The Dentate Gyrus: Structure, Functions and Health Implications

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Feng-Ru Tang, PhD, MD (Editor) – Singapore Nuclear Research and Safety Initiative, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Series: Neuroscience Research Progress
BISAC: MED057000
DOI: https://doi.org/10.52305/CGUL9251

The dentate gyrus (DG) is one of the most sensitive regions to various brain insults due to the occurrence of neurogenesis in its subgranular zone. Thus, it may serve as a brain sensor to radiation exposure, chemical and biological toxins, alcohol abuse, smoking, drug treatments, hormone imbalances, stress, pain, hypoxia, brain trauma, malnutrition and aging. DG is also involved in the pathogenesis of multiple neurological and neuropsychological disorders including intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and schizophrenia.

Over decades of research, our understanding regarding the function and physiology of the DG is ever-changing. While it is commonly believed that the dentate granule cells are primarily responsible for executing higher brain functions such as learning and memory, there is increasing evidence demonstrating that the glial cells, particularly microglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, are also involved in memory formation. Therefore, a book that systematically reviews DG structure, function and health implications is needed to update clinicians and researchers with state-of-the-art knowledge.

In the first three chapters of this book, the recent progresses in the study of DG development with relevant molecular mechanisms, the cytoarchitectonics of DG with laminar and sublaminar distribution of different types of neurons and glial cells, as well as afferent and efferent of the DG and their neurophysiological roles will be described respectively. In Chapters 4 and 5, DG as a brain sensor to radiation exposure, and pre- and post-natal radiation-induced DG damage and cognitive impairment will be reviewed accordingly. The involvement of DG in pathogenesis of neurological disorders including TLE and AD will be discussed in Chapters 6 and 7. Finally, in the last two chapters, i.e., Chapters 8 and 9, the roles of DG in the development of neuropsychological disorders including MDD, PTSD and schizophrenia will be presented.

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Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1. The Development of the Dentate Gyrus & the Relevant Molecular Mechanisms Involved
(Kimberly Ho Jen Ni – Singapore Nuclear Research and Safety Initiative, National University of Singapore, Singapore)

Chapter 2. Cytoarchitectonics of the Dentate Gyrus
(Feng Ru Tang – Radiation Physiology Lab, Singapore Nuclear Research and Safety Initiative, National University of Singapore, Singapore)

Chapter 3. Afferent and Efferent of the Dentate Gyrus and their Neurophysiological Roles
(Jie Hua Xu – Department of Human Anatomy and Histoembryology, Xi’an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases (Xi’an Jiaotong University), Ministry of Education, Xi’an, Shaanxi province, The People’s Republic of China)

Chapter 4. Dentate Gyrus as a Brain Sensor for Radiation Exposure
(Genevive Saw – Singapore Nuclear Research and Safety Initiative, National University of Singapore, Singapore)

Chapter 5. Pre- and Post-Natal Irradiation-Induced Neuropathology in the Dentate Gyrus
(Feng Ru Tang – Radiation Physiology Lab, Singapore Nuclear Research and Safety Initiative, National University of Singapore, Singapore)

Chapter 6. Neurogenesis in the Adult Dentate Gyrus and Epileptogenesis
(Qun Liu and Bo-Xu Ren – Medical School, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, People’s Republic of China)

Chapter 7. The Dentate Gyrus and Its Involvement in Alzheimer’s Disease
(Lee Rui Xue – Radiation Physiology, Singapore Nuclear Research and Safety Initiative, National University of Singapore, Singapore)

Chapter 8. Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus as an Emotional Regulator through Circuits Modification
(Alonso Martínez-Canabal, Grecia López-Oropeza, Jimena Arroyo-Perez and Pilar Durán – Cell biology department Faculty of Sciences, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico, et al.)

Chapter 9. Maturational Arrest of the Dentate Gyrus Granule Cell Layer in Schizophrenia
(Ayda Tavitian and Hyman M. Schipper – Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada)

Index

Additional information

Binding

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