The Inventions and Discoveries of the World’s Most Famous Scientists

Michael F. Shaughnessy
Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, New Mexico, USA

Manuel Varela
Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, New Mexico, USA

Series: Distinguished Men and Women of Science, Medicine and the Arts
BISAC: SOC050000

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Who were those famous men and women of science who gave us so much? What were they like? What motivated them and what led them to their amazing discoveries? This book takes us on an amazing journey through the hearts, minds and souls of so many scientists, inventors and scholars who have given civilization so much over the centuries.
Many of these scientists had an idea. They had some sort of insight or inspiration when they observed the world about them and decided to make it better. They had humankind in mind, and they set about their work to improve the human condition. They decided to invent. They decided to explore. They decided to investigate and reveal some of nature’s deepest and darkest secrets to humankind.
Some of these scientists had to overcome gargantuan obstacles to reach the pinnacle of their craft and success. Some had to work endlessly to develop their insights. Some worked with visible elements, while others delved into realms that cannot be seen by the naked eye. Many of these scientists were recognized by their peers and traveled to Gamla Stan in Stockholm, Sweden to receive the highest of honors, the Nobel Prize in their field. Some of these scientists’ names are forever etched in our memories; Gregor Mendel, Marie Curie, and others will always be noted and recognized for their foundational work, which has given humankind so much. Other scientists and their discoveries have laid the foundation for future work in the realms of medicine and other domains.
This book takes us on a journey so that we can learn more about the lives and passions of the most famous scientists from the past and present. Their foibles, their strengths and their passions will be revealed and discovered in this text, just as their discoveries have opened the doors for their followers and students that they have mentored over the years.
We can learn much from the lives of these famous scientists; not just about their studies, but the way in which they conducted their lives and from the contributions that they gave to others, their countries and to society at large.
We are about to undergo an adventure. An adventure into the minds of the world’s most famous scientists and inventors; we will be guided by Dr. Manuel Varela who will share his own knowledge and past encounters with some contemporary scientists, as well as some stories that make their famous people more human and caring, and more than just a formula.
We must acknowledge several people in this endeavor, including Ann Varela, Dr. Ken Craddock and other anonymous reviewers. Furthermore, we have to thank Jimmy Kilpatrick of EducationViews as many of these interviews appeared first in that online journal. And now, the journey begins: A journey not just of interest, but of hope. Hope for a better future for all humankind via the discoveries and the inventions of the world’s greatest scientists.

Preface

Chapter 1. Francesco Redi (pp. 1-4)

Chapter 2. Anton van Leuwenhoek (pp. 5-8)

Chapter 3. Robert Hooke (pp. 9-10)

Chapter 4. Antoine Lavoisier (pp. 11-18)

Chapter 5. Edward Jenner (pp. 19-24)

Chapter 6. Ignaz Semmelweis (pp. 25-32)

Chapter 7. Gregor Mendel (pp. 33-44)

Chapter 8. Louis Pasteur (pp. 45-54)

Chapter 9. Joseph Lister (pp. 55-62)

Chapter 10. Robert Koch (pp. 63-72)

Chapter 11. Walter Reed (pp. 73-80)

Chapter 12. Richard Julius Petri (pp. 81-84)

Chapter 13. Christian Gram (pp. 85-88)

Chapter 14. Theodor Escherich (pp. 89-94)

Chapter 15. Marie Curie (pp. 95-100)

Chapter 16. Eduard Buchner (pp. 101-106)

Chapter 17. Alexandre Yersin (pp. 107-114)

Chapter 18. Frederick Griffith (pp. 115-122)

Chapter 19. Alexander Fleming (pp. 123-132)

Chapter 20. Otto Warburg (pp. 133-140)

Chapter 21. Carl and Gerty Cori (pp. 141-148)

Chapter 22. Howard Florey, Ernst Chain, and Norman Heatley (pp. 149-156)

Chapter 23. Fritz Lipmann (pp. 157-166)

Chapter 24. Hans Krebs (pp. 167-174)

Chapter 25. Linus Pauling (pp. 175-182)

Chapter 26. Jacques Monod, Andre Lwoff, and Francois Jacob (pp. 183-192)

Chapter 27. Albert Sabin (pp. 193-198)

Chapter 28. Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase (pp. 199-206)

Chapter 29. Jonas Salk (pp. 207-216)

Chapter 30. Francis Crick, James Watson, Rosalind Franklin (pp. 217-232)

Chapter 31. Peter Mitchell (pp. 233-240)

Chapter 32. Frederick Sanger (pp. 241-250)

Chapter 33. Rosalyn Yalow (pp. 251)

Chapter 34. Har Gobind Khorana (pp. 261-268)

Chapter 35. Carl Woese (pp. 269-274)

Chapter 36. Sidney Altman (pp. 275-282)

Chapter 37. Thomas Steitz (pp. 283-288)

Chapter 38. Kary Banks Mullis (pp. 289-296)

References (pp. 297-302)

About the Authors (pp. 303-304)

Index (pp. 305)

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