The Influence of Ecosystem Services Towards Human Wellbeing

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Hasmah Abdullah, PhD (Editor) – Associate Professor, University Lecturer, School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Rapeah Suppian (Editor) – Associate Professor, University Lecturer, School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia

Series: Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology

BISAC: TEC010000

Ecosystem services provide benefits to humans, including provisioning services (food, water, timber, fibre and genetic resources), regulating services (regulation of climate, floods, diseases and water quality), cultural services (recreational, aesthetic and spiritual), and support services (soil formation, pollination and nutrient cycling). Promoting the concept of ecosystem services reveals the potential of its contribution to environmental wellbeing for conservation and sustainability. Humans, as users of the provided services, benefit from ecosystem services, fostering dependency on nature. The use of ecosystem services may lead to unintended environmental consequences throughout the supply chain. Hence, this book will focus on the services provided for human wellbeing and a multilayer association with human problems worldwide when supply chains are disturbed.

Carbon emissions from city areas are responsible for 75% of world carbon dioxide emissions, making them a significant contributor to climate change. Urban populations are early responders to the impacts of climate change. In addition, ecosystem services are influenced by human activities. Domestic and industrial water pollution has led to the contamination of drinking water in many parts of the world. Waste management, such as solid waste management and biomedical waste management, is considered crucial for balancing ecosystem services as a consequence of human activities. In addition, air pollution has become part of ecosystem service disturbance, as it has become a worldwide problem and a major threat to the surrounding environment and human health. The major sources of air pollutants are mobile sources and stationary and transboundary emissions. Human activities, such as mining and exploration, have brought naturally occurring radioactive elements, such as gamma rays, which are present at relatively low concentrations in many geologic formations and earth materials, to the surface and have become a threat to human health. Among others, loud noise exposure in occupational settings has been found to be hazardous to hearing organs.

Environmental stressors that lead to ecosystem changes have been shown to trigger noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. The emergence and re-emergence of vector-borne diseases, such as Zika, Dengue and Malaria, are rapidly influenced by changes in ecosystem services. Many studies have been conducted to develop effective vaccines to combat such diseases. New drugs have been developed from natural resources with the aim of combating drug resistance, enhancing efficacy and reducing toxicity. In addition, a health education programme (HEP) is also being developed to improve the quality of life of patients. A broad spectrum of research is reported in this book covering environmental monitoring, modelling, molecular research, natural product discovery and health education programmes, showing the importance of support from ecosystem services that must be preserved for future wellbeing.

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Preface

Chapter 1. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Biomedical Waste Management among Laboratory Technologists of Selected Departments in the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia
(Nur Fatihah R., Nurulilyana S., Nurkhairina Syahirah S. and Raja Nur Shafieza R.M. – School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia)

Chapter 2. Knowledge, Awareness and Practice of Climate Change among Communities in Kuala Lumpur
(M. F. Naimah and A. R. Haliza – Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia)

Chapter 3. Knowledge, Attitude and Practise of Zika Disease among Environmental and Occupational Health Students at Public Universities in Malaysia
(Nur Shaherah A. R. and Haliza A. R – Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, et al.)

Chapter 4. Changes in Particulate Matter Concentrations Due to Vehicular Emissions and Their Influence on Urban Air Quality in Kelantan
(Nur Khairina Syahirah S., Nurulilyana S., Raja Nur Shafieza R. M. and Nur Fatihah R. – School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia)

Chapter 5. Detection of Heavy Metals in Wastewater Discharge from Industrial, Agricultural and Domestic Household Areas Around Kota Bharu, Kelantan
(M. S. Nurasmat, M. S. Nur Fatien, A. R. Nur Izzah Azira, M. S. Norshahidatul Akmar, W. A. Wan Nazwanie, A. Nor Hakimin and A. H. Zamani – School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, et al.)

Chapter 6. Effect of Absorption of Terrestrial Gamma Radiation to the Body Organs in the Environment of Michika Area North-Eastern Nigeria
(H. T. Gabdo, B. Y. Idi2 and I. A. Inuwa – Department of Physics, Federal College of Education Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria, et al.)

Chapter 7. Effects of Active Smoking and Second-Hand Smoke Exposure at Home among Adults in the Rural Area of Kampung Beris Lalang, Bachok, Kelantan, Malaysia
(Widad F., Nur Fakhira Aida J. and Hasmah A. – School of Health Sciences, Health Campus Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, et al.)

Chapter 8. A Preliminary Study of Depression, Anxiety, Stress and Its Factors among Firefighters in Malaysia
(Ainul Husna K., Khairilmizal S. and Najaatun Nisa AR. – Institute of Medical Science Technology, UniKL, A1-1, Jalan TKS 1, Taman Kajang Sentral, Selangor, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia, et al.)

Chapter 9. Composting Using Different Types of Organic Waste from Selected Cafeterias in Universiti Sains Malaysia Health Campus and Its Effect on Ipomoea Aquatica Growth
(R. M. Raja Nur Shafieza, S. Nurulilyana, F. Widad, R. Nur Fatihah and S. Nurkhairina Syahirah – School of Health Science, Health Campus Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia)

Chapter 10. In Silico Modelling of the Core Catalytic Site of Chitin Deacetylase from Aspergillus luchuensis
(A. Nor Amy Haryatin, Y. Ragheed Hussam, M. T. Fatahiya and A. K. Nurul Bahiyah – Malaysia Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia, et al.)

Chapter 11. Effect of pH on the Stability of Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Expressing MSP-1C from Plasmodium falciparum
(Z. Nor Munirah, S. N. Abdul Aiman Hakim, M. A. Abbas and S. Rapeah – School of Health Sciences, Health Campus Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia)

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