The Pituitary Gland and Adrenal Glands: New Research

Noémi Barta (Editor)

Series: Endocrinology Research and Clinical Developments
BISAC: MED027000

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Volume 10

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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In The Pituitary Gland and Adrenal Glands: New Research, the authors first discuss pituicytomas, rare primary glial neoplasms that arise in the neurohypophysis (or posterior portion) of the pituitary gland. They typically present with signs and symptoms of a slow growing, non-hormonally active mass of the sellar and suprasellar region, compressing adjacent structures.

Following this, the clinical and pathologic features of spindle cell oncocytomas are discussed. Spindle cell oncocytomas are rare tumors, accounting for less than 0.5% of sellar masses. Tumors typically present in adults and most commonly manifest with visual disturbances and pituitary hypofunction.

Additionally, the authors review the clinical and pathological features of gangliocytomas, rare benign tumors of the neuroaxis. They are most commonly seen in children and young adults, and most often arise in the cerebellum as part of Cowden’s disease, or in the sellar region.

The clinicopathologic features of granular tumors, rare neoplasms that most commonly arise in the neurohypophysis or posterior portion of the pituitary gland, are also discussed.

This compilation goes on to examine the adrenal glands, paired structures located superior to the kidneys in the retroperitoneal space. Mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and adrenal androgens are synthesized respectively in the zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculatis and zona reticularis that make up the cortex, while the inner adrenal medulla produces the catecholamines and peptides.

The risk of developing adrenal insufficiency among glucocorticoid users is assessed, and risk factors are identified. Glucocorticoids are widely used for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions and malignancies, as well as after organ transplantation.

The closing study explores hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, a potent and complex response to heat stress in domestic livestock. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is activated during stress, which leads to the secretion of cortisol and aldosterone from the adrenal gland.
(Imprint: Nova Medicine and Health)

Preface

Chapter 1. Pituicytoma: A Clinicopathologic Review of a Rare Glial Neoplasm of the Pituitary
(Richard Prayson, MD, Department of Anatomic Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, US)

Chapter 2. Spindle Cell Oncocytomas of the Pituitary Gland
(Richard Prayson, MD, Department of Anatomic Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, US)

Chapter 3. Mixed Gangliocytoma-Pituitary Adenoma of the Pituitary Gland
(Richard Prayson, MD, Department of Anatomic Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, US)

Chapter 4. Granular Cell Tumor of the Pituitary Gland
(Richard Prayson, MD, Department of Anatomic Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, US)

Chapter 5. The Adrenal Glands: Function, Regulation and Disorders
(Levent Soydan, MD, Department of Radiology, Haydarpasa Numune Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey)

Chapter 6. Glucocorticoid-Induced Adrenal Insufficiency: Potential Risk Predictors and Diagnosis
(Ana Belén Mañas-Martínez, PhD, Mar Mañas–Martínez, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Ernest Lluch Hospital, Calatayud, Spain, and others)

Chapter 7. Significance of Adrenal Gland for Heat Stress Amelioration in Livestock
(M.V. Silpa, J.P. Anisha, G.D. Vandana, S.P. Angel, M.R. Reshma Nair and V. Sejian, Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Justus-Liebig-University Gießen, Gießen, Germany, and others)

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