The GUT Microbiome: New Understanding and Potential Translational Applications for Disease Management

David A. Johnson, MD (Editor)
Department of Internal Medicine, Chief, Division of Gastroenterology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, US

Series: Microbiology Research Advances
BISAC: SCI045000

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Volume 10

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is home to trillions of microorganisms and contains more genetic information than that which exists in the human genome. It is, in fact, the largest immune system in the body. Study of the GI tract microbiome and its influence on both health and disease states have demonstrated the importance in maintaining health. The microbiome has a significant role in the assembly of micronutrients and vitamins and immune system processing. Recently, there has been a focus on the cross-talk between gut immunity and the host microbiome and the subsequent effect of this interaction on a broad range of diseases.

The application of next-generation sequencing technologies to the study of human-associated microbial communities has markedly advanced our understanding of these effects. Changes in human-associated microbial communities have been implicated in the etiology and increased incidence of ever growing chronic conditions including obesity, diabetes, and inflammatory bowel disease. Although recognizably understanding the full spectrum of the role of the “gut microbiome” in health and disease is still in a relative infant states, it is clear that our bacterial flora play a much larger role in systemic diseases than previously appreciated. Healthcare for disease management has typically focused on specific therapy with pharmacologic, device or surgical intervention. As we further expand our understanding of the importance of gut microbiome, it is certain that we will see major changes to disease management strategies.

Presently, we can see “footprints” of specific bacterial shifts in healthy ones versus those with a disease. Whether shifting the bacteria colonization away from the perceived imbalance in disease, will modify the disease expression remains to be seen. Clearly in the next decade, we will see profound changes in the way we approach current disease intervention/prevention. The intent of the authors of this book is to provide the most current assessment and analysis of what will likely in the coming decade to be the most exciting expansion in a new understanding of complex relationships of disease pathophysiology as well as therapeutic options for therapy. Additionally, it is the intent not to provide specific answers, but rather hopefully push clinicians to “think outside of the box” and raise great questions to direct research and/or translational therapies for redefining and optimizing “best practice” treatment strategies for our patients!
(Imprint: Nova Biomedical)

Preface

Introduction

Chapter 1
Intestinal Microflora and the Gut-Brain Axis
(Parth J. Parekh, Sanjay K. Sikka, Luis A. Balart, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, United States)

Chapter 2
Dietary Influence of the Gut Microbiome: Potential Hazards and Benefits
(Edward Yang, David A. Johnson, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX, United States, and others)

Chapter 3
Manipulation of the Gut Microbiome: Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Antibiotics
(Edward C. Oldfield, Jennifer L. Copare, Rouzbeh Shams, Edward Yang, David A. Johnson, Department of Internal Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, United States, and others)

Chapter 4
Gut Microflora and Potential Role in Food Allergy
(Vishant Ramadorai, Edward Yang, David A. Johnson, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia Medical Center, Charlottesville, VA, United States, and others)

Chapter 5
Role of Gut Microflora in Obesity
(Parth J. Parekh, Amrit Lamba, Justin Miller, Luis A. Balart, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, United States)

Chapter 6
The Influence of the Gut Microbiome on the Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
(Edward C. Oldfield IV, Ray Z. Dong, David A. Johnson, Department of Internal Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, United States, and others)

Chapter 7
Role of Gut Microflora in Alcoholic Liver Disease
(Parth J. Parekh, Luis A. Balart, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, United States)

Chapter 8
The Gut Microbiota and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
(Eamonn M M Quigley, Chief, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Professor of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, David M Underwood Chair of Medicine in Digestive Disorders, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, United States)

Chapter 9
Gut Microbiome and Its Role in the Pathogenesis of Cancer
(Jennifer Copare, Edward C. Oldfield IV, Edward Yang, Vipul R Nayi, David A. Johnson, Department of Internal Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, United States, and others)

Chapter 10
Role of Fecal Microbiota in Treatment of Clostridium Difficele
(Olga C. Aroniadis, Lawrence J. Brandt, Division of Gastroenterology, Albert Einistein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center
Bronx, NY, United States)

Chapter 11
The Emerging Understanding of the Microbiome and Its Potential Manipulation in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
(Sarah R. Goeppinger, David T. Rubin, and Stacy A. Kahn, The University of Chicago Medicine Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, Chicago, IL, United States)

Chapter 12
Gut Microflora and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: Biologic and Physiologic Links in Pathogenesis
(Parth J. Parekh, Sanjay K. Sikka, Luis A. Balart, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, United States)

Chapter 13
The Gastrointestinal Microbiome and Future Applications of Fecal Microbiota Transfer (FMT): Beyond Clostridium Difficile Infection
(Benjamin H. Levy, Jennifer Copare, Sophia Cenac, David T. Rubin, David A. Johnson, Gastroenterology Division Mount Sinai Hospital Chicago, IL, United States, and others)

Chapter 14
Effect of Sleep Dysfunction and Gut Microbiota Interactions
(Rouzbeh Shams, Edward C. Oldfield IV, Jennifer Copare, James C. Ware, Larry D.Sanford, David A.Johnson, Department of Internal Medicine Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, United States, and others)

Chapter 15
Gut Microflora in Health and Disease: Identification and Measurement Assessment
(Rouzbeh Shams, Jennifer Copare, Edward C. Oldfield IV, and Larry D.Sanford, Department of Internal Medicine Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, United States, and others)

Index

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