The Limits of Civilization

Andrew Targowski
Western Michigan University, MI, USA
President Emeritus of the International Society for the Comparative Study of Civilizations (2009-2013)

Series: Focus on Civilizations and Cultures
BISAC: SOC026000

Clear

Volume 10

Issue 1

Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

eBook

Digitally watermarked, DRM-free.
Immediate eBook download after purchase.

Product price
Additional options total:
Order total:

Quantity:

Details

This book has been inspired by Dennis Meadows’s (et al.) The Limits to Growth, published 41 years ago, in 1972. It forewarned the general public about the exhaustion of strategic resources of the planet as known at that time, unless economic and population expansions were halted.

This resulted in the world becoming aware of the crisis of civilization. Measures were taken to reduce the consumption of the strategic resources, including the promotion of recycling resources used. Efforts were made internationally to introduce the practice of climate and environmental protection, to little avail.

The present book has a wider scope of analysis and synthesis, and even gloomier conclusions than those found in the two pioneering books.

This author has arrived at the following conclusions:

• The plight of civilization is doomed by the sun expiring within 4.5 billion years. It is also determined by the exhaustion of the known and the potential resources of the small planet Earth around the year 5,000. The future of civilization (considered in the time frame imaginable to man) is swayed by its current crisis, which results from the Triangle of Civilization Death (the combination of the “bombs” of population, ecology and depletion of strategic resources), which will be felt around 2050.
• The future of civilization is dependent on its capability of entering the phase of Wise and Universal Civilization in the years to come. This is conditioned upon the abandonment of the known socio-political and economic systems: capitalism, socialism, communism and their hybrids. These systems are based on the constant growth of population and the economy, which is unsustainable any longer.
• Democratic Ecologism ought to be the new system, securing a wise and sustainable functioning of civilization; it would prioritize the ecosystem in the choices made by man and societies. What must be observed, too, is tolerance based on Spirituality 2.0. It is based on the Decalogue of Complementary Values derived from the main religions 1.0, which the world is now practicing.

Is it possible to introduce these solutions to practical life? This is up to people becoming wiser. Alas, so far people do not even know what wisdom is since wisdom is not taught at school or college. And without wisdom, no civilization stands any chance of success in the universe of systemic chaos. (Imprint: Nova)

Foreword

Author Contact Information

Part I: Introduction to Civilization

Chapter 1. The Nature of Civilzation

Chapter 2. How Civilizations Perish

Chapter 3. The Second Great Crisis of Civilization in History

Chapter 4. The Global Civilization Development and Its Repercussions

Part II: Civilization in Crisis

Chapter 5. The Death Triangle of Civilization in the 21st Century

Chapter 6. Capitalism and the 21st Century Limits of Civilization

Chapter 7. Superconsumerism and the 21st Century

Chapter 8. Technology and the Limits of Civilization in the 21st Century

Chapter 9. Climate and the 21st Century Limits of Civilization

Chapter 10. Culture and the 21st Century Limits of Civilization

Part III: End of Civilization?

Chapter 11. The Power of Crisis Relations and the Limits of Civilization in the 21st Century

Chapter 12. Can Civilization Survive?

Chapter 13. Where Are We Heading?

Bibliography

Index

Foreword

[1] Meadows, D. et al. (1972). The Limits to growth. New York: Universe Books.
[2] Meadows, D. et al. (1992). Beyond the limits. confronting global collapse, envisioning a sustainable future. Post Mills. VT.: Chelsea Green Publishing Company.
[3] Randers, J. (2012). A Global forecast for the next forty years 2052. White River Junction, VE: Chelsea Green Publishing.
[4] Gore, Al. (2013). The Future, six drivers of global change. New York: Random House.
[5] Targowski, A. (2009). Information technology and societal development. Hershey-New York: IGI Global.
[6] Targowski, A. & M. Celinski. (2013). Spirituality and civilization sustainability in the 21st century. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
[7] Targowski, A. (2011). Information technology and wisdom development. Hershey-New York: IGI Global.
[8] Targowski, A. (2013). Harnessing the power of wisdom. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Chapter 1

[1] Huntington, S. (1993). The clash of civilizations. Foreign Affairs. Summer.
[2] Toynbee, A. ( 1934-1961). A study of history. Oxford: Oxford Press.
[3] Targowski, A. (2009). Information technology and societal development. Hershey-New York: IGI Global.
[4] Spengler, O. (1939). The decline of the West. New York: Knopf.
[5] Spengler, O. (1934, 2002). The hour of decision. Honolulu: University Press of Pacific.
[6] Koneczny, F. (1935). O wielości cywilizacyj. Kraków: Gebethner i Wolf.
[7] Koneczny, F. (1935). O ład w historii (1977). London: Wydawnictwa Towarzystwa im. Romana Dmowskiego.
[8] Koneczny, F. (1982). Prawa dziejowe. London: Wydawnictwa Towarzystwa im. Romana Dmowskiego.
[9] Pitrim Sorokin (1957). Social and culture dynamics. Boston: Porter Sargent Publishers.
[10] Kroeber, L. &i C. Kluckhohn (1952) Culture, a critical review of concepts and definitions. Boston: Vintage Books.
[11] Ferdinand Brauel. (1993). History and civilizations. New York: The Penguin Press.
[12] Coulborn, R. (1961). The origin of civilized society. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
[13] Quigley, C. (1961). The evolution of civilizations. Indianapolis, IN.: Liberty Fund.
[14] Melko, M. (1969). The nature of civilizations. Boston: Porter Sargent Publishers.
[15] Targowski, A. (2009). Towards a composite definition of civilization. Comparative Civilizations Review. No. 60, Spring, p. 79-98.
[16] Bronowski, J. & B. Mazlish (1962). The western intellectual tradition. New York: Harper Perenial.
[17] "UN-backed container exhibit spotlights plight of sex trafficking victims". UN.org. 2008-02-06. Retrieved 2011-06-25.
[18] Herman, W. (1988). Global mind change: the promise of the last years of the twentieth century. Indianapolis, IN.: Knowledge Systems.
[19] Cook, B. (1991). Quality: the pioneers survey of the landscape. Industry Week, October XXI.
[20] Rothschild, M. (1992). Call it digital Darwinism. Upside.

Chapter 2

[1] Goldman, D. P. (2011). How civilization die. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, Inc.
[2] Targowski, A. (2012). The Myth and Realities of the Clash of Western and Chinese Civilizations in the 21st century. Comparative Civilizations Review. No. 66. Fall, pp. 76-98.
[3] Landes, D.S. (1998). The wealth and poverty of nations. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
[4] Reich, R. (1992). The work of nations. New York: Vintage Books.
[5] Bruchey, S. (1988). The wealth of the nation. New York: Harper & Row Publishers.
[6] Toynbee, A. (1934, 1961). A study of history. Oxford. Oxford University Press.
[7] Targowski, A. (2009). Information technology and societal development. Hershey-New York: IGI Global.
[8] Eckard, W. (1995). A dialectical evolutionary theory of civilization, empires, and wars. In: S. Sanderson (Ed.), Civilization and world systems, studying world-historical change. Walnut Creek, London, New Delhi: Altamira Press.
[9] Targowski, A. & A. Ajnenkiel (Ed.). (2000). Losy Polski i świata. Warsaw: Bellona.

Chapter 3

[1] Rome II is Byzantium (4th – 14th cc. C.E.)
[2] Cairncross, F. (1997). The Death of distance. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
[3] The China Post, July 18, XX11.
[4] http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/headlines/content/20120223STO39230/html/Parliament-to-receive-2.4-million-petition-signatures-against-ACTA, accessed August 5, 2013
[5] http://money.usnews.com/money/careers/slideshows/the-10-best-jobs, Retrieved 12.24.2012.
[6] http://www.forbes.com/sites/scottdecarlo/XX12/04/04/americas-highest-paid-ceos/ Retrieved 4.04.2012.
[7] http://techcrunch.com/2013/04/23/apple-cash-q2-2013/,accessed August 5, 2013.
[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_the_United_States#Employment_by_sector, accessed August 5, 2013.6.
[9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catholic_sex_abuse_cases, accessed August 5, 2013.
[10] http://www.pewforum.org/2010/04/15/executive-summary-islam-and-christianity-in-sub-saharan-africa/, accessed, August 5, 2013.
[11] http://www.prb.org/, accessed August 3, 2013.
[12] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrying_capacity, Retrieved 12.20.2012.
[13] http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange2/current/lectures/freshwater_supply/freshwater.html. Retrieved 12.24.2012.
[14] Targowski, A. (XX09). Information technology and societal development. Hershey & New York: IGI Publishing.
[15] Winders, B. (XX12). “The food crisis and the deregulation of agriculture”. The Brown Journal of WORLD AFFAIRS. Fall/Winter 2011, p. 83-96.
[16] http://www.poynter.org/latest-news/mediawire/138940/u-s-has-same-number-of-newspapers-now-as-in-1890s/, accessed August 5, 2013.
[17] Mettler, S. (XX11). The Submerged state: how invisible government policies undermine American democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
[18] http://www.zerohedge.com/article/32-states-now-officially-bankrupt-378-billion-borrowed-treasury-fund-unemployment-ca-mi-ny-w. Retrived, 12.24.XX12.
[19] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corruption_Perceptions_Index. Retrieved 12.XXI.XX12.
[20] Naim, M. (XX12). Mafia states, organized crime takes office. Foreign Affairs. 91(3), May/June, XX12, p. 100-111.
[21] Reporters without Borders – http://en.rsf.org/press-freedom-index-2011-2012,1043.html, accessed August 1, 2013.
[22] http://www.worldatlas.com/nations.htm, Retrieved 12.23.XX12.
[23] http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/perfi/college/story/2011-10-19/student-loan-debt/50818676/1, accessed August 5, 2013.
[24] http://www.insidehighered.com/news/XX12/10/10/enrollments-fall-first-time-15-years. Retrieved 12.10.2012.
[25] U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (XX12). Digest of Education Statistics, XX1

Chapter 4

[1] Oxford Dictionary. http://oxforddictionaries.com/
[2] Aaron, R. (1957). The Opium of the intellectuals. London: Secker & Warburg, pp. 265-294.
[3] Ruse, M. (2003). “Is evolution a secular religion?” Science, vol. 7, no 3.
[4] 4.Frank, Th. (2000). "The Rise of market populism: America's new secular religion", The Nation, October 30.
[5] 5.http://money.usnews.com/money/personal-finance/articles/2012/10/16/decline-of-the-middle- class-behind-the-numbers, Retrived 12.27.2012.
[6] Nierówność w dochodach, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Income_v inequality_in_the_United_States, Retrieved 12.27.2012.
[7] REUTERS, U.S. Edition. Jan. 16, 2011.
[8] FoxNews, Jan. 04, 2011.
[9] David Pimentel (Cornell University)-http://www.worldpopulation balance.org/faq, Retrived 12.27.2012.
[10] Brown, L. (2001). Eco-economy. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Chapter 5

[1] Targowski, A. (1999). Enterprise information infrastructure. Boston: Pearson.
[2] Population Media Center-http://www.populationmedia.org/, Retrieved 12.27.2012.
[3] UN Population Division--http://www.un.org/esa/population/unpop.htm, Retrieved 12.27.2012.
[4] United Nations-Data Point for 2100 Low Variant Projection of the Population.
[5] Goldman, D. P. (2012). How civilizations die? Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, Inc. p. 26.
[6] Prahal, C.K. (2005). Fortune at the bottom of the pyramid: eradicating poverty though profit. Upper Saddle River, NJ.: Pearson Education, Inc.
[7] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrying_capacity, Retrieved 12.28.2012.
[8] http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/publications/mdg-report-2012.html, Retrieved 12.12.2012.
[9] http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/at_a_glance/, Retrieved 12.20.2012.
[10] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecological_footprint, Retrieved 12.12. 2012.
[11] http://www.sustainablescale.org/conceptualframework/understandingscale/measuringscale/ecologicalfootprint.aspx, Retrieved 12.12.2012.
[12] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peak_oil, Retrieved 12.26.2012.
[13] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_depletion, Retrieved 12.26.2012.
[14] GHore. A. (1993). Earth in the balance. New York: A Plume Book.
[15] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrying_capacity, Retrieved 12.12.2012.
[16] http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.TFRT.IN, Retrieved 12. 12.2012.

Chapter 6

[1] Courtois, St. et al. (1999). Black communism. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press.
[2] Reish, R.B. (2007). Supercapitalizm, the transformation of business, democracy, every day life. New York: Vinatage Books.
[3] Burnharm, J. (1941). Managerial revolution. Bloomington, IN.: Indiana University Press.
[4] Maddison, A. (2001). The world economy: a millennial perspective. Paris: Development Centre Studies, OECD.
[5] Targowski, A. (2009). Information technology and societal development. Hershey-New York: IGI Global. p. 388.
[6] Fukuyama, F. (1992). The end of history and the Last Man. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Chapter 7

[1] Sakura, S. (2010). Endless comfort. Digital Magna, Inc.
[2] Drucker, P. (1954). The practice of the management. New York: Harper & Brothers.
[3] Robins, R. (1999). Global problems and the culture of capitalism. Web: Allyn and Bacon.
[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lee_Raymond, Retrieved 12.30.2012.
[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rex_Tillerson, Retrieved 12.30.2012.
[6] http://www.globalissues.org/article/236/creating-the-consumer, Retrieved 12.30.2012.
[7] http://www.brillig.com/debt_clock/, Retrieved 12.30.2012.
[8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_public_debt, Retrieved 12. 30.2012.
[9] http://www.google.com/publicdata, Retrieved 12.30.2012.


Chapter 8

[1] Mumford, L. (1934). Technics and civilization. Harcourt Brace & Company.
[2] McGaughey, W. (2000). Five epochs of civilizations. Minneapolis, MN.: Thistlerose Publications.
[3] Targowski, A. (2009). Information technology and societal development. Hershey-New York: IGI Global, p.84.
[4] Spence, M. & S. Hlatshwayo. (2011). The evolving structure of the American economy and the employment challenge. Council on Foreign Relations.
[5] http://www.nam.org/Statistics-And-Data/Facts-About-Manufacturing/Landing.aspx. Retrieved 12.31.2012.
[6] Friedman, Th. & M. Mandelbaum. (2012). That used to be US. How America fell behind in the world it invented and how we can come back. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
[7] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_labour_force, Retrieved 12.31.2012.
[8] http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_percent_of_the_US_population_are_college_graduates, Retrieved 12.31.2012.
[9] http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/empsit.pdf. Retrieved 12.31.2012.
[10] Friedman, Th. (2005). The world is flat. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
[11] Kurzweil, R. (2005). The singularity is near. New York: Penguin Books.
[12] http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2048299,00.html, Retrieved 12.31.2012.
[13] Asimov, I. (1950). I robot. New York: Gnom Press.
[14] Kurzweil, R. (1999). The age of spiritual machine. When computers exceed human intelligence. New York: Penguin Books-Viking Adult.
[15] Targowski, A. (2009). Op.cit. p. 254.
[16] Targowski, A. & V. Modrák. (2011). Targowski and I.V. Modrak. „Is Advance Automation Consistent with Sustainable Economic Growth in Developed World?” Communications in Computer and Information Science Series, Springer, 2011, vol. 221.
[17] The 2013 Newsletter. The International Society for the Comparative Study of Civilizations.
[18] Postman, N. (1992). Technopoly, surrender of culture to technology. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
[19] http://www.guardian, Retrieved 1.12.2013.
[20] "What is internet censorship?". Amnesty International Australia. 28 March 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2011.
[21] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_censorship_in_the_People's_Republic_of_China, Retrieved 1.10.2013.
[22] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pirate_Party_Germany. Retrieved 1.12.2013.
[23] Arterton, F.Ch. (1987). Teledemocracy, can technology protect democracy? Newburry Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Chapter 9

[1] Christian, D. (2004). Maps of time. Berkley, CA.: University of California Press.
[2] Gore, A. (1992). Earth in the balance. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
[3] Fagan, B. (2004). The long summer, how climate changed civilization. Cambridge, MA.: Basic Books.
[4] Prentence et al., Chapter 3: The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Executive Summary, in IPCC TAR WG1 2001.
[5] www.ipcc.ch/Retrieved 1.2.2013.
[6] Miller, P. (2012). “Weather gone wild.” National Geographic, September, 2012, p. 48.
[7] http://www.nrdc.org/globalWarming, Retrieved 12.1.2013.
[8] Barret, P. (2012). “It’s global warming, stupid.” Bloomberg Business Week, November 5-11, p.6-7.
[9] Owen, D. (2011). The conundrum. New York: Riverhead Books.
[10] McKibben, B.(2007). Deep economy. Oxford, U.K.: A Oneworld Book.

Chapter 10

[1] Targowski, A. (2009). Information technology and societal development. Hershey-New York: IGI Global.p. 15.
[2] Huntington, S. (1996). The clash of civilizations. Remaking of world order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
[3] Huntington, S. (1999). Keynote address on Cultures in the 21st century: Conflicts and Convergences. http://coloradocollege.edu/Academics/ Anniversary/Transcripts/HuntingtonTXT.htm, Retrieved 1.3.2013.
[4] Horn, S. (1998). Cyberville: clicks, culture, and the creation of an online town. New York: Warner Books.
[5] Rheingold, H. (1993). A slice of life in my virtual community. In Harasim, L. M. (ed.) Global networks: computers and international communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 57-80.
[6] Jones, S., (ed.) 1997: Virtual culture: identity & communication in cybersociety. London: Sage Publications.
[7] Carey, J. W. (1989). Communication as culture. Boston: Unwin & Hyman.

Chapter 11

[1] The Brundtland Commission at the UN defined sustainable development as “meeting the present needs without adversely affecting the ability of future generations to meet their needs.” The discussion of sustainability follows three criteria: economic vitality, environmental responsibility and social responsibility.
[2] Debreu, G. (1991). “The Mathematization of Economic Theory.” The American Economic Review. Vol.1, No.1. pp. 1-7.
[3] http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wassily_Leontief. Retrieved 1.4.2013.
[4] Coase, R. (1994). Esseys on economics and economists. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
[5] The failure of economists to account for complexity. The testimony of David Colander for the Congress of the United States, House Science and Technology Committee, for hearings on “The risk of Financial Markets Modeling and the Economic Meltdown”. September 10, 2009.
[6] Friedman, M. (2002). Milton Friedman on economics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
[7] Blaug, M. (2002). Economic theory in retrospect. Cambridge, UK.: The Cambridge University Press.
[8] The source is the former student of this course, Agnieszka Couderq, the author's daughter.
[9] Solow, R. (1956). “A Contribution to the theory of economic growth.” Quarterly Journal of Economics (The MIT Press), 70 (1): 65–94.
[10] Stiglitz, J. & H. Uzawa. (1969). Readings in the modern theory of economic growth. Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press.
[11] Meadows, D. et al. (1972). The limits to growth. Washington, D.C.: A POTOMAC ASSOCIATES BOOK.

Chapter 12

[1] Targowski, A. (2009). Information technology and societal development. Hershey-New York: IGI Global.
[2] Targowski, A. (2011). Information technology and wisdom development. Hershey-New York: IGI Global.
[3] Targowski, A. (2012). “Spirituality 2.0. a condition for a Wise Civilization.” Dialog and Universalism. Vol. XXII, no. 2.
[4] The model of the triple bottom line of sustainable development was adopted by the UN.
[5] Zakaria, F. (2013). “Can America be fixed?” Foreign Affairs, January-February, p. 32-33.

Chapter 13

[1] Wilson, E. O. (2012). The Social conquest of Earth. New York: Liveright Publishing Corporation.
[2] Gore, Al. (2013). The Future, six drivers of global change. New York: Random House.


This book is written in a style of the New York Times best-selling books, which means is written for a general reader engaged in the current issue of his/her existence living in the declining Western civilization.

You have not viewed any product yet.