The Essential Guide to Vitamin D

Jana Andělová (Editor)

Series: Biochemistry Research Trends
BISAC: SCI007000

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Volume 10

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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The Essential Guide to Vitamin D first discusses vitamin D receptor, a member of the superfamily of nuclear steroid/thyroid hormone receptors that can be found in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. It acts mainly as a ligand-dependent DNA-binding transcriptional factor mediating the actions of the biological active form of vitamin D (VD), the metabolite 1α,25[OH]2D3.

Vitamin D has a complex role in the human body. Beside the classical effects in bone mineralization, a significant amount of data regarding the role of this vitamin in cell differentiation, defense mechanism, allergy, inflammation, metabolism and hormonal regulation continue to accumulate. As such, the relevance of these effects for lung disorders is under investigation.

Vitamin D is a hormone with pleiotropic effects; it controls calcium homeostasis, immune response, and hemodynamic wall stress. In the last decade, numerous studies have focused on the role of vitamin D levels in cardiovascular disease. In particular, it has been shown that insufficient Vitamin D levels are frequently observed among patients with cardiovascular disease.

Additionally, calcitriol, which is also called 1, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, is involved in several physiological processes maintaining balanced bone turnover and a healthy bone microenvironment. The beneficial effects of vitamin D on bone biomechanical features are not exclusively attributable to the reduction in non-mineralized bone matrix, but to the osteocyte number and their connectivity, too.

Studies have reported that Vitamin D is essential for recovery of hospitalized patients as they are at increased risk of developing/worsening vitamin D deficiency due to lack of availability of sources of the vitamin. Various cognitive disorders have also been associated with hypovitaminosis D.

Vitamin D has also been proposed as a risk-modifying factor for many chronic diseases, including multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia, cognitive issues, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, psoriasis, and other autoimmune diseases.
Vitamin D deficiency is the main cause of osteoporosis and osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children. The low serum of this vitamin is common in patients suffering from cardiovascular, autoimmune, cancer, psoriasis, depression and atherosclerosis disorder. The highly sensitive nature of vitamin D to environmental factors including light, heat, and oxygen, as well as hydrophobicity and acid labile nature, are the major drawbacks that need to be addressed for development of an efficient formulation for vitamin D.
(Imprint: Nova)

Preface

Chapter 1. The Vitamin D Receptor (VDR)
(Ilias D. Iliopoulos MD, Sotiria Kotsela MD, Angelos Kaspiris MD, PhD, Efstathios Chronopoulos, MD, PhD, Olga D. Savvidou, MD, PhD, Elias Vasiliadis, MD, PhD, Elias Panagiotopoulos, MD, PhD, Orthopaedic Department, “Rion” University Hospital and Medical School, School of Health Sciences, University of Patras, Greece, and others)

Chapter 2. The Role of Vitamin D Deficiency in the Pathogenesis of Lung Diseases
(Marina Ruxandra Oțelea, MD, PhD, Clinical Department, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Carol Davila, Bucharest, Romania)

Chapter 3. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Diseases
(Francesca Longoa, MD, Giulia Grillia, MD, Laura Padoanb, MD, Daniela Santona, PhD, Gianfranco Sinagraa, MD, Antonio Paolo Beltramic, MD, PhD, and Aneta Aleksovaa, MD, Cardiovascular Department, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria di Trieste and Department of Medical Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy, Sport and Exercise Medicine Division, Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy, and Department of Medical and Biological Sciences, University of Udine, Udine, Italy

Chapter 4. Implication of Vitamin D Deficiency in Altered Osseous Remodeling and Development of Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome
(Angelos Kaspiris MD, PhD, Ilias D. Iliopoulos MD, Efstathios Chronopoulos, MD, PhD, Olga D. Savvidou, MD, PhD, Elias Vasiliadis, MD, PhD, Sotiria Kotsela MD, and Elias Panagiotopoulos, MD, PhD, Division for Bone Research, Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, School of Health Sciences, University of Patras, Greece, and others)

Chapter 5. The Role of Vitamin D in Critically Ill Mechanically Ventilated Patients
(Sonu Yadav, Dalim Kumar Baidya, and Mrinal K Mondal, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi)

Chapter 6. Vitamin D: A D-Lightful Solution for Neonates (Newer Perspectives on an Older Theme)
(Bharti Yadav MD, Jogender Kuma, and Jaivinder Yadav MD, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences; Jodhpur (Rajasthan), India, and Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research; Chandigarh, India)

Chapter 7. Lipid Based Drug Delivery Systems for Vitamin D
(Rahul Gupta, Vandana Soni, and Prem N. Gupta, Formulation & Drug Delivery Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu, India, and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. Harisingh Gour Central University, Sagar, India)

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