The Diversified Benefits of Cocoa and Chocolate

Bonifacia Zayas Espinal (Editor)

Series: Food Science and Technology
BISAC: TEC012000

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Volume 10

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Volume 2

Volume 3

Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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The Diversified Benefits of Cocoa and Chocolate presents the different available methodologies for analysis, quantification, isolation, purification, and structure elucidation of polyphenols in cocoa and cocoa-derived products are reviewed. Taking into account that there is evidence that demonstrates that the bioactivity of flavanols is significantly influenced by their stereochemical configuration, enantioselective methods have also been included such as chiral capillary electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic chromatography and ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The authors state that about forty million people die annually as a consequence of noncommunicable diseases accounting for approximately 70% of all death globally.

Therefore, the current research concerning the benefits of dark chocolate regarding noncommunicable diseases and the associated risk factors is examined. Following this, the authors introduce chocolate as a cocoa carrier of probiotics and bioactive whey protein hydrolysate. This research examined the influence of additional ingredients on the functional properties and rheology of the final product. Another study is included with the objective of exploring the potential of NIR usage for monitoring the cocoa powder and sugar mixtures composition. Based on the obtained results, NIRs analysis in combination with the PCA and the PLS has proved to be an adequate, fast and non-invasive method for the cocoa powder drink mix composition prediction. A separate study attempts to confirm the relationship between increased pollinator abundance and higher yields of cocoa pods at one locality in Costa Rica. While cocoa pollination can depend upon a diverse array of ceratopogonid midges, in this study, one species Forcipomyia youngii, dominated the samples. Research is included with the aim of assessing the proteins contents, digestibility, and amino acid profile of the milled cocoa bean husks from the roasted cocoa, and to propose it as an ingredient for PKU food formulations. The authors determine that Cocoa can be used as a raw material in products destined for special regimes, after verification of its microbiological safety. The final study examined and compared the content of total polyphenols, minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese), total dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber in in different chocolate products collected from the market.

Chapter 1. Analytical Methodologies for the Assessment of Polyphenols in Cocoa and Cocoa Products
(Lucía Molina-García, Eulogio José Llorent-Martínez, and María Luisa Fernández-de Córdova, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Jaén, Jaén, Spain)

Chapter 2. Dark Chocolate Intake and Noncommunicable Diseases
(Abbe Maleyki Mhd Jalil, School of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Kampus Gong Badak, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia)

Chapter 3. Chocolate as a Carrier for Cocoa's Functional Ingredients
(Maja Bulatoviæ, Danica Zariæ, Marica Rakin, Tanja Kruniæ, Ivana Lonèareviæ, and Biljana Pajin, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia, and others)

Chapter 4. Cocoa Powder Drink Mix: The Application of a Non-Invasive NIR Spectroscopy Technique for the Fast In-Line Determination of Mixture Composition
(Maja Benkoviæ, Davor Valinger, Tamara Jurina, Ana Jurinjak Tušek, and Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusuriæ, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia)

Chapter 5. A Technique to Increase Cocoa Pod Production by Enhancing Insect Pollination: Implications for Different Environments
(Allen M. Young and J. Robert Hunter, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, WI, USA)

Chapter 6. Analysing the Dependence between Cocoa Solids in Chocolate and the Content of Polyphenols, Minerals and Dietary Fiber
(Ivana Lonèareviæ, Biljana Pajin, Aleksandra Torbica, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Jovana Petroviæ, and Danica Zariæ, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia, and others)

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