal Court a Tool of Western Imperialism? No., Christian Science Monitor (Oct. 15, 2013), http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Africa/Africa-onitor/2013/1015/Is-the-International-Criminal-Court-a-tool-of-Western-imperialism-No; Walter Menya, State Targeting Us Over Support for Hague Cases, Civil Society Protests, Daily Nation (Oct. 25, 2014), http://www.nation. co.ke/news/politics/Civil-Society-ICC-Hague-Cases-Jubilee-Government/-/1064/2499628/-/kylkb4z/-/index.html.
[1048] UN Security Council: Veto Betrays Syrian Victims. In Face of Mounting Pressure, Russia, China Block ICC Referral, Human. Rights Watch (May 22, 2014), http://www.hrw.org/news/2014/05/22/un-security-council-vetoes-betray-syrian-victims; United Nations Meetings Coverage and Press Releases, Referral of Syria to International Criminal Court Fails as Negative Votes Prevent Security Council from Adopting Draft Resolution (May 22 2014), http://www.un.org/press/en/ 2014/sc11407.doc.htm. Colum Lynch, Exclusive: Washington Cuts Funds for Investigating Bashar al-Assad’s War Crimes, Foreign Pol’y (Nov. 3, 2014), http://foreignpolicy.com/2014/11/03/exclusive-washingtoncutsfunds-for-investigating-bashar-al-assads-war-crimes/.
[1049] Press Release, Int’l Criminal Court, Office of the Prosecutor, Al Mahdi Case: Confirmation of Charges Hearing to Open on 1 March 2016,https://www.icccpi. int/en_menus/icc/press%20and%20media/press% 20releases/ Pages/pr1182.aspx Colum Lynch, Exclusive: U.S. to Support ICC War Crimes Prosecution in Syria, FOREIGN POL’Y (May 17, 2014), http://foreignpolicy.com/2014/05/07/exclusive-u-s-to-supporticc-war-crimes-prosecution-in-syria/.
[1050] David Bosco, Rough Justice: The International Criminal Court in a World of Power Politics 1–10 (2014).
[1051] Winston P. Nagan, International Criminal Law and the Ad Hoc Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia, 6 Duke J. Comp. & Int’l L. 127, 128 (1995) (observing that the ad hoc tribunals created for the crimes in Yugoslavia and Rwanda “invigorated momentum for a permanent international criminal tribunal”).
[1052] Antonio Cassese Et Al., Cassese’s International Criminal Law (3rd ed. 2013).
[1053] Diane Marie Amann & M.N.S. Sellers, The United States of America and the International Criminal Court, 50 Am. J. Comp. L. (SUPP.) 381, 386–87 (2002) (noting that the proposed permanent tribunal could investigate matters “without a Security Council request” and that its independence would “deprive permanent members of their veto”).
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[1055] Scott Sheeran, The U.N. Security Council Veto is Literally Killing People, WASH POST (Aug. 11, 2014), https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2014/ 08/11/the-unsecurity-council-veto-is-literally-killing-people/[http://perma.cc/69VC-ZJGQ] (noting that the veto was agreed upon as a “quid pro quo for [those] powerful states which had carried the heavy burden in World War II” and describing the ways in which the veto has frustrated international efforts to address conflicts).
[1056] David L. Bosco, Five To Rule Them All: The UN Security Council And The Making Of The Modern World 30–31 (2009) (describing how the veto power given to the Security Council made the UN an institution that great powers could use to work together, rather than an institution for global governance).
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[1058] Larry D. Johnson, The Lubanga Case and Cooperation Between the UN and the ICC, 10 J. Int’l Crim. Just. 887, 887 (2012) (“During its first case, the International Criminal Court (ICC) faced several challenges. One of these challenges—which almost derailed the whole trial— was the implementation of the cooperation regime with the United Nations . . . .”). Univ. Of Cal. Irvine Sch. Of Law, The Beijing Workshop On The United Nations Security Council And The International Criminal Court: Summary Of Discussions 2 (2014) (“Yet while the governments of Russia and China have remained non-party observers . . . of the activities of the ICC, until recently neither they nor Russian and Chinese academics and analysts have been actively engaged in international discussions about the Courtand its relationship with the Council.”), http://councilandcourt.org/files/2014/06/Beijing-WorkshopProcee dings.pdf.
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[1065] United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia

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[1066] Slobodan Milosevic (20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician who was the President of Serbia from 1989 to 1997 and President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000.
[1067] “Milosevic charged with Bosnia genocide.” BBC. 23 November 2001.
[1068] Gall, Carlotta (1 July 2001). “Serbian Tells of Spiriting Milosevic Away.” The New York Times. “The Prosecutor of the Tribunal against Slobodan Milosevic (IT-02-54) - Indictment” (PDF). International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. October 22, 2002. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
[1069] “Report to the President Death of Slobodan Milosevic.” un.org, May 2006. Pg. 4 para. 3.
[1070] Case No. IT-95-5/18-T 1240 24 March 2016. ICTY, Karadzic Judgment, 24 March 2016, Para. 3460 <http://www.icty.org/x/cases/karadzic/tjug/en/160324_judgement. pdf >.
[1071] 10522 Intercept of conversation between Radovan Karadžić and Slobodan Milosevic, 9 January 1992), p. 1; Case No. IT-95-5/18-T 1238 24 March 2016.
[1072] 10522 Intercept of conversation between Radovan Karadžić and Slobodan Milosevic, 9 January 1992), p. 1; Case No. IT-95-5/18-T 1238 24 March 2016.
[1073] 10537 P1371 (Transcript of 30th session of RS Assembly, 5–6 May 1993), pp. 29–30, 157–160.
[1074] Bosnia and Herzegovina v Serbia and Montenegro [2007] ICJ 2.
[1075] Case no.IT -02-54-T.
[1076] In the indictment which was judicially confirmed in 2001, Milosevic was accused of 66 counts of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes committed in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo between 1991 and 1999. These crimes affected hundreds of thousands of victims throughout the former Yugoslavia.
[1077] The Tribunal’s official report on the inquiry into his death confirmed that, “Rifampicin had been found in a blood sample taken from Mr. Milosevic on 12 January 2006….Mr. Milosevic was not told of the results until 3 March 2006 because of the difficult legal position in which Dr. Falke (the Tribunal’s chief medical officer) found himself by virtue of the Dutch legal provisions concerning medical confidentiality.” Judge Kevin Parker (Vice-President of the ICTY), Report to the President of the ICTY: Death of Slobodan Milosevic, May 2006; Ά 31, 76 < http://www.icty.org/x/cases/slobodan_ milosevic/custom2/en/parkerreport.pdf > Text of Slobodan Milosevic’s Letter to the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs < http://www.slobodan-milosevic.org/news/ sm030806.htm > Slobodan Milo{evi} died in his cell at the United Nations Detention Unit in the Scheveningen Penitentiary Facility on Saturday morning, 11 March 2006, He was found dead in his cell less than 72 hours after his attorney delivered a letter to the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in which he said that he feared he was being poisoned.
[1078] U.S. State Dept. Cable #03THEHAGUE2835_a, “ICTY: An Inside Look Into Milosevic’s Health and Support Network” < https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/ 03THEHAGUE2835_a.html > It seems that the ICTY did nothing to publicize the fact that they had cleared Milosevic of involvement in the joint criminal enterprise. The ICTY’s conclusion, that one of the most demonized figures of the modern era was innocent of the most heinous crimes he was accused of, really should have made headlines across the world.
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[1251] Unambiguously, on December 16, 2015, the FOMC raised the target array for the federal funds rate from 0 to 1/4 percent to 1/4 to 1/2 percent.: https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/fomcminutes20151216.htm. Athanasios Orphanides, The Fed-ECB Policy Divergence

, MIT Shadow Open Market Committee Meeting Princeton Club, New York City April 29, 2016.
[1252] The ECB Governing Council lowered the rate on the ECB’s deposit facility by 10 basis points to -0.3 percent on December 3, 2015 and lowered it by another 10 basis points to -0.4 percent on March 10, 2016. Additional details can be found at the Introductory Statement and press conference following each meeting, available on the ECB’s website as follows: December meeting: http://www.ecb.europa.eu/press/ pressconf/2015/html/is151203.en.html. March meeting: http://www.ecb.europa.eu/ press/pressconf/2016/html/is160310.en. html.
[1253] Athanasios Orphanides, The Fed-ECB Policy Divergence

, MIT Shadow Open Market Committee Meeting Princeton Club, New York City April 29, 2016.
[1254] PCE for the Fed and HICP for the ECB.
[1255] The ECB’s Governing Council defines price stability: “Price stability is defined as a year-on-year increase in the Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP) for the euro area of below 2%.”
[1256] A guide to the Eurosystem/ECB staff macroeconomic projection exercises, ECB, July 2016, Eurosystem staff macroeconomic projections for the euro area, December 2016. www.ecb.europa.eu”In annual terms, real GDP is expected to grow by 1.7% in 2016 and 2017, and by 1.6% in 2018 and 2019. HICP inflation is expected to increase significantly from 0.2% in 2016 to 1.3% in 2017, 1.5% in 2018 and 1.7% in 2019, boosted particularly in the short term by the turnaround in oil prices.”
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[1262] Hüttl, Pia, and Dirk Schoenmaker. 2016. Should the “Outs” Join the European Banking Union? Bruegel Policy Contribution 2016/03.
[1263] In terms of legislation, the European act for European Banking Supervision (or SSM Regulation) was enacted on 15 October 2013 with undivided support from all EU countries. The Single Resolution Mechanism (SRM) Regulation was enacted on 15 July 2014. A proposal for a European deposit insurance scheme was published by the European Commission on 24 November 2015.
[1264] The ECB directly supervises 129 “significant institutions” and oversees the supervision of more than 3,000 “less significant institutions” by national supervisors.
[1265] Pietro Cova, Patrizio Pagano and Massimiliano Pisani, Lobal Macroeconomic Effects Of Exiting From Unconventional Monetary Policy

Temi di discussion

(Working papers)

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[1268] Lorenzo Burlon, Andrea Gerali, Alessandro Notarpietro and Massimiliano Pisani, Non-Standard Monetary Policy, Asset Prices and Macroprudential Policy In A Monetary Union

, Temi di discussion

Working papers Number 1089 - October 2016 P 34 Brzoza-Brzezina, M., M. Kolasa, and K. Makarski (2015). Macroprudential policy and imbalances in the euro area. Journal of International Money and Finance, vol. 51(C), pp. 137–154. Burlon, L., A. Gerali, A. Notarpietro, and M. Pisani (2016). Macroeconomic effectiveness of non-standard monetary policy and early exit. A model-based evaluation. Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1074, Bank of Italy, Directorate General for Economics, Statistics and Research.
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[1287] Tilman Bletzinger, Magdalena Lalik The impact of constrained monetary policy on the fiscal multipliers on output and inflation No 2019/February 2017 ECB Working Paper 2019, February 2017.
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[1290] Athanasios Orphanides, Central Bank Policies and the Debt Trap MIT Sloan School Working Paper 5187-17.
[1291] Jan Wouters and Thomas Ramopoulos, Time to Reconsider Status: The IMF, the EU, the Euro Area and Its Sovereign Debt Crisis

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[1294] J.-C. Piris, It is Time for the Euro Area to Develop Further Closer Cooperation Among its Members, Jean Monnet Working Paper 05/11, .
[1295] Anderton, R., Aranki, T., Dieppe, A., Elding, C., Haroutunian, S., Jacquinot, P., Jarvis, V., Labhard, V., Rusinova, D. and Szörfi, B., “Potential output from a euro area perspective,” Occasional Paper Series, No 156, ECB, Frankfurt am Main, November 2014.
[1296] Alex Cukierman, Euro‐Area and US Banks Behavior, and ECB‐FED Monetary Policies during the Global Financial Crisis: A Comparison Discussion Paper No. 10289 December 2014.
[1297] Voss J., (2012), “European Sovereign Debt Crisis: Overview, Analysis, and Timeline of Major Events,” Enterprising Investor, http://blogs.cfainstitute.org/investor/2011/ 11/21/european-sovereign-debt-crisisoverview-analysis-and-timeline-of-major-events/.
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[1304] Sekine, T., “Firm-Investment and Balance-Sheet Problems in Japan,” IMF Working Paper Series, No WP/99/111, 1999. Kanaya, A. and Woo, D., “The Japanese Banking Crisis of the 1990s: Sources and Lessons,” IMF Working Paper Series, No WP/00/7, 2000. Callen, T. and Ostry, J.D., Japan’s Lost Decade. Policies for Economic Revival, IMF, 2003.
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[1317] Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs of the European Parliament, “Results of the January 2016 euro area bank lending survey,” 19 January 2016.
[1318] Between May 2014 and January 2016, the composite rate of bank borrowing for non-financial corporations has fallen by 62 basis points in Germany, 46 in France, 111 in Spain and 130 in Italy. For households, the composite rate of bank borrowing has fallen by 65 basis points in Germany, 77 in France, 98 in Spain and 100 in Italy.
[1319] The Standard Eurobarometer 84 survey published in December 2015 indicated that 68% of respondents trusted the euro (26% did not trust it), which is the same level as at the end of 2006.
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[1328] President Dragui declared that “within ECB’s mandate, the ECB is ready to do whatever it takes to preserve the euro.” Speech by Mario Draghi, President of the European Central Bank at the Global Investment Conference in London (26 July 2012).
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Judgment of the Court (Grand Chamber) of 16 June 2015 (request for a preliminary ruling from the Bundesverfassungsgericht — Germany) — Peter Gauweiler and Others v Deutscher Bundestag (Case C-62/14) OJ C 129, 28.4.2014 Case C-62/14

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[1451] Tom W. Bell, “The Specter of Copyism v. Blockheaded Authors: How User-Generated Content Affects Copyright Policy,” 10 Vand. J. Ent & Tech. L. 841, 852–854 (2008) (explaining that technology advances have decreased cost of producing and distributing expressive works, resulting in more blockhead authors). John Tehranian, Infringement Nation: Copyright 2.0 and You 14 (2011) (describing today’s copyright laws as “a legal regime that threatens to make criminal infringers of us all”); id. at 129 (“[T]he widening ambit of copyright protection has increasingly encroached on critical First Amendment values, suppressing transformative uses of copyrighted works that advance creativity and free speech rights”); Peter Baldwin, The Copyright Wars: Three Centuries Of Trans-Atlantic Battle (2014) (opposing the author-oriented Continental copyright tradition against the public minded Anglo-American copyright tradition and contending that undue attention to authors restricts access to culture and suppresses expression).
[1452] Marvel Characters, Inc. v. Kirby, 726 F.3d 119, 143 (2d Cir. 2013) (concluding that Kirby’s comic book characters were works made for hire, and therefore Kirby had no right to terminate transfer of copyright to Marvel); Siegel v. Warner Bros. Entm’t, 542 F. Supp. 2d 1098, 1064–1079 (C.D. Cal. 2008) (finding that certain “Superman” works were works made for hire, and therefore not within scope of termination right); Wendy J. Gordon, “The Core of Copyright: Authors, Not Publishers,” 52 Houston L. Rev. 613 (2014) (Congress does not have power to enact copyright laws for the benefit of disseminators if they do not also benefit authors).
[1453] Rob Levine, Free Ride; How Digital Parasites are Destroying the Culture Business, and How the Culture Business Can Fight Back 252–253 (2011). Robert McCrum, From Bestseller to Bust: Is This the End of an Author’s Life?, http://www.theguardian. com/books/2014/mar/02/bestseller-novel-to-bust-author-life (citing the rise of free content on the internet as a challenge for authors today and finding that writing is increasingly unprofitable for unknown authors).
[1454] Nungesser v. EC Commission, 1 CMLR 278 (1983).
[1455] Dolmans, M., O'Donoghue, R., & Loewenthal, P. J., “Are Article 82 EC and Intellectual Property Interoperable? The State of the Law Pending the Judgment in Microsoft v. Commission,” Competition Policy International, Vol. 3, No. 1 (2007).
[1456] Peek & Cloppenburg KG v. Cassina SpA, C-456/06, EU:C:2008:232, paras 30-31; Titus Alexander Jochen Donner, C-5/11, EU:C:2012:370, para 23.
[1457] Giuseppe Mazziotti, Copyright in the EU Digital Single Market Report of The Ceps Digital Forum June 2013, Centre for European Policy Studies Brussels Copyright 2013, Centre for European Policy Studies.
[1458] Id. at 3.
[1459] “Digital Agenda for Europe,” http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/digitalagenda-europe, COM(2010) 245 final, May 19, 2010; Communication from the Commission on Content in the Digital Single Market, COM(2012) 789 final, December 18, 2012, http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/copyright/docs/copyrightinfso/121218_communicationonline-content_en.pdf.
[1460] Global Internet Phenomena Report (2H 2012).
[1461] Article 118 TFEU.
[1462] Harmonization of the criteria for copyright protection was deemed necessary for computer programs, databases, and photographs. Directive 2009/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of April 23, 2009 on the legal protection of computer programs (codified version), OJ L 111, May 5, 2009; Directive 96/9/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of March 11, 1996 on the legal protection of databases, OJ L 77, March 27, 1996; Directive 2006/116/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of December 12, 2006 on the term of protection of copyright and certain related rights (codified version), OJ L 372, December 27, 2006.
[1463] Infopaq International A/S v. Danske Dagblades Forening, Case C-5/08 [2009] I-06569; Bezpečnostní softwarová asociace – Svaz softwarové ochrany v. Ministerstvo kultury, Case C-393/09 [2010] I-13971; Joined Cases Football Association Premier League Ltd and Others v. QC Leisure and Others, Case C-403/08 and Karen Murphy v. Media Protection Services Ltd, Case C-429/08 [2011] I-09083.
[1464] E Rosati, Originality in EU copyright, Full Harmonization through case law (Edward Elgar:2013).
[1465] Infopaq, cit, [33]-[35].
[1466] Football Dataco Ltd and Others v. SportradarGmbH et Sportradar AG, C-173/11, October 18, 2012, paras. 39-43.
[1467] UsedSoft GmbH v. Oracle International Corp., C-128/11, July 3, 2012.
[1468] Judgment in Art & Allposters International BV v. Stichting Pictoright, C-419/13, EU:C:2015:27. The CJEU concluded that “exhaustion of the distribution right applies to the tangible object into which a protected work or its copy is incorporated if it has been placed onto the market with the copyright holder’s consent.” Article 4(2) of Directive 2001/29 (the InfoSoc Directive) provides that the authorized first sale of a work within the territory of the European Union exhausts the right of the copyright owner to control any subsequent distribution of the work in question.
[1469] Court of Appeal of Hamm, 22 U 60/13, on which see E Rosati, “No exhaustion beyond software: Katfriend translates German decision on audiobooks,” The IPKat (July 1, 2014), http://ipkitten.blogspot.co.uk/2014/07/no-exhaustion-beyond-software -kat friend.html.
[1470] District Court of Amsterdam, Nederlands Uitgeversverbond and Groep Algemene Uitgevers v. Tom Kabinet, C/13/567567/KG ZA 14-795 SP/MV, July 21, 2014, on which see M Olmedo Cuevas, “Dutch copyright succumbs to aging as exhaustion extends to e-books,” 10(1) JIPLP (2015), 8-10.
[1471] Judgment in Johan Deckmyn and Vrijheidsfonds VZW v. Helena Vandersteen and Others, C-201/13, EU:C:2014:2132; Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of May 22, 2001 on the harmonization of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society, O.J. 2001, L 167, pp. 10-19. E. Rosati, Originality in EU Copyright. Full Harmonization through Case Law (Edward Elgar, 2013). Infopaq International A/S v. Danske Dagblades Forening, C-5/08, EU:C:2009:465, para 27; Padawan SL v. Sociedad General de Autores y Editores de España (SGAE), C-467/08, EU:C:2010:620, para 32; DR and TV2 Danmark A/S v. NCB—Nordisk Copyright Bureau, C-510/10, EU:C:2012:244, para 33; R. Jacob, “Parody and IP claims: a defence?” in R. Cooper Dreyfuss – J.C. Ginsburg (Eds.), Intellectual Property at the Edge, The Contested Contours of IP (CUP, 2014), pp. 427-440, at 431, arguing that “when it comes to parody ‘the genre’ has no rules, making legislation immensely difficult. Parody ranges from the downright brutally offensive to the respectful hommage.”
[1472] Opinion of Advocate Pedro Cruz Villalón in Johan Deckmyn and Vrijheidsfonds VZW v. Helena Vandersteen and Others, C- 201/13, EU:C:2014:458.
[1473] Nintendo Co Ltd and Others v. PC Box Srl and 9Net Srl, Case C-355/12, January 23, 2014. Opinion of Advocate General Eleanor Sharpston in Nintendo Co Ltd and Others v. PC Box Srl and 9Net Srl, Case C-355/12, September 19, 2013.
[1474] Directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of May 22, 2001 on the harmonization of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society, OJ L 167, June 22, 2001.
[1475] InfoSoc Directive Peter Pinckney v. KDG Mediatech AG, Case C-170/12, [not yet published], October 3, 2013; Hi Hotel HCF SARL v. Uwe Spoering, Case C-387/12 [not yet published], April 3, 2014.
[1476] Infopaq International A/S v. Danske Dagblades Forening, Case C-5/08 [2009] I-06569; UK Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA).
[1477] Padawan SL v. Sociedad General Autores y Editores de Espana (SGAE), C-467/08, October 21, 2010.
[1478] Stichting de Thuiskopie v. Opus Supplies Deutschland Gmbh, C-462/09, June 16, 2011.
[1479] L’Oréal v. eBay International, C-324/09, July 12, 2011.
[1480] Article 15 of the Electronic Commerce Directive.
[1481] Promusicae v. Telefonica, C-275/06, January 29, 2008; Scarlet Extended v. SABAM, C-70/10, November 24, 2011; SABAM v. Netlog, C-360/10, February 16, 2012.
[1482] Article 6 of Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of October 24, 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, Productores de Música de España (Promusicae) v. Telefónica de España SAU, OJ L281/31 C-275/06, January 29, 2008.
[1483] KWS Saat AG v. OHIM, 2004 WL 59751 (October 21, 2004); Shield Mark BV v. Joost Kist H.O.D.N., Case C- 283/01, 2004 E.T.M.R. 33; Sieckmann v. Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt, Case C-273/00, 2003 E.T.M.R. 37.
[1484] First Council Directive 89/104/EEC of December 21, 1988 to Approximate to the Laws of the Member States Relating to Trade Marks, recitation 9, [1989] O.J. L 40/1; Council Regulation (EC) No. 40/94 of December 20, 1993 on the Community Trade Mark, [1994] O.J. L 11/1.
[1485] Sieckmann v. Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt, 2003 E.T.M.R. 37, z 46: “[Graphic representation] ensure[s] that infringement rights can be determined and third parties can understand, from the graphical representation, the nature of the mark;” Shield Mark BV v. Joost Kist H.O.D.N., Case C-283/01, 2004 E.T.M.R. 33, zz 34–41; Heidelberger Bauchemie GmbH, Case C-49/02, 2004 E.T.M.R. 99, z 13.
[1486] CJEU, June 18, 2009, case C-487/07, L’Oréal/Bellure, para. 58.
[1487] AG Poiares Maduro, Opinion of September 22, 2009, cases C-236/08-238/08, Google France and Google/LouisVuitton et al., para. 102.
[1488] European Commission, March 27, 2013, COM(2013) 161 final, 2013/0088 (COD).
[1489] G.B. Dinwoodie, “Lewis & Clark Law School Ninth Distinguished IP Lecture: Developing Defenses in Trademark Law,” Lewis and Clark Law Review 13/1 (2009), p. 99 (152): “However, as the scope of trademark protection expands and the metes and bounds of protection become more uncertain, we cannot rely exclusively on creative interpretation of the prima facie cause of action to establish limits. Trademark law must more consciously develop defenses that reflect the competing values at stake in trademark disputes.”
[1490] CJEU case C-205/13 – Hauck v. Stokke. The General Court’s decision in Case T‑450/09 – Simba Toys v. OHIM (concerning trademark protection for a three dimensional puzzle in the shape of Rubik’s cube).
[1491] CJEU Joined cases C-53/01 and C-55/01—Linde, Winward and Rado v. DPMA (concerning the shapes of a fork-lift truck, a torchlight, and a wristwatch).
[1492] CJEU Joined Cases C-108/97 and C-109/97—Windsurfing Chiemsee v. Huber and Attenberger, para 26.
[1493] Arsenal Football Club plc v. Matthew Reed, Case C-206/01, [2002] IPLR 32 and Sykes Enterprises Inc. v. OHIM, Case T- 130/01, [2003] IPLR 1.
[1494] Oakley Inc v. Animal Ltd & Ors, [2005] EWHC 210 (Ch) [23]–[25] (Mr Prescott QC).
[1495] Convention on the Grant of Patents (Munich, October 5, 1973) 13 ILM 268 (as amended).
[1496] The European Patent Office is one of two arms of the European Patent Organization established by the EPC, and includes Boards of Appeal and an Enlarged Board of Appeal that operate as European patent tribunals with crucial responsibility for interpreting and applying the EPC.
[1497] Patents Act 1977 § 1(1).
[1498] Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc v. HB Norton & Co Ltd, [1995] UKHL 14, [1996] RPC 76 (Merrell Dow).
[1499] Id.; MOBIL/Friction-reducing additive, [1990] EPOR 73 (Mobil).
[1500] Convention on the Grant of European Patents, Oct. 5, 1973, 1065 U.N.T.S. 199, Council Directive 98/44/EC on the Legal Protection of Biotechnological Inventions, 1998 O.J. (L 213) 13; Convention for the European Patent for the Common Market, 1976 O.J. (L 17), 15 I.L.M. 5 (1976).
[1501] 35 U.S.C.A. §§ 101–103 (West 1984 & Supp. 2000). Section 101 sets forth which inventions are patentable, Section 102 enumerates novelty as a condition for patentability, and Section 103 requires the subject matter of a patent to be “non-obvious.” EPC Article 53, entitled “Exceptions to Patentabilty,” asserts that patents shall not be granted for: inventions the publication or exploitation of which would be contrary to ordre public or morality, provided that the exploitation shall not be deemed so contrary merely because it is prohibited by law or regulation in some or all of the Contracting States; plant or animal varieties or essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals; this provision does not apply to microbiological processes or the products thereof.
[1502] Zekos, G, “Business methods and software patenting,” Hertfordshire Law Journal, 4 (2) (2006) 24-35; Zekos, G, “Software patenting,” The Journal of World Intellectual Property, 9 (1) (2006) 426–444; Zekos, G., “Copyrights and Trade Marks In Cyberspace: A Legal And Economic Analysis,” Vol. 15 Issue 1, Chicago Kent Journal of Intellectual Property 313, (2015).
[1503] Directive of the European Parliament and the Council on the Patentability of Computer-implemented inventions, May 8, 2004, http://www.patents4innovation. org/docs/ council_24_may.pdf.
[1504] Funk Bros. Seed Co. v. Kalo Inoculant Co., 333 U.S. 127, 130 (1948) (holding that a mixture of bacteria was not patentable because the qualities of the bacteria were manifestations of natural phenomena).
[1505] Plant Genetic Systems/Glutamine Synthetase Inhibitors (Opposition by Greenpeace), Decision T356/93, 1995 E.O.P.R. 357, 366.
[1506] Lubrizol/Hybrid Plants, Decision T320/87, 1988 E.P.O.R. 173, 178. Howard Florey/Relaxin (Opposition by Fraktion der Grunen Im Europaischen Parlament; Lannoye), 1995 E.P.O.R. 541, 543–46. Article 53 ECP.
[1507] Directive 98/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of July 6, 1998 on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions OJ 1998 L213 (Biotech Directive), recital 16.
[1508] Decision on the Common Position Adopted by the Council with a View to Adopting a European Parliament and Council Directive on the Legal Protection of Biotechnological Inventions, 1998 O.J. (C 167) 26, 26–27.
[1509] Article 6(1) is very similar to EPC Article 53(a). It states that [i]nventions shall be considered unpatentable where their commercial exploitation would be contrary to ordre public or morality; however, exploitation shall not be deemed to be so contrary merely because it is prohibited by law or regulation.
[1510] G. Zekos, “Denying patentability of scientific theories,” Journal of Intellectual Property Rights, vol. 19, 337-346, September 2014.
[1511] Monsanto Technology LLC v. Cefetra BV, Case C-428/08, July 6, 2010 at 76.
[1512] UNCTAD-ICTSD Resource Book on TRIPS and Development (Cambridge University Press, New York), 2005, p. 388.
[1513] International Stem Cell Corporation v. Comptroller General of Patents(ISCC), C‑364/13, December 18, 2014, Totipotent stem cells are the most versatile of the stem cell types. After four days of embryonic cell division, the cells begin to specialize into pluripotent stem cells.
[1514] Brόstle v. Greenpeace (broadly interpreted the patent’s exclusion of human embryos for use in commercial or industrial purposes), Case C-34/10, Oliver Brόstle v. Greenpeace eV, EU:C:2011:669.
[1515] C-34/10, decision of October 18, 2011 (EU law excludes “any possibility of patentability where respect for human dignity could thereby beaffected,” hence the term “‘human embryo’ [...] must be understood in a wide sense” (par. n. 34); then “any human ovum must, as soon as fertilised, be regarded as a ‘human embryo’ within the meaning and for the purposes of the application of Article 6(2)(c) of the Directive, since that fertilisation is such as to commence the process of development of a human being” (par. n. 35); this concept also includes “a non-fertilised human ovum into which the cell nucleus from a mature human cell has been transplanted and a non-fertilised human ovum whose division and further development have been stimulated by parthenogenesis” (par. n. 36)).
[1516] EU Member States could still exclude parthenote-based inventions from patentability on morality-related grounds under the first paragraph of Article 6 of the Biotech Directive, according to which “[i]nventions shall be considered unpatentable where their commercial exploitation would be contrary to ordre public or morality,” European Patent Convention (Article 53(a)) and the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (Article 27, para. 2).
[1517] Ferrantino, M. J., “The effect of intellectual property rights on international trade and investment,” Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 129, 300–331 (1993).
[1518] Glass, Amy and Kamal Saggi., “Intellectual Property Rights and Foreign Direct Investment,” Journal of International Economics, Vol. 56(2), 387-410 (2002).
[1519] Lai, Edwin L.C., “International Intellectual Property Rights Protection and the Rate of Product Innovation,” Journal of Development Economics 55, 133–153 (1998).
[1520] Yang Guifang, Keith E. Maskus, “Intellectual Property Rights and Licensing: An Econometric Investigation,” Working Paper No. 98-34 (1998).
[1521] Hitoshi Tanaka, Tatsuro Iwaisako, Koichi Futagami, “A Welfare Analysis of Global Patent Protection in a Model with Endogenous Innovation and Foreign Direct Investment,” Discussion Paper 09-24 Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP).
[1522] Lesser, W., “The Effects of intellectual property rights on foreign direct investment and imports in developing countries,” IP Strategy Today, No. 4, pp. 1-16 (2002).
[1523] Lee, J. Y. and E. Mansfield, “Intellectual Property Protection and U.S. Foreign Direct Investment,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, 78, pp. 181-186 (1996).
[1524] Smarzynska, B. J., “The composition of foreign direct investment and protection of intellectual property rights: evidence from transition economies,” European Economic Review, 48, pp. 39-62 (2004).
[1525] Nunnenkamp Peter and Julius Spatz, “Intellectual Property Rights and Foreign Direct Investment: A Disaggregated Analysis,” Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv Vol. 140(3), 393-414 (2004).
[1526] World Investment Report 2014, UNCTAD www.unctad.org.
[1527] Parello, C.P., “A North–South model of intellectual property rights protection and skill accumulation,” Journal of Development Economics 85, 253–281 (2008).
[1528] CA Primo Braga and C Fink, “The Relationship Between Intellectual Property Rights and Foreign Direct Investment,” 9 Duke J Comp & Int’l L 163, 164, (1998) College, Oxford, UK.
[1529] Chin, Judith C. and Gene M. Grossman, “Intellectual Property Rights and North–South Trade,” NBER Working Paper Series, No. 2769 (1988) (Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, November) (the theoretical literature takes into account a globe with a technologically developed “North” and a less technologically developed “South” based on the hypothesis that the North innovates and the South imitates the Northern technologies); Rapp, R. and R. Rozek, “Benefits and Costs of Intellectual Property Protection in Developing Countries,” Journal of World Trade 24, 75–102 (1990).
[1530] Park, Walter G. and Juan Carlos Ginarte, “Intellectual Property Rights and Economic Growth,” Contemporary Economic Policy 15 (July), 3: 51–61 (1997) (utilizing their patents IPR index estimated that IPR protection was a noteworthy determinant).
[1531] Nunnenkamp, Peter, Spatz, Julius, “Intellectual property rights and foreign direct investment: a disaggregated analysis,” Review of World Economics/ Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 140 (3), 393–414 (2004).
[1532] G. Zekos, “Constructing a New IPRs index,” 4 Web JCLI (2012), http://webjcli.ncl.ac.uk/2012/issue4/ zekos4.html; G. Zekos, “Law & Economics of IPRs,” 2016 Nova Science Publications, New York, www.novapublishers.com; G. Zekos, “IPRs’ impact upon FDI,” 2013 PhD Thesis, Economics Department, University of Peloponnese, Tripoli, Hellas www.uop.gr.
[1533] G. Zekos, “IPRs Protection and Their Impact upon FDI, GDP Growth & Trade,” 2013 Scholar’s Press, Www.Scholars-Press.Com, www.morebooks.de Germany.
[1534] Id.
[1535] Economic Freedom of the World: 2014 Annual Report, Area Economic Freedom Ratings (Ranks), 2014.
[1536] Lin, S., Ye, H., “Does inflation targeting make a difference in developing countries?,” Journal of Development Economics, 89(1), 118–123 (2009).
[1537] Markusen, J., “Multinationals, multi-plant economies, and the gains from trade,” Journal of International Economics, Volume 16, Issues 3–4 (1984).
[1538] Helpman, E., “A Simple Theory of International Trade with Multinational Corporations,” Journal of Political Economy 92(3), 451-471 (1984).
[1539] Goldar, B.N and R. Banga, “Impact of trade liberalization on foreign direct investment in Indian industries,” ARTNeT Working Paper Series, No. 36, June 2005.
[1540] Georgios I Zekos, IPRS Protection and Their Impact upon FDI, Gdp Growth & Trade, 2013 Scholar’s Press, www.scholars-press.com, www.morebooks.de Germany.
[1541] Georgios I Zekos, IPRS Protection and Their Impact upon FDI, GDP Growth & Trade, 2013 Scholar’s Press, www.scholars-press.com, www.morebooks.de Germany.


[1542] G. Zekos, ‘Constructing a New IPRs index’ [2012] 4 Web JCLI http://webjcli.ncl.ac.uk /2012/issue4/zekos4.html, G Zekos, The Impact of IPRs upon FDI, 2013 PhD Thesis, Economics Department, University of Peloponnese Hellas, Georgios I Zekos, IPRS Protection and Their Impact upon FDI, GDP Growth & Trade, 2013 Scholar’s Press, www.scholars-press.com, www.morebooks.de Germany.
[1543] Lin, S., Ye, H., 2009. Does inflation targeting make a difference in developing countries? Journal of Development Economics, 89(1), 118–123.
[1544] Hendry, D.F. 1999. .Does Money Determine UK Inflation over the Long Run?., Nuffield.
[1545] Neiss, K.S., Nelson, E. 2001. .The Real Interest Rate Gap as an Inflation Indicator., Bank of England WP 130.
[1546] Miller, R.L.; Benjamin, D.K.; The Economics of Macro Issues; Boston, MA; Pearson - Addison Wesley, 2004.
[1547] Markusen J (1984) Multinationals, multi-plant economies, and the gains from trade, Journal of International Economics, Volume 16, Issues 3–4.
[1548] Helpman, E. (1984) “A Simple Theory of International Trade with Multinational Corporations,” Journal of Political Economy 92(3), 451-471.
[1549] Goldar, B.N and R. Banga (2005). “Impact of trade liberalization on foreign direct investment in Indian industries,” ARTNeT Working Paper Series, No. 36, June.
[1550] For a detailed analysis see Georgios I Zekos, IPRS Protection and Their Impact upon FDI, GDP Growth & Trade, 2013 Scholar’s Press, www.scholars-press.com www.morebooks.de, Germany. G Zekos, The Impact of IPRs upon FDI, 2013 PhD Thesis, Economics Department, University of Peloponnese, Hellas. www.uop.gr.
[1551] O’Leary, I. S. Lustick and T. Callaghy (eds.), Right-Sizing the State: The Politics of Moving Borders. Oxford, Oxford University Press:

168-200.
[1552] Tanzi, Vito (1996) “Fiscal Federalism and Decentralization: A Review of Some Efficiency and Macroeconomic Aspects,” in: Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics, Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Tanzi, Vito and Ludger Schuknecht (1996) “Reforming Government in Industrial Countries,” Finance and Development, September: 2-5.
[1553] Moravcsik, Andrew and Kalypso Nicolaidis (2005) “The Future of the Constitutional Process of the European Union,” European Parliament Symposium, 13-14 October.
[1554] Vivien A. Schmidt, The Eurozone’s Crisis of Democratic Legitimacy Can the EU Rebuild Public Trust and Support for European Economic Integration? European Economy Discussion Paper 015.
[1555] Hobolt, Sara B. (2015) ‘Public Attitudes toward the Eurozone Crisis’ in Democratic Politics in a European Union under Stress eds. Olaf Cramme and Sara B. Hobolt. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kriesi, H. and Grande, E. (2015) ‘Political Debate in a Polarizing Union.’ In Cramme, O. and Hobolt, S. (eds.) Democratic Politics in a European Union under Stress. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[1556] Taggart, Paul and Szczerbiak, Aleks (2013) “Coming in from the Cold? Euroscepticism, Government Participation and Party Positions on Europe” Journal of Common Market Studies vol. 51, no. 1: 17-37.
[1557] Scharpf, F. W. (1997) Games Real Actors Play. Actor-Centered Institutionalism in Policy Research, Boulder, CO, West view. Scharpf, F. W. (1999) Governing in Europe: Effective and Democratic? Oxford, Oxford University Press. Scharpf, F. W. (2003) ‘Legitimate Diversity: The New Challenge of European Integration’, Zeitschrift fu¨r Staats- und Europawissenschaften, 1, 32–60.
[1558] Georgios I Zekos, Can people fleeing a safe third country for a moneyed destination to be considered as refugees or ordinal migrants? www.ssrn.com.
[1559] Zekos, Georgios, Can People Fleeing a Safe Third Country for a Moneyed Destination to Be Considered as Refugees or Ordinal Migrants? (February 9, 2016). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2729726 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ ssrn.2729726, Zekos, Georgios, Does Blurring the Concept of Refugee Create Bogus Refugees and so Security Problems for Host Countries? (November 6, 2013). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2350617 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ ssrn.2350617.
[1560] In the euro area, the share of GDP accounted for by public investment fell from 3.2% in 2007 to 2.6% in 2015. The share of the total primary public expenditure accounted for by public investment also fell from 7.6% in 2007 to 5.8% in 2015. See Bordon, A.R., Ebeke, C. and K. Shirono, “When Do Structural Reforms Work? On the Role of the Business Cycle and Macroeconomic Policies,” IMF Working Paper, No. 16/62, March 2016, and “Public investment in Europe,” ECB Economic Bulletin, Issue 2, 2016.
[1561] Real convergence in the euro area: evidence, theory and policy implications, ECB Economic Bulletin, Issue 5, 2015; Auf dem Brinke, A., Enderlein, H, and J. Fritz-Vannahme (2015), “What kind of convergence does the euro area need?,” Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung and Jacques Delors Institut – Berlin.
[1562] B. Cœuré, “Towards a political convergence process in the euro area,” speech at the Interparliamentary Conference “Towards a Progressive Europe,” Berlin, 16 October 2015. B. Cœuré, “Drawing lessons from the crisis for the future of the euro area,” speech at “Ambassadors Week,” Paris, 27 August 2015.
[1563] Draghi, M., 2015, Structural reforms, inflation and monetary policy, Introductory speech by Mario Draghi, President of the ECB, ECB Forum on Central Banking Sintra, 22 May 2015. Masuch, K., E. Moshammer and B. Pierluigi, 2016, Institutions and growth in Europe, CEPS Working Document, No. 421. Taisuke Nakata, Sebastian Schmidt,The risk-adjusted monetary policy rule, ECB Working Paper 1985, November 2016 (An explicit recognition of risk creates a discrepancy between the deterministic steady state (DSS) and the risky steady state (RSS), where the DSS is the steady state of a model in the absence of uncertainty.) Sushanta K. Mallick Ricardo M. Sousa

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[1564] Juncker, J. C., D. Tusk, J. Dijsselbloem, M. Draghi and M. Schulz, 2015, Completing Europe's Economic and Monetary Union, 22 June 2015.
[1565] Matthijs, M. & Blyth, M. (2015): Introduction. In: The future of the Euro. Matthijs, M. & Blyth, M. (Ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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