The Most Influential Scientists Who Changed the World


Manuel F. Varela, PhD –  Professor, Biology, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, New Mexico, USA
Ann F. Varela – Instructor, Mathematical Sciences, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, New Mexico, USA
Michael F. Shaughnessy, PhD – Professor of Psychology, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, New Mexico, USA

Series: Distinguished Men and Women of Science, Medicine and the Arts
BISAC: SCI000000; SCI080000; SCI086000

There are a handful of famous mathematicians, scientists, investigators, and researchers who have shaped and influenced the world, and brought about significant changes in our lives. This book reviews these influential people, their lives, discoveries and inventions, and their impact.

For many of them, their lives are equally as important as their insights, theories, and inventions. This book pays homage to what they have suffered and endured to provide for generations to follow them. Each one of these individuals has left their mark on the world, influenced their discipline, and deserve recognition. This book intends to honor them, and at the same time, educate the current generation that may not recognize their names or contributions to their field and to the world.

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Archimedes (287 BC-212 BC): Buoyancy, Levers, and War Machines

Chapter 2. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543): The Galaxies Do Not Revolve Around Us!

Chapter 3. An Interview About Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): He Avoided Being Burned at the Stake! 

Chapter 4. Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723): Father of Microbiology

Chapter 5. Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier (1743-1794): A Founding Parent of Chemistry

Chapter 6. Edward Jenner (1749-1823): Milkmaids, Cowpox, and the Devastating Smallpox

Chapter 7. Ignaz Semmelweis (1818-1865): Handwashing, the Dreaded Childbed Fever, and “Saviour of Mothers”

Chapter 8. Gregor Mendel (1822-1884): The Father of the Holy Grail of Modern Genetics: The Gene

Chapter 9. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895): A Founding Father of Microbiology and Biochemistry

Chapter 10. Joseph Lister (1827-1912): Antiseptics in the Surgical Theatre

Chapter 11. Robert Koch (1843-1910): Germs Can Cause Terrible Diseases!

Chapter 12. Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915): Magic Bullets, Antitoxin Therapy, and the Nobel Prize

Chapter 13. Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1861-1947): Amino Acids, Vitamins, and the Nobel Prize

Chapter 14. Marie Skłodowska Curie (1867-1934): A Pioneering Scientist of Extraordinary Achievement

Chapter 15. Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943): The Blood Groupings

Chapter 16. Alexander Fleming (1881-1955): The Miracle Medicine of Penicillin

Chapter 17. Otto Warburg (1883-1970): The Vital Life Force, Cancer, and the Nobel Prize

Chapter 18. Linus Pauling (1901-1994):  The “Boy Professor” and the Chemical Bonds that Form Life

Chapter 19. J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967): Physics Genius and Father of the Atomic Bomb

Chapter 20. Max Delbrück (1906-1981): Pioneer and Renaissance Man of Physics, Molecular Genetics and DNA Recombination

Chapter 21. Gertrude Belle Elion (1918-1999): A Treatment for Gout and the Nobel Prize

Chapter 22. Frederick Sanger (1918-2013): Father of Sequences, Genomics, and Two Nobel Prizes

Chapter 23. Jane Wright (1919-2013): Medical Oncologist and Pioneer of Modern Cancer Chemotherapy

Chapter 24. Rosalind Franklin (1920-1958): Solving DNA, RNA, Virus Structures, and Yet No Nobel Prize

Chapter 25. Jonas Salk (1921-1995): Vaccine Invention Leads to Polio Eradication from the Face of the Planet


About the Authors


Author’s ORCID iD

Michael F. Shaughnessy –
Manuel F. Varela

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