The Earth and Atmospheric Electricity

Vladimir Shuleikin
Chief Researcher of the Oil and Gas Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

Series: Earth Sciences in the 21st Century
BISAC: SCI042000

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Volume 10

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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According to the provisions of the surface atmospheric electricity theory, the space charge of the surface air layer owes its origin to ionization by exhaling soil radon. According to field observations, a model representation of relations between hydrogen, methane, radon, and surface atmospheric electricity elements is composed. Bubbles of two volatile gases carry soil radon from a depth of 4-6 m to the near-surface atmosphere. As a consequence, light ions produced by ionization determine polar conductivity of the surface air; light ion aggregation with neutral condensation nuclei produces heavy ions primarily responsible for the atmospheric electric field. This means that the surface atmospheric electricity is determined by local geology and geodynamics.

According to the field observations, the radon content in the surface soil layers is at least two orders of magnitude higher than the concentration of ionizer exhalation. A change in the soil radon content of a single percent will lead to a twofold change in the exhalation concentration, i.e., to a twofold change in the polar conductivities and the atmospheric electric field. This means that the surface atmospheric electricity elements will be extremely sensitive to variations in the subvertical carrier gas (hydrogen and methane) flow density.

The results of multiple field observations prove the correctness of the above assumptions. The increased soil-atmosphere air exchange above fault zones, the basement top settling area, and the zones of natural or human-made soil loosening leads to an abrupt decrease in the atmospheric electric field and an increase in the polar air conductivity. An increase in the sub-vertical flow density of hydrogen above the ore body cap or methane in the oil field plume inevitably leads to low values of the atmospheric electric field within the deposit boundaries. The effect can be increased by the presence of natural or human-made seismic excitation in geological environments.

The industrial level withdrawal of artesian waters is accompanied by a multiple increase in the atmospheric electric field above the area of hydrogeological processes; methane injection into the underground gas storage, industrial disposal of industrial wastewater leads to the opposite effect, i.e., a decrease of the atmospheric electric field. Taking into account the model constructed, complex measurements of surface atmospheric electricity elements—hydrogen and radon—allow for an indirect expression estimate of the soil methane content above the level of (10-6 – 10-5) vol.% and monitoring of the landslide stressed state.

Preface

Introduction

Acknowledgment

Chapter 1. Atmospheric Electricity, Radon, Hydrogen, Methane: Hardware, Technique, Metrology

Chapter 2. Testing of Relations Between Hydrogen, Methane, Radon, and Surface Atmospheric Electricity Elements. Microseism and Hydrogeological Influence on the Soil-to-Atmosphere Air Exchange

Chapter 3. Results of Atmospheric-Electrical Measurements Above Geological Heterogeneities

Chapter 4. Complex Hydrogen-Radon and Atmospheric-Electrical Monitoring Of The Landslide Stressed State

About the Author

Conclusion

Keywords: Atmospheric electric field, polar conductivities of the air, hydrogen, methane, radon, ionization, soil-to-atmosphere air transfer, proximity monitoring, geodynamic processes, faults, ore bodies, oil and gas fields

The book is intended for applied geophysicists monitoring of ore bodies, fault zones, oil and gas deposits and dynamics of their development, hydrogeological processes, or landslide stressed state from the ground surface. Monitoring of accidental oil and oil product spill zones and dynamics of their cleansing measures. Monitoring of the geological environment stability for dams and reactor rooms of nuclear power plants.
The book is of interest for students in physics, in the course of the atmospheric electricity. Modern educational courses on the atmospheric electricity only consider meteorological effects on changes in electrical characteristics of the surface air layer. Data shown in this book enhances understanding of the physical origin of this phenomenon. In stable meteorological conditions, changes in electrical characteristics of the surface air layer will be given exclusively by geological and geodynamic features of the environment.

“The monograph by V. Shuleikin is the first book in the world which proves the Earth's origin of the near-surface atmospheric electricity basing on the extensive experimental data.” - Alexey V. Nikolaev, Corresponding Member, Russian Academy of Sciences

"The Earth and Atmospheric Electricity monograph provides analysis of the 30-year filed observation results and illustrates the opportunity of using the atmospheric-electric monitoring for addressing tasks of applied geophysics. Experimentally established relationships between hydrogen, methane, radon, polar conductivities, and atmospheric electric field prove the Earth's origin of the near-surface atmospheric electricity." - Georgy G. Shchukin

"For the first time in the world practice, the book The Earth and Atmospheric Electricity considers relationships between gas fields of subsurface layers of the lithosphere and the space charge of the near-surface air. The results of great applied value for mapping of faults, ore bodies, and surface dynamic process monitoring, especially for the benefit of the oil and gas industry, were obtained." - Iosif L. Gufeld

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