The Silver Conclave: Heroes, Heroines and Villains of English Literature

Luke Strongman
Independent Researcher, MRSNZ, Lower Hutt, New Zealand

Series: Fine Arts, Music and Literature
BISAC: LIT004120

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The Silver Conclave presents a critical analysis and reflection on fifty heroes, heroines and villains of English and American literature, folklore, history, film and graphic art. The characters are discussed as individual figures critiqued from the novels and narratives of their authors’ invention. The chronology of characters spans from the eleventh century and the English legend of the robber-prince ‘Robin of Sherwood,’ to Ian Fleming’s suave double-agent James Bond, who has battled forces of corruption for MI6 in fiction and in film since the mid-twentieth century, to J. K. Rowling’s intelligent modern witch, Hermione Granger, from the ever-popular ‘Potterverse’ in the early twenty-first century. Individually, or as a collection of character and plot summaries or vignettes, a range of characters are presented who have enlightened (or darkened) the popular imagination in novels, television and film. The narrative of The Silver Conclave is chronological, providing discussion about heroic and villainous figures primarily from English and American literary sources, arranged according to the year of publication. (Imprint: Nova)

Introduction

Chapter 1. The Legend of Robin Hood

Chapter 2. William Shakespeare’s – Macbeth

Chapter 3. Guy Fawkes

Chapter 4. John Milton’s – Satan

Chapter 5. Jonathan Swift’s – Lemuel Gulliver

Chapter 6. Jane Austen’s – Elizabeth Bennett

Chapter 7. Mary Shelley’s – Frankenstein

Chapter 8. Charlotte Brontë’s – Jane Eyre

Chapter 9. Emily Brontë’s – Catherine Earnshaw

Chapter 10. Nathaniel Hawthorne’s – Hester Prynne

Chapter 11. Charles Dickens’s – Pip

Chapter 12. Lewis Carroll’s – Alice

Chapter 13. H. Rider Haggard’s – Allan Quatermain

Chapter 14. Robert Louis Stevenson’s – Dr. Jekyll and Mr Hyde

Chapter 15. Arthur Conan Doyle’s – Sherlock Holmes

Chapter 16. Thomas Hardy’s – Tess of the d’Urbervilles

Chapter 17. Thomas Hardy’s – Jude Fawley

Chapter 18. Bram Stoker’s – Dracula

Chapter 19. Joseph Conrad’s – Kurtz

Chapter 20. Rudyard Kipling's - Kim

Chapter 21. J. M. Barrie’s – Peter Pan

Chapter 22. Edgar Rice Burroughs’s – Tarzan

Chapter 23. John Buchan’s -- Richard Hannay

Chapter 24. Virginia Woolf’’s -- Clarissa Dalloway

Chapter 25. F. Scott Fitzgerald’s -- Jay Gatsby

Chapter 26. Virginia Woolf’s – Orlando

Chapter 27. Leslie Charteris’s – The Saint

Chapter 28. D. H. Lawrence’s – Oliver Mellors

Chapter 29. Aldous Huxley’s – ‘John the Savage'

Chapter 30. Graham Greene’s – Pinkie Brown

Chapter 31. Ernest Hemingway’s -- Robert Jordan

Chapter 32. Evelyn Waugh’s – Charles Ryder

Chapter 33. George Orwell’s — Winston Smith

Chapter 34. Malcolm Lowry’s – Geoffrey Firmin

Chapter 35. J. D. Salinger’s – Holden Caulfield

Chapter 36. Ian Fleming’s – James Bond

Chapter 37. J. R. R. Tolkien’s – Aragorn

Chapter 38. Patricia Highsmith’s – Tom Ripley

Chapter 39. P. D. James’s – Adam Dalgliesh

Chapter 40. Doctor Who

Chapter 41. Graham Swift’s – Tom Crick

Chapter 42. Ian Rankin’s – John Rebus

Chapter 43. Michael Ondaatje’s – Almásy

Chapter 44. Martin Amis’s – Samson Young

Chapter 45. Philip Pullman’s -- Lyra Silvertongue

Chapter 46. Lara Croft

Chapter 47. Ian McEwan’s -- Briony Tallis

Chapter 48. Lee Child’s – Jack Reacher

Chapter 49. Don DeLillo’s - Lauren

Chapter 50. J. K. Rowling’s – Hermione Granger

Chapter 51. Dan Brown’s – Robert Langdon

Chapter 52. Conclusion

Index

[1] Alsford, M. (2006). Heroes and Villains. London: Baylor University Press: 66.
[2] DeCelles, K. A., and Pfarrer, M. D., (2004). Heroes or Villains? Corruption and the Charismatic Leader. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies. 11 (1): 69.
[3] Klapp, O. E. (1954). Heroes, Villains and Fools, as Agents of Social Control. American Sociological Review. 19 (1): 62.
[4] Klapp, ibid., 57.
[5] Alsford, ibid., 96.
[6] DeCelles, et al., 71.
[7] Klapp, ibid., 58.
[8] Neimneh, S. (2013). The Anti-Hero in Modernist Fiction: From Irony to Cultural Renewal. Mosaic, 46 (6): 75.
[9] Booker, C. (2004). The Seven Basic Plots. Why We Tell Stories. London: Continuum.
[10] Eden, A., Oliver, M. B., Tamborini, R., Limperos, A., and Woolley, J. (2015). Perceptions or Moral Violations and Personality Traits Among Heroes and Villains. Mass Communication and Society. 18: 188.
[11] Eden et al., ibid., P. 199.
[12] Eden et al., ibid., P. 188.
[13] Campbell, J. (1993). The Hero With a Thousand Faces. London; Harper Collins. P. 11.
[14] Leitch, T. (2008). Adaptations without Sources: The Adventures of Robin Hood. Literature Film Quarterly, 36 (1): 21.
[15] Leitch, ibid., p. 21.
[16] Leitch, ibid., p. 21.
[17] Leitch, ibid., p. 22.
[18] Polidoro, M. (2007). The Quest for the ‘Real’ Robin Hood. Skeptical Inquirer, 31 (4): 22.
[19] Leitch, ibid., p. 22.
[20] Leitch, ibid., p. 23.
[21] Stallybrass, P. (2008). ‘Drunk with the cup of liberty’: Robin Hood, the Carnivalesque, and the Rhetoric of Violence in early Modern England’ in Robin Hood: An Anthology of Scholarship and Criticism, Stephen Knight (Edit.). Cambridge: D. S. Brewer., p. 28.
[22] Keen, M. (1991). Robin Hood a Peasant Hero. History Today, 41 (10): 20.
[23] Keen, ibid., 21-22.
[24] Keen, ibid., 21.
[25] Polidoro, M. (2007). The quest for the ‘real’ Robin Hood. Skeptical Inquirer, 31 (4) On-line. 10 Feb. 2010.
[26] Keen, ibid, 21.
[27] Keen, ibid., 21.
[28] Keen, ibid., 21.
[29] Keen, ibid., 21.
[30] Keen, ibid., 22.
[31] Keen, ibid., 24.
[32] Polidoro, ibid, 22.
[33] Wright, A. W. (1997-2013). Wolfshead Through The Ages: The History of Robin Hood. Retrieved from: http://www.boldoutlaw.com/robages/robages1.html.
[34] Author. (2000). On the Trail of Robin Hood. In Britain. 10 (1): 37.
[35] Churchill, W., and Klehr, A. (1998). Robin Hood’s Merry England. British Heritage, 19 (4): 30.
[36] Author. ibid., 37.
[37] Keats, J. (1820). Robin Hood: To A Friend. Retrieved from: http://d.lib.rochester.edu/robin-hood/text/keats-robin-hood. Stanza 3, lines 19-22.
[38] Bell

, M. (2006). Macbeth and Dismemberment. Raritan. 25 (3): 13.
[39] Tufts, C. S. (1998). Shakespeare’s Conception of Moral Order in Macbeth. Renascence. 50 (3-4): 173.
[40] Cohen, D. (2011). Macbeth’s Rites of Violence. Shakespeare in Southern Africa, 23: 55.
[41] Cohen, ibid., 60.
[42] Paul, H. N. (1950). The Royal Play of Macbeth: When, Why, and How It Was Written by Shakespeare. New York: Macmillan: 227.
[43] Alsford., ibid., 39.
[44] Bell

, ibid., 16.
[45] Bell

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[46] Kalpakgian, M. (2013). Manipulation, Murder and Madness. Macbeth by William Shakespeare. New Oxford Review., 80 (7): 34-38.
[47] Kalpakgian, ibid., 24.
[48] Kalpakgian, ibid., 35.
[49] Kalpakgian, ibid., 37.
[50] Curran, K. (2012). Feeling Criminal in Macbeth. Phenomenology and Law. 54 (3): 392.
[51] Tufts, ibid. 169-182.
[52] Tufts, ibid. 169-182.
[53] Tufts, ibid. 169-182.
[54] Tufts, ibid., 169.
[55] Tufts, ibid., 172.
[56] Tufts, ibid., 172.
[57] Tufts., ibid., 169.
[58] Bali, S. (2014). Mechanics of Madness in Hamlet, Macbeth and King Lear. The IUP Journal of English Studies. IX (4): 81.
[59] Bali, ibid., 56.
[60] Stachniewski, J. (1988). Calvinist Psychology in Macbeth. Shakespeare Studies. 20: 170.
[61] Parris, B. (2012). ‘The body is with the king, but the king is not with the body’: Sovereign Sleep in Hamlet and Macbeth. Shakespeare Studies. 40: 104.
[62] Parris, ibid., 118.
[63] Eliot, T. S. (1925). The Hollow Men. Retrieved from: http://aduni.org/~heather/ occs/honors/Poem.htm.
[64] Roessel, D. (1990). Guy Fawkes Day and the Versailles Peace in ‘The Hollow Men.’ English Language Notes. 28 (1): 52.
[65] Derbyshire, J. (2005). Bonfire Memories. National Review. 57 (22): 56.
[66] Derbyshire, ibid., 56.
[67] Derbyshire, ibid., 56.
[68] Elias, S. (2010). Gunpowder, Treason and Fun. British Heritage. 31 (5): 27.
[69] Elias, ibid., 26.
[70] Elias, ibid., 27.
[71] Swift, R. (1981). Guy Fawkes Celebrations in Victorian Exeter. History Today. 55 (11): p. 5.
[72] Swift, ibid., p. 5.
[73] Swift, ibid., p. 7.
[74] Swift, ibid., p. 6.
[75] Kalapos, G.(2006) Fertility Goddesses, Groundhog Nellies & the Coca-Cola Company: The Origins of Modern Holidays. Guy Fawkes’ Night, the 5th of November. (Pp. 201-208.) London, Ontario: Insomniac Press: 203.
[76] Kalapos, ibid., 206.
[77] Thrush, A. (2005). The Men Who Foiled Fawkes. History Today. 55 (11): 15.
[78] Thrush, ibid., 15.
[79] Thrush, ibid., 15.
[80] Eliot, ibid.L. 5-11.
[81] Milton, J. (1773, M, DCC, CXXIII). The First Six Books of Paradise Lost. Book 2. Edinburgh: Printed for A. Kincaid and W. Creech, and J. Balfour: 92.
[82] Milton, ibid. Book 2. 145.
[83] Hunter, W. B. Jr. (1967). Satan as Comet: Paradise Lost II.708-711. English Language Notes, 5 (1): 17.
[84] Hunter, ibid., 21.
[85] Milton, ibid., Book 10: 332.
[86] Sullivan, E. W. (1980). The Bible and Satanic Deceit, Paradise Lost X, English Studies, 460-572. 61 (2): 127.
[87] Boehme, J. (1648). The Three Principles of The Divine Essence. Trans. John Sparrow. Reissued by C. J. B. With an introduction by Dr Paul Deussen. London: J. M. Watkins.
[88] Milton, J. (M.DCCC/XXVII). The Paradise Lost of Milton. With Illustrations, designed and engraved by John Martin. Vol. II. London: Septimus Prowett. Book 10: 128.
[89] Milton, J. (1773/2000). Paradise Lost. Edited by and with introduction from John Leonard. London: Penguin: 232. All references hereafter to this edition.
[90] Milton, ibid., 187.
[91] Carey, J. and Fowler, A. (Editors.). (1968, rpt. 1972). The Poems of John Milton. New York: Jonson.
[92] Archer, S. (1972). Satan and the Colures: Paradise Lost, IX, 62-66. English Language Notes, 10 (2): 115.
[93] Ittzes, G. (2007). Satan’s Journey Through Darkness: Paradise Lost 9.53-86. Milton Quarterly 41 (1): 12-21.
[94] Ittzes, ibid., 13.
[95] Archer, ibid., 116.
[96] Archer, ibid., 116.
[97] Archer, ibid., 116.
[98] Anderson, G. M. (1995). Milton’s Paradise Lost. Explicator, 53 (3): 136.
[99] Anderson, ibid., 136.
[100] Anderson, ibid., 136.
[101] Anderson, ibid., 136.
[102] Anderson, ibid., 137.
[103] Ittzes, ibid. 14.
[104] Milton, ibid., 187.
[105] Craven, R. R. (1980). The Mists in Paradise Lost. English Language Notes. English Language Notes. 18 (1): 20-25.
[106] Craven, ibid., 20.
[107] Craven, ibid., 21.
[108] Craven, ibid., 24.
[109] Milton, ibid., 287. (XII. 628-632).
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[111] Kastor, F. S. (1968). ‘In His Own Shape’: The Statue of Satan in Paradise Lost. English Language Notes. 5 (4): 264-269.
[112] Kastor, ibid. 264.
[113] Milton, ibid., 133. VI. 301-306.
[114] West, R. H. (1955). Milton and the Angels. Athens, Georgia: 109.
[115] Edwards, K. (2006). Milton’s Reformed Animals: An Early Modern Bestiary, G. Milton Quarterly 40 (4): 263- 285.
[116] Spenser, E. (M. DCCC.XXV). The Poetical Works of Edmund Spenser in Five Volumes. The Faerie Queene. London: William Pickering: 101.
[117] Edwards, ibid. 5.8.
[118] Milton, ibid., 148-149.
[119] Edwards, ibid., 270.
[120] Edwards, ibid., 279.
[121] Edwards, ibid., 278.
[122] Calloway, K. (2005). Beyond Parody: Satan as Aeneas in Paradise Lost. Milton Quarterly, 39 (2): 82.
[123] Calloway, ibid., 82.
[124] Harding, ibid., 88.
[125] Harding, ibid., 83.
[126] Calloway, ibid.,85.
[127] Calloway, ibid., 88.
[128] Ozturk, S. (2009). Two Notorious Villains in Two famous Literary Works: Satan in Paradise Lost and Macbeth in Macbeth. The Journal of International Social Research, 2 (9): 333.
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[130] Ozturk, ibid., 330.
[131] Ozrturk, ibid., 334.
[132] Ozturk, ibid., 334.
[133] Ozturk, ibid., 333.
[134] Ozturk, ibid., 333.
[135] Forey, M. (1996). Milton’s Satan: Wisdom reversed. Essays in Criticism. 46 (4): 302.
[136] Forey, ibid., 303.
[137] Forey, ibid. 303.
[138] Milton, ibid, 187.
[139] Milton, ibid., 229. (X 423-443).
[140] Milton, ibid., 306.
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[143] Anderson, ibid., 1350.
[144] Anderson, ibid., 1350.
[145] Anderson, ibid., 1350.
[146] Karpasitis, ibid., 16-17.
[147] Karpasitis, ibid.,17.
[148] Karpasitis, ibid., 20.
[149] Milton, ibid., 118.
[150] Karpasitis, ibid., 21.
[151] Karpasitis, ibid., 21.
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[153] Forsyth, ibid., 114.
[154] Forsyth, ibid.,114.
[155] Karpasitis, ibid., 21.
[156] Milton, ibid., 9.
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[164] Fuchs, ibid., 68.
[165] Kliger, ibid., 407.
[166] Carnochan, ibid., 9.
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[177] Anderson, ibid., 371.
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[179] Abbasi, ibid. 57.
[180] Stasio and Duncan, ibid., 144.
[181] Abbasi, ibid., 54.
[182] Abbasi, ibid., 57.
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[184] Anderson, ibid., 375.
[185] Austen, J. (2007). Pride and Prejudice. Wordsworth Classics: 177.
[186] Stasio and Duncan, ibid.
[187] Stott, ibid., 102.
[188] Stott, ibid., 105.
[189] Stasio and Duncan, ibid., 133.
[190] Hogsette, D. S. (2011). Metaphysical Intersections in Frankenstein: Mary Shelley’s Theistic Investigation of Scientific Materialism and Transgressive Autonomy. Christianity and Literature, 60 (4): 531.
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[193] Smith, ibid., 81.
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[195] Hogsette, ibid.,531.
[196] Alsford, ibid., 98.
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[198] Hogsette, ibid.,540.
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[204] Shelley, ibid., para. 11.
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[206] Bate, J. (2000). The Song of the Earth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
[207] Aguirre, M. (2013). Gothic Fiction and Folk-Narrative Structure: The Case of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Gothic Studies. 15 (2): 3.
[208] Aguirre, ibid., 6.
[209] Aguirre, ibid., 6.
[210] Petsche, J. (2014). An Already Alienated Animality: Frankenstein as a Gothic Narrative of Carnivorism. Gothic Studies, 16 (1): 107.
[211] Petsche, ibid., 107.
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[214] Austen, J. (1848/2003). Jane Eyre. Introduction by Joyce Carol Oates. New York: Bantam Dell: 272.
[215] Alsford, ibid., 7.
[216] Austen, ibid., 227.
[217] Phillips, J. (2008). Marriage in Jane Eyre: From Contract to Conversation. Brontë Studies. 33: 203.
[218] Phillips, ibid., 203.
[219] Phillips, ibid., 203.
[220] Mishou, A. L. (2014). Surviving Thornfield: and Eyre and Nineteenth-Century Evolutionary Theory. Renascence. 66 (4): 215.
[221] Phillips, ibid., 204.
[222] Austen, ibid., 351.
[223] Phillips, ibid., 208.
[224] Nickelsburg, M. (2012). Rendering the Veil of Sin: Idolatry and Adultery in Jane Eyre in Light of Ezekiel 16, 1 and 2 Corinthians. Brontë Studies. 37 (4): 297.
[225] Bennett, K. L. (2012). Exile and Reconciling Power of the Natural Affections in Jane Eyre. Brontë Studies. 37 (1): 22.
[226] Austen, ibid., 452.
[227] Stoneman, P. (1996). Catherine Earnshaw’s Journey To Her Home Among The Dead: Fresh Thoughts on Wuthering Heights And ’Epipsychidion.’ English Studies. XLVII, 188: 312.
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[230] Miller, E. V. (2012). ‘Just As If She Were Painted’: Interpreting Jane Eyre through Devotional Imagery. Brontë Studies. 37 (4): 319.
[231] Miller, ibid., 319.
[232] Miller, ibid., 322.
[233] Miller, ibid., 318.
[234] Miller, K. A. (2010). Well that is beautiful, Miss Jane!: Jane Eyre and the Creation of the Female Artist. Brontë Studies. 35 (3): 251.
[235] Fain, M. (2014). Narrating the Queen. Brontë Studies. 39 (2): 141.
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[237] Banerjee, J. (1998). Sources and Outcomes of Adolescent Crises in Wuthering Heights. Victorian Newsletter. 94: 17-26.
[238] Brontë, E. (1847/2010). Wuthering Heights. London: Bibliolis: 214.
[239] Deleuze, G., and Guattri, F. (1994). What is Philosophy?, Translated by Hugh Tomlinson and Graham Burchell. New York: Columbia University Press: 175.
[240] Brontë, ibid., 144.
[241] Brontë, ibid., 109.
[242] Brontë, ibid., 145.
[243] Meier, T.K. (2013). Wuthering Heights and Violation of Class. Brontë Studies. 38 (4): 311.
[244] Thormahlen, M. (1997). The Lunatic and the Devil's Disciple: the ‘Lovers’ in Wuthering Heights. Review of English Studies. XLVIII: 191.
[245] Meier, ibid. 311.
[246] Meier, ibid. 311.
[247] DuVal, K. (2012). The Physical and Spiritual Geography of Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights. 38 (1): 44.
[248] DuVal, ibid., 44.
[249] Brontë, ibid.,22.
[250] DuVal, ibid., 46.
[251] Gifford, D. (2012). Hogg, Scottish Literature and Wuthering Heights or Was Heathcliff a Brownie? The 2012 Douglas Mack Lecture. Studies in Hogg and His World, 23: 5.
[252] Gifford, ibid., 5.
[253] Gifford, ibid., 14.
[254] Gifford, ibid., 14.
[255] Brontë, ibid., 137.
[256] Phillips, J. (2007). The Two Faces of Love in Wuthering Heights. Brontë Studies, 32: 96.
[257] Brontë, ibid., 72.
[258] Thormahlen, M. (1997). The Lunatic and the Devil's Disciple: the ‘Lovers’ in Wuthering Heights. Review of English Studies. XLVIII: 190.
[259] Brontë, ibid.,274.
[260] Whelan, R. E. Jr. (1968). Hester Prynne’s Little Pearl: Sacred and Profane Love. American Literature, 39 (4): 488–505.
[261] Barlowe, J. (1997) Rereading Women: Hester

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[263] Davis, ibid., 33.
[264] Murillo, C. (2011). The Geneva Bible’s Scarlet-Clad Woman and Hawthorne’s Hester Prynne. Notes and Queries. 58 (4): 549.
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[266] Hawthorne, ibid. Chapter Two, Para. 11.
[267] Murillo, ibid., 549.
[268] Thomas, B. (2001). Citizen Hester: The Scarlet Letter as Civic Myth. American Literary History. 13 (2): 194.
[269] Murillo, ibid., 551.
[270] Wang, Y. (2010). A Representative of the New Female Image – Analysing Hester Prynne’s Feminist Consciousness in The Scarlet Letter. Journal of Language Teaching and Research. 1 (6): 893.
[271] Barlowe, ibid., 197.
[272] Davis, ibid., 32.
[273] Crowley, J. P. (1994). Pip’s Spiritual Exercise: The Meditative Mode in Dickens’ Great Expectations. Renascence. 46 (2): 133.
[274] Crowley, ibid., 133.
[275] Gribble, J. (2008). The Bible in Great Expectations. Dickens Quarterly, 25 (4): 232.
[276] Ioannou, M. (2012). '[S]imply because I found her irresistible': Female Erotic Power and Feminism in Great Expectations. Dickens Quarterly. 29 (2): 143.
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[278] Crowley, ibid., 133.
[279] Ioannou, ibid., 142.
[280] Crowley, ibid.,127.
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[777] Pullman, The Amber Spyglass, 470-471.
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[794] Simpson, K. (2013). Is Lara Croft a Feminist Icon? Media: Theory and Everyday Life. http://theoryandeverydaylife.blogspot.co.nz/2013/03/is-lara-croft-feminist-icon.html.
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[816] O’Hara, ibid., 75.
[817] McEwan, I. (2002). Atonement. London: Vintage: 36.
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[823] McEwan, ibid., 350.
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[830] Ayers, ibid., para. 20.
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[832] DeLillo, D. (2001). The Body Artist. London: Macmillan: 41.
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[835] Nel, ibid., 738.
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[844] Gercama, A. ‘I’m Hoping to Do Some Good in the World’: Hermione Granger and Feminist Ethics’ in Christopher E. Bell. (Edit.) Hermione Granger Saves the World: essays on the feminist Heroine of Hogwarts. (pp. 34- 51).McFarlane and Company: Jefferson, NC: 42.
[845] Rowling, J. K. (2007). Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. London: Bloomsbury: 75.
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