The Essential Guide to Alkaloids


Deepak Kumar Semwal, PhD – Assistant Professor, Department of Phytochemistry, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Uttarakhand Ayurved University, Dehradun, India

Series: Chemistry Research and Applications
BISAC: SCI013040; MED071000; HEA011000
DOI: 10.52305/KXUM3530

Target Audience

This book will be useful for postgraduate students for their basic understanding of alkaloids. Since some of the chapters are based on recent developments in the field of alkaloids, hence this would be helpful for researchers working in the related areas.


This book is based on general information about alkaloids, their applications, and the chemistry of some natural and synthetic alkaloids. The contents are divided into a total of nine chapters contributed by different subject experts. The first chapter describes introductory knowledge and pharmaceutical perspectives of alkaloids. This section reports the different classification methods of alkaloids for better understanding. In addition, various extraction methods and pharmaceutical applications of alkaloids are also included in this chapter. The second chapter is based on chemical aspects and therapeutic uses of tropane alkaloids. This section covers structural variations, pharmaceutical uses and biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids.

Different uses of alkaloids in traditional medicine are described in the third chapter, which is based on scientific and historical evidence. The fourth chapter discusses alkaloids of the genus Solanum such as solamargine, solasonine, tomatidine and kukoamines. Catharanthus roseus, a well-known alkaloid-rich herb is covered in the fifth chapter with its key alkaloids like vinblastine and vincristine. The sixth chapter examines a bromopyrrole alkaloid namely stevensine which is naturally found in marine sponges. The seventh chapter focused on alkaloids derived from the Tinospora cordifolia, their structure and function and biosynthesis. Theophylline, a dimethylxanthine alkaloid with therapeutical properties is covered in the eighth chapter. This chapter also describes the applications of theophylline as a bronchodilator, immunomodulator and antiviral which make it an interesting candidate against coronaviruses. In addition to their medicinal properties, alkaloids are also useful as pesticides to protect plants from different pathogens and pests. These applications are included in the ninth chapter with the main emphasis on their unique properties such as being safer for the environment, easily degradable and low toxicity as compared to synthetic pesticides.

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Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Alkaloids: Introductory Knowledge and Pharmaceutical Perspectives
Ravindra Semwal1, Ankit Kumar1, Sunil Kumar Joshi2 and Deepak Kumar Semwal3
Research and Development Centre, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Uttarakhand Ayurved University, Harrawala, Dehradun, India
2Uttarakhand Ayurved University, Harrawala, Dehradun, India
3Department of Phytochemistry, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Uttarakhand Ayurved University, Harrawala, Dehradun, India

Chapter 2. Tropane Alkaloids: Chemical Aspects and Recent Therapeutic Developments
Silky Sethy1, Neha Minocha2 and Rohini Agrawal3
SGT College of Pharmacy, SGT University, Gurugram, Haryana, India
2School of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Himachal Pradesh, India
3College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Technical Education, Noida, India

Chapter 3. The Use of Alkaloids in Traditional Medicine
Rajiv Kumar1,2, Shri Krishna Khandel3 and Babita Aryal4
University of Delhi, New Delhi, India
2Depatment of Chemistry, NIET, National Institute of Medical Science, India
3Clinical Diagnosis and Investigation (Rognidan), National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur, India
4Biological Chemistry Lab, Central Department of Chemistry, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal

Chapter 4. Alkaloids from the Solanum Genus: An Overview
Marcos Venicius Nunes1, Célio Fernando Figueiredo Angolini1 and Ana Paula Aparecida Pereira2
1Center for Natural and Human Sciences, Federal University of ABC, Santo Andre, SP, Brasil
2Faculty of Nutrition, Federal Unuversity of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, MT, Brasil

Chapter 5. Catharanthus roseus L. (Apocynaceae): An Alkaloid-Rich Herb with Diverse Pharmacological Activities
Arjun Pandian1, Raju Ramasubbu2, Kaliyaperumal Ashokkumar3 and Ruchi Badoni Semwal4
Division of Research and Innovation, Department of Biotechnology, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Thandalam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2Department of Biology, The Gandhigram Rural Institute (Deemed to be University), Gandhigram, Dindugal, Tamil Nadu, India
3School of Agriculture and Animal Sciences, The Gandhigram Rural Institute (Deemed to be University), Gandhigram, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, India
4VSKC Government Postgraduate College, Dakpathar, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

Chapter 6. Stevensine: A Bromopyrrole Alkaloid from Marine Sponges
Ankit Kumar1,2, Rekha Jethi3, Ravindra Semwal1, Ganesh Kumar2 and Deepak Kumar Semwal4
Research and Development Centre, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Uttarakhand Ayurved University, Dehradun, India
2College of Pharmacy, Shivalik campus, Dehradun, India
3Patanjali Research Institute, Patanjali Yogpeeth, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India
4Department of Phytochemistry, Faculty of Biomedical Science, Uttarakhand Ayurved University, Dehradun, India

Chapter 7. Bioactive Alkaloids from Tinospora cordifolia
Neetika Sharma and Debabrata Sircar
Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, India

Chapter 8. Theophylline: A Bioactive Dimethylxanthine Alkaloid
Santwana Palai1, Subhash Chandra2,3 Neetu Pandey 2, Rajbeer Singh2
Department of Veterinary Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Odisha, India
2Department of Applied Chemistry and Basic Science, Sardar Bhagwan Singh University Balawala Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Sciences, Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University (A Central University), Uttarakhand, India

Chapter 9. Alkaloids as Botanical Pesticides for Plants Protection
Himani Karakoti, Sonu Kumar Mahawer, Tanuja Kabdal, Ravendra Kumar and Om Prakash
Department of Chemistry, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, Uttarakhand, India

Recognition For Reviewers


Editor’s ORCID iD

Deepak Kumar Semwal0000-0003-3105-0759

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