The Cutoff Plan: How a Bold Engineering Plan Broke with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Policy and Saved the Mississippi Valley

Damon Manders
Contract Historian, Harvest, AL, USA

Series: Natural Disaster Research, Prediction and Mitigation
BISAC: TEC010000

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The Cutoff Plan is a story about the triumph of engineering in finding a solution to manage flooding on the greatest American river. For a century, men had tried to manage the Mississippi River to reduce flooding, but most engineering efforts had limited effect. When the Great Flood of 1927 revealed the insufficiency of these efforts, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers developed a plan to provide flood protection to the Mississippi Valley that relied mostly on the diversion of flood down side channels. This plan proved fatally flawed. Not only did it not use all possible solutions, it did not take property owners in the proposed floodways into account. Rammed through Congress by the political machinations of Chief of Engineers Maj. Gen. Edgar Jadwin, the plan was on the verge of failure as litigation halted its implementation, leaving the valley vulnerable to the next flood. Only when Col. Harley B. Ferguson presented a new plan for lowering floods through cutoffs (cutting across the meandering loops of the river) was the Mississippi River Commission able to reduce flooding by shortening and realigning the river. By going against the grain of accepted engineering theory, Ferguson was able to develop a plan that ultimately saved the Mississippi River project, preserved the reputation of the Corps, and protected the valley from potential destruction. (Imprint: Nova)

Preface

List of Figures

About the Author

Foreword and Author's Acknowledgments

Part One: The Mississippi River Project

Chapter 1. The Mississippi River Problem

Chapter 2. The Failure of the Levees

Chapter 3. The Jadwin Plan

Part Two: The Failure of Politics

Chapter 4. Faltering Steps

Chapter 5. Collapse of the Jadwin Plan

Part Three: The Troubleshooter

Chapter 6. Ferguson

Chapter 7. The Cutoff Plan

Part Four: The Cutoffs

Chapter 8. Experimental Dredging

Chapter 9. Proving the Cutoffs

Chapter 10. Eliminating a Floodway

Epilogue: End of the Cutoffs

Bibliography

Index

Primary Sources

§

Archival Sources

“Address of Brigadier General Harley B. Ferguson.” N.D. in the Harley Bascom Ferguson Papers (Collection 2970), Southern Historical Collection, Louis Round Wilson Special Collections Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Box 4, File 53 (UNC-SHC 4-53).
“Address of Brigadier General M.C. Tyler.” N.D. UNC-SHC 4-53.
“Address of General Lytle Brown.” N.D. UNC-SHC 4-53.
“Bonnet Carré Spillway.” N.P.: 2nd New Orleans District, [1950]. Mississippi River Commission Archives, Mississippi Valley Division, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, Mississippi (MRC Archives).
“Cost of Channel Improvement, Atchafalaya Basin.,” July 1, 1932 to Sept. 30, 1934. MRC Archives, File Cost of Program, 1932-34.
Ferguson, Col. Harley B. “Industrial Mobilization.” Lecture. Army War College, Washington Barracks, D.C., May 26, 1922. UNC-SHC 2-19.
_____. “How the Assistant Secretary of War Meets His Statutory Duties to Provide for Industrial Mobilization,” Lecture, War College, Dec. 17, 1926. UNC-SHC 2-21.
_____. “Industrial Mobilization.” Lecture, Naval War College, Newport, R.I. Apr. 8, 1927. UNC-SHC 2-21.
_____. “Industrial Mobilization: Resume of Statements of Colonel H.B. Ferguson, Office of the Assistant Secretary of War, before the sub-committee of the Senate Appropriations Committee conducting hearings on the Army Appropriations Bill, Apr. 19, 1922.” UNC-SHC 2-19.
_____. “Present Status of Plans of Industrial Preparation for War.” Lecture., UNC-SHC 2-22.
_____. “Remarks by General Harley B. Ferguson.” Industrial College. Jan. 22, 1938. National Defense University Library. https://digitalndulibrary.ndu.edu/cdm/ compoundobject/ collection/icafarchive/id/43706/rec/ 79#img_view_container, Feb. 27, 2016.
“Hearing Conducted by a Board of Engineers at the Peabody Hotel, Memphis, Tennessee, on November 30, 1938.” UNC-SHC 4-51.
“Highest Stage Mississippi River,” N.D. [1937]. UNC-SHC 3-44.
Individual Service Report., July 1, 1907-June 30, 1908. UNC-SHC 6-81.
“Information Bulletin of the Mississippi River Commission,” 1, 2-2, 1 (St. Louis: MRC, Oct.-Dec. 1927). MRC Archives.
Lackawanna Steel, Raising the Wreck of the United States Battleship Maine. Havana: Lackawanna Steel, 1912. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers History Office Archives, Humphreys Engineering Center, Va. (CEHO) Military Collection (MIL) II, 20-7.
“Leland Neck Cut-Off.” Aug. 10, 1934. MRC Archives, Cutoffs, Leland Neck Dike Break, 1933.
Minutes of the Board [of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors]. Jan. 1, 1929 to Dec. 31, 1931. National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland (NARA-CP) RG 77, Stack 370, Compartment 53, Row 12, Shelf 2 (77-370-53-12-2), Ent. 500 (NM 19), Box 3, Fldr. 26.
Mississippi River Commission. Minutes of the 198th Session. UNC-SHC 3-32.
News clipping, “President of Miss. River Commission,” Lake Providence Banner-Democrat, Fri., May 19, 1939. UNC-SHC 4-52.
Personal Report for February 1908. Mar. 2, 1908. WB Item 45. UNC-SHC 6-81.
“Remarks of Brigadier General Harley B. Ferguson, President Mississippi River Commission, before the meeting of the Mississippi Valley Flood Control Association, at New Orleans, La.” Dec. 16, 1938. UNC-SHC 4-51.
Speech. Ransdell, Joseph. “Flood Control on the Mississippi River,” National Rivers and Harbors Congress., Dec. 6, 1928. MRC Archives.
Speech. Schley, Maj. Gen. Julian. To Mississippi River Association. Nov. 22, 1937. UNC-SHC 4-47.
“Statement by Herbert Hoover, Secretary of Commerce, and Major General Edgar Jadwin, Chief of Engineers, on the future treatment of the Mississippi River”. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C. (NARA-DC) RG 77, Ent. 521A, Bx. 37.
“Statement by Hon. Dwight F. Davis,” Secretary of War, May 7, 1927 NARA RG 77, Ent. 521A, Bx. 37.
“Telegram from Congressman Will Whittington.” UNC-SHC 4-53.
Transcript. “Conference on Cut-offs Held by the Mississippi River Commission in the Office of the President in Vicksburg, Miss,” July 18, 1962. MRC Archives – Cutoffs – Transcript, MRC Conf. on Cutoffs July 1962.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Office of the Chief of Engineers. Special Orders 3. Jan. 31, 1928. UNC-SHC 2-22.
_____. Special Orders 118. May 11, 1928. UNC-SHC 2-22.
_____. Special Orders 167A, Oct. 1, 1918, and 280, Oct. 7, 1918. UNC-SHC 2-18.
_____. Special Orders No. 16. Mar. 1, 1932. MRC Archives.
_____. Special Orders 21. Mar. 7, 1938. UNC-SHC 4-48.

§

Congressional Reports

U.S. Congress. “Congress and Mississippi Flood Control.” Congressional Digest, (Feb. 1928), 41.
_____. Congressional Record. House. Part 1. Jan. 4, 1928. 70th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Congressional Record, Senate. Part 1. 70th Congress, 1st Session.
U.S. Congress. House. Amend the Act Entitled “An Act for the Control of Floods on the Mississippi River.” H.Rpt. 985. 74th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army, 1901, 1908-1912, 1918, 1926-1939.
_____. Annual Report of the Secretary of War, 1875, H.D. 1, Pt. 2. 44th Congress, 1st Session
_____. Annual Report of the Secretary of War, 1918, H.D. 1432. 65th Congress, 2d Session.
_____. Authorizations for Reservoirs, Levees, and Flood Walls for Flood Control. H.Rpt. 759. 77th Congress, 1st Session._____. Control of Floods in the Alluvial Valley of the Lower Mississippi River. H.D. 798. 71st Congress, 3rd Session.
_____. Estimate of Cost Examinations, Etc., of Streams Where Power Development Appears Feasible, H.D. 308. 69th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Final Report on Removing Wreck of Battleship ‘Maine’ from Havana Harbor, H.D. 480. 63d Congress, 2d Session.
_____. Flood Control on the Lower Mississippi River. H.D. 359. 77th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Flood Control in the Mississippi Valley. H.D. 90. 70th Congress, 1st Session._____. Flood Control in the Mississippi Valley. H.D. 1072. 70th Congress, 1st Session._____. Hearings before the Committee on Flood Control on H.R. 4668. 1932. 72nd Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Mississippi River between Cairo, Ill., and Baton Rouge, La. H.D. 509. 78th Congress, 2nd Session.
_____. Raising Wreck of Battleship ‘Maine,’ H.D. 96. 62d Congress, 2d Session.
_____. Relation of Forestry to the Control of Floods in the Mississippi Valley. H.D. 573. 70th Congress, 2nd Session.
_____. Report of the Mississippi River Commission. H. Ex. Doc. 58. 46th Congress, 2nd Session.
_____. Report on the Wreck of the Maine, H.D. 310. 62d Congress, 2d Session.
_____. Spillways on the Lower Mississippi River. H.D. 95. 70th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. St. Francis River, Ark. (Backwater Area), H.D. 430. 71st Congress, 2nd Session.
______. St. Francis River, Mo. And Ark. H.D. 159. 71st Congress, 2nd Session.
_____. Yazoo River, Miss., H.D. 198. 73rd Congress, 2nd Session.
U.S. Congress. House. Flood Control Committee. Control of Floods on the Mississippi River, Hearing, April 30 and May 1, 1936. 74th Congress, 2d Session.
_____. Flood Control. Hearings., House. Committee on Flood Control. 1932. 72nd Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Flood Control: Abstract of Hearings before the Committee on Flood Control, House of Representatives, on the Control of the Destructive Flood Waters of the United States. House, Flood Control Committee Document No. 18. 70th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Flood Control in the Mississippi Valley. Hearings, Apr. 1-13, 1935. 74th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Flood Control in the Mississippi Valley, Resolutions of the Waterway and Flood Control Association of the Mississippi Valley., Feb. 27, 1931. House, Flood Control Committee Doc. 3. 71st Congress, 3rd Session.
_____. Flood Control on the Mississippi River. Hearings. House, Committee on Flood Control, 1930. 71st Congress, 2nd Session._____. Flood Control on the Mississippi River. Hearings. House. Committee on Flood Control. Jan. 7-9, 1931. 71st Congress, 3rd Session.
_____. Flood Control on the Mississippi River. Hearings. House. Committee on Flood Control. Jan. 26, 1932. 72nd Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Flood-Control Plans and New Projects. Hearings, Apr. 21-May 14, 1941. House. Flood Control Committee. 77th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Flood-Control Works in the Alluvial Valley of the Mississippi River. House. Flood Control Committee Doc. 1. 74th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Kemper, James. Plan for Flood Control in the Mississippi Valley by Means of Lower Flood Levels through Outlets and Spillways below the Arkansas River. House Flood Control Committee Doc. 10. 70th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Morgan Engineering Company of Memphis, Flood Control: Report on Diversion of Mississippi River Flood Water through St. Francis Basin. House Flood Control Committee Doc. 25. 70th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Opinion of the Attorney General in Regard to Certain Provisions of the Mississippi Flood Control Act of May 15, 1928. Flood Control Committee Doc. 2. 71st Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Report on the Control of Floods of the Mississippi River by Means of Diversion Channels, House, Flood Control Committee, Doc. No. 3. 70th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Report on the Control of Floods of the Mississippi River by Means of Reservoirs, House Flood Control Committee Doc. No. 2. 70th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Report on Improvement of the Mississippi River for Navigation, House Flood Control Committee Doc. 6. 70th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Special Report of the Mississippi River Commission on Revision of Plans for Improvement of Navigation and Flood Control of the Mississippi River, House Flood Control Committee Doc. 1. 70th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Veto Message on H.R. 7449. H.D. 305. 74th Congress, 2d Session.
U.S. Congress. House. Rivers and Harbors Committee. National Hydraulic Laboratory, Hearings. 70th Congress, 1st Session.
U.S. Congress. Senate. To Amend the Flood Control Act of May 15, 1928. S.Rpt. 1662. 74th Congress, 2d Session.
_____. Authorizing the Construction of Certain Public Works on Rivers and Harbors for Flood Control. S.Rpt. 575. 77th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Raising the Wreck of the Battleship ‘Maine,’ S.D. 765. 61st Congress, 3d Session.
_____. Report on the Mississippi River Floods
. S.D. 1433. 55th Congress, 2nd Session.
_____. Reports in Reference to Inundations of the Mississippi River. S.D. 20. 32nd Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Savannah Harbor, S.D. 39. 71st Congress, 1st Session.
_____. The Swamp and Overflowed Lands in Louisiana
. S.D. 68. 31st Congress, 1st Session.
U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Commerce. Flood Control. Hearings. Jul. 15-3, 1941. Senate. Commerce Committee. 77th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Flood Control of the Mississippi River. Hearings. Feb. 9, 10, 11, and 24, 1928. 70th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Flood Control Work in Red River, Atchafalaya, and Bayou Bouef Levee District. Hearing. Feb. 5, 1934. 73rd Congress, 2nd Session.
_____. Nomination of Brig. Gen. Thomas H. Jackson and Maj. Earnest Graves as Members of the Mississippi River Commission. Hearings, Jan. 10-11, 1929. 70th Congress, 2nd Session.
_____. To Establish a National Hydraulic Laboratory, Hearing, Sept. 8, 1922. 67th Congress, 2nd Session.

§

Correspondence

Letter. Bickett, Gov. Thomas W. to Chief of Engineers., Aug. 1, 1917. NARA-DC RG 77, Entry 103, Box 2477, File/Item 101710/103 (77-103-2477-101710/103).
Letter. Black, Col. William M. To Chief of Engineers., Sept. 17, 23, 1910. UNC-SHC 1-4.
_____. Oct. 12, 1910. NARA-DC 77-103-1266-2-52736/426.
_____. To Ferguson, Capt. Harley B. Aug. 16, 1910. UNC-SHC 1-4.
_____. Jan. 21, Feb. 24, 1911. UNC-SHC 1-6.
_____. To Patrick, Col. Mason M., Mar. 29, 1911. UNC-SHC 1-7.
_____. To Secretary of War., Aug. 19, 1911. NARA-DC 77-103-1267C-29-52736/ unnumbered.
Letter. Blake, Rhea. To Bilbo, Sen. Theo G., Feb. 28, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-44.
Letter. Boardman, Charles S. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B., Mar. 20, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-45.
Letter. Brett, Maj. M.L. to Ferguson, Col. Harley B., Mar. 5, 1929. UNC-SHC 2-23.
Letter. Brown, Maj. Gen. Lytle. To Ferguson, Col. Harley B., May 3, 1932. USC-SHC 2-30.
_____. Aug. 23, 1932. UNC-SHC 3-31.
_____. Jul. 14, 1933. USC-SHC 3-35.
_____. To Percy, William. Dec. 5, 1929. MRC Archives.
Letter. Cavanaugh, Capt. J.B. Aug. 12, 1910. NARA-DC 77-103-1267B-26-52736/ unnumbered.
Letter. Cole, Charles F. To Attorney General., Nov. 7, 1929. MRC Archives.
Letter. Connor, Capt. William D. to Ferguson, Capt. Harley B., Jul. 31, 1905. UNC-SHC 1-2.
Letter. Cothran, Lt. Col. P.G. To Ferguson, Col. Harley B.. Nov. 27, 1918. UNC-SHC 2-18.
Letter. Davis, Capt. Milton A. To Connor, Capt. William D., UNC-SHC 1-2.
_____. To Ferguson, Capt. Harley B., Jul. 31, 1905. UNC-SHC 1-2.
Letter. Donlin M.M. To Markham, Maj. Gen. E.M., Feb. 28, 1935. CEHO Civil Works (CW) XVI Box 11, File 21, Estimated Requirements by Sen. Overton.
Letter. Ferguson, Harley B. Draft., Dec. 21, 1934. MRC Archives.
_____. Mar. 16, 1938. UNC-SHC 4-48.
_____. Ferguson, Col. Harley B. To Brown, Maj. Gen. Lytle. Aug. 19, 1932. UNC-SHC 3-31.
_____. To Fischer, June 18, 1928. UNC-SHC 2-22.
_____. To Hunt, Col. I.L. Dec. 22, 1928. UNC-SHC 2-22.
_____. To Jackson, Col. Thomas. Mar. 28, 1924. UNC-SHC 2-20.
_____. To Markham, Maj. Gen. E.M. Feb. 8, 1937. UHC-UNC 3-44.
_____. To Percy, William. Mar. 29, 1935. UNC-SHC 3-38.
_____. To Pharr, H.N.. Feb. 23, 1937. UHC-SHC 3-44.
_____. To Schley, Maj. Gen. Julian. Oct. 9, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-46.
_____. To Sibert, Maj. Gen. William L. Mar. 18, 1929. UNC-SHC 3-23.
_____. To Thompkins, Lt. Col. William F. Jan. 27, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-44.
_____. To Tyler, Brig. Gen. Max. Oct. 29, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-46.
_____. To Whittington, Rep. Will. Nov. 1, 1932. UNC-SHC 3-32.
_____. Feb. 5, 1935. CEHO, CW XVI-13-5, Development of Flood Control Program, 1929-1943.
_____. Unaddressed. Dec. 21, 1934. MRC Archives.
Letter. Good, James. To Attorney General., May 15, 1929. MRC Archives.
_____. Nov. 12, 1929. MRC Archives.
Letter. Hannum, Lt. Col. Warren T. to Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B., Jun. 18, 1932. USC-SHC 3-31.
Letter. Hawes, Sen. Henry. To Good, James., May 28, June 3, and June 18, 1929. MRC Archives.
Letter. Hoover, Herbert. To Secretary of War., Oct. 17, 1929. MRC Archives.
Letter Hurley Secretary of War. To Taylor, Cong., J. Will., Jul. 22, 1932. NARA-CP 77-370-48-5-7, Ent. 109, Box 876, File 6644.
Letter. Jackson, Brig. Gen. Thomas. To Columbian Carbon Co., Nov. 20, 1928. MRC Archives.
_____. To Ferguson, Col. Harley B., Mar. 13, 1924 UNC-SHC 2-20.
_____. To McGowan, N.O. of Palmer Corp, Nov. 20, 1928. MRC Archives.
Letter. Jacobs, Harry. To Colonel Deakyne, Nov. 3, 1930. UNC-SHC 2-25.
Letter. Jadwin, Maj. Gen. Edgar. To Potter, Col. Charles., Jun. 15, 1927. NARA RG 77, Ent. 521A, Bx. 37.
_____. To Secretary of Interior., Mar. 26, 1929. MRC Archives.
Letter. Johnson, Oscar. To Stephens, Sen. H.D., Aug. 18, 1932. NARA-CP 77-370-48-5-7, Ent. 109, Box 876, File 6644.
Letter. Jones, Col. Dewitt C. to Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B., Apr. 10, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-45.
Letter. Keady, William C. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B., Feb. 26, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-44.
Kingman, Col. John. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B., Mar. 3, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-45.
Letter, Long, Huey P. To Hoover, Herbert., May 20, 1929. MRC Archives.
Letter. Markham, Maj. Gen. E.M. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B., Aug. 22, 1934. USC-SHC 3-34.
Letter. Marston, Anson. To Ferguson, Harley B.m Mar. 5, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-45.
Letter. Masse, E.K. To Ferguson, Harley B., May 1, 1906. UNC-SHC 1-3.
Letter. Matthes, Gerald. To Frost, Mr. Meigs O., Mar. 6, 1937. MRC Archives.
_____. To Whittington, Rep. Will,. Jun. 11, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-45.
Letter. Mississippi County Levee District. To MRC., Nov. 17, 1928. MRC Archives.
Letter. Oakes, Lt. Jack to Ferguson, Lt. Harley B., Dec. 29, 1905. UNC-SHC 1-2.
Letter. Percy, William. To Brown, Maj. Gen. Lytle., Dec. 2, 1929. MRC Archives.
_____. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B., Mar. 26, 1935. UNC-SHC 3-38.
Pharr, H.N. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B., Feb. 20, 1937. UHC-UNC 3-44.
Letter. Pick, Capt. Lewis A. To Ferguson, Col. Harley B., Jun. 15, 1928. UNC-SHC 2-22.
_____. Dec. 10, 1930. MRC Archives.
Letter. Phillips, D.P. To Ferguson, Col. Harley B., June 7, 1928. UNC-SHC 2-22.
Letter. Potter, Col. Charles. To Ransdell, Joseph., Dec. 1, 1927. MRC Archives.
_____. To Whittington, Rep. Will., June 12, 1928. MRC Archives.
Letter. Ransdell, Joseph. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B. Feb. 21, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-44.
_____. To Good, James W., May 23, and June 1, 1929. MRC Archives.
_____. To Potter, Col. Charles., Nov. 24, 1927. MRC Archives.
Letter. Schley, Maj. Gen. Julian. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B., Oct. 28, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-46.
Letter. Schneider, F.H. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B., Feb. 16, 1935. UNC-SHC 3-38.
Letter, Schoenberger, George C. To Ransdell, Joseph., Aug. 28, 1928. MRC Archives.
Letter. Teal, Capt. William E. To Edwards, R.F., Feb. 29, 1928. MRC Archives.
Letter. Thompkins. Lt. Col. William F. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B., Mar. 9, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-45.
Letter. Turtle, J.E. to Ferguson, Capt. Harley B., Sept. 19, 1910. UNC-SHC 1-4.
Letter. Tyler, Brig. Gen. Max. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B., Feb. 26, 1937. UHC-SNC 3-44.
Letter. Vicksburg District Engineer. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B., Feb. 23, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-44.
Letter. Wallace, L., Engineering Council. To Hoover, Herbert., May 20, 1928. MRC Archives.
Letter. Warren, Lt. Col. J.G. To Chief of Engineers., Aug. 23, 1910. NARA-DC 77-1266-1-52736/310-311.
Letter. Weart, Maj. D.L. to Ferguson, Col. Harley B., Nov. 5, Dec. 14, 1929. USC-SHC 2-24.
_____. Feb. 11, 1930. USC-SHC 2-25.
Letter, Weeks, John W. To Dern, George., Mar. 19, 1935. CEHO, CW XVI-13-5, Development of Flood Control Program, 1929-1943.
Letter. Weston, Paul. To Ferguson, Col. Harley B., Mar. 25, 1931. UNC-SHC 2-26..
Letter. Whittington, Rep. Will. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B., Jan. 8, 1935. UNC-SHC 3-38.
_____. Feb. 1, 1935. CEHO, CW XVI-13-5, Development of Flood Control Program, 1929-1943.
_____. Aug. 21, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-46.
_____. To Jackson, Brig. Gen. Thomas., Jan. 11, 1930. MRC Archives.
_____. To Lee, Maj. John C.H., Aug. 24, 1929. MRC Archives.
Letter. Williams, C.S. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B. Mar. 19, 1936. CEHO, CW XVI-13-5, Development of Flood Control Program, 1929-1943.
_____. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B. Jun. 7, 1935. CEHO Personal Papers, Ferguson, H.B.
Letter. Wolfe, Dan T. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B., Mar. 3, 1935. UNC-SHC 3-38.
Memorandum. Acting Secretary of War. To Attorney General. May 15, 1930. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Baker, R.C., Aug. 3, 1934. MRC Archives, Greenville Bends Realignment and Boeuf Floodway, 1934.
Memorandum. Black, Maj. Gen. William M. To Adjutant General. Tank Service., Jan. 23, 1918. NARA-DC 77-103-2579-106313/11.
_____. Appointment of colonels of Engineers in the National Army. Jul. 28, 1917. NARA-DC 77-103-2549-104494/1.
_____. Assignment of officers of Heavy Tank Service. Feb. 13, 1918. NARA-DC 77-103-2580-106313/1782.
Memorandum. Board of Review. To Chief of Engineers. Preliminary Report of the Board of Review., Feb. 18, 1933. UNC-SHC 3-33.
Memorandum. Brown, Maj. Gen. Lytle. To Schulz, Col. Edward. Dec. 6, 1930. NARA-CP 77-370-48-5-7, Ent. 109, Box 464, Fldr. 7048.
_____. To MRC President, Revetment. Report of the President of the Miss. River Commission. May 7, 1932, June 1932. UNC-SHC 3-31.
_____. To President, MRC. Bank Revetment. Jun.11, 1932. UNC-SHC 3-31.
Memorandum. Burdick, Maj. R.D. To Clemens, George. Dec. 31, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-47.
Memorandum. Chief of Engineers. To President, MRC. Levee from Birds Point to New Madrid. Dec. 15, 1928. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Chisholm, Edward. To President Mississippi River Commission. Caving Banks Threatening Cut-offs. Nov. 24, 1924. MRC Archives, Caving Banks Threatening Cutoffs, 1924-1927.
Memorandum. Clemens, George. Opening Ashbrook Cut-off. Nov. 26, 1935. MRC Archives, Ashbrook Cutoff, 1935.
_____. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B. Dec. 8, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-47.

_____. Oct. 10, 1938. MRC Archives.
_____. Cost Data, Dec. 12, 1938. UNC-SHC 4-51.
_____. Dredges Barnard and Currituck. May 25, 1938. UNC-SHC 4-49.
_____. Report of the Lower Mississippi Valley Division Navigation Board. Nov. 29, 1938. UNC-SHC 4-51.
_____. Trip with Mississippi Valley Barge Line Officials. Oct. 10, 1938. UNC-SHC 4-50.
_____. Walnut Cut-off. Nov. 27, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-47.
_____. To President, MRC. Yucatan Bend Cut-Off. Jun. 10, 1932. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Committee on Gages and High Waters. To President, MRC. Report on Studies of Atchafalaya Floodway. Apr. 25, 1929. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Committee on Levees to President, MRC. Report on modification of Flood Control Plan. Dec. 7, 1929. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Connolly, Maj. Donald. To Chief of Engineers. Levee setback – Cairo to New Madrid. May 19, 1928. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Duffy, R.N. To Tyler, Brig. Gen. Max. N.D. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Elliott, Maj. D.O. To Carruth, Maj. J.H. Nov. 25, 1929. MRC Archives.
_____. To Memphis District Engineer. New Madrid Floodway fuse plug levee profiles. Jun. 13, 1931. MRC Archives.
_____. Reservoirs for elimination of floodways. Dec. 32, 1931. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Ferguson, Col. Harley B. Feb. 11, 1933. UNC-SHC 3-34.
_____. Dec. 21, 1934. UNC-SHC 3-27.
_____. Jun. 29, 1939. UNC-SHC 4-53.
_____. Atchafalaya Basin Dredging Program. Feb. 16, 1934. CEHO CW XVI, Box 14, File 10, Levee Dist., FWD.
_____. Caution A B C. Apr. 28, 1934. UNC-SHC 3-36.
_____. Closing Secondary Channels. Jul. 2, 1932. UNC-SHC 3-31.
_____. Cost of Mississippi River Cut-Offs. Jul. 1, 1932 to Sept. 30, 1934. MRC Archives.
_____. Cut-Offs. Jun. 3, 1932. UNC-SHC 3-31.
_____. Dredging. Jul. 12, 1932. UNC-SHC 3-31.
_____. Dredging. Dec. 7, 1932. UNC-SHC 3-32.
_____. Effective Dredging. Oct. 31, 1932. UNC-SHC 3-32.
_____. Erosion Above Cut-offs. Jun. 13, 1939. UNC-SHC 4-53.
_____. General. Dec. 7, 1932. UNC-SHC 3-32.
_____. Increased Velocity, etc. Feb. 5, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-44.
_____. Increasing the Flood Carrying Capacity of the Mississippi River from White River to Cairo. Oct. 30, 1937. MRC Archives.
_____. Main River. Apr. 28, 1932. USC-SHC 2-30.
_____. Memorandum of Conference, Washington, May 16th. May 22, 1923. UNC-SHC 4-58.
_____. Memorandum on Use of Gravel. Jun. 18, 1932. UNC-SHC 3-31.
_____. Morganza Floodway and Eudora Floodway. Feb. 11, 1935. UNC-SHC 3-38.
_____. Morganza Outlet Channel. Jan. 20, 1936. UNC-SHC 3-42.
_____. New Madrid Floodway. Dec. 4, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-47.
_____. Outlets. Nov. 4, 1932. UNC-SHC 3-32.
_____. Plan for Channel Realignment in Greenville Bends. Jul. 31, 1934. MRC Archives, Greenville Bends Realignment and Boeuf Floodway, 1934.
_____. Referring to Colonel Brown’s comments on the subject of dredging the Delaware River by the Dredge CHINOOK. Oct. 31, 1931. USC-SHC 2-29.
_____. Results of Conference of July 5, 1932 re Revetment and Channel Adjustments in Vicksburg District. Jul. 7, 1932. MRC Archives.
_____. Revetment. Jul. 2, 1932. UNC-SHC 3-31.
_____. Revetments. Jul. 9, 1932. UNC-SHC 3-31.
_____. Savannah Harbor. June 9, 1931. UNC-SHC 2-26.
_____. Slough Neck. Dec. 2, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-47.
_____. Subproject for stabilization of the main river above the Yucatan Cutoff. June 18, 1932. UNC-SHC 3-31.
_____. Valley Storage. Jan.11, 1933. UNC-SHC 3-34.
_____. To Board of Engineers for Rivers and Harbors. Control of Mississippi River Floods. Nov. 22, 1930. MRC Archives.
_____. Enlargement near Natchez. Dec. 8, 1930. UNC-SHC 2-25.
_____. Proposed Plan of Operations. Jan. 3, 1931. UNC-SHC 2-25.
_____. To Chief of Engineers. Allotment of funds. Jun. 17, 1932. UNC-SHC 3-31.
_____. Report of Mississippi River Commission on Cut-offs. Dec. 8, 1935. MRC Archives.
_____. Request for allotment of funds to Dredging. Jan. 6, 1938. UNC-SHC 4-48.
_____. Suggestions as to the present course of action on Mississippi River flood control plan. Jan. 18, 1938. UNC-SHC 3-48.
_____. To Clemens, George. Slough Neck Cutoff. Dec. 7, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-47.
_____. To Crawford, Lt. Col. R.W. Board on Southwest Pass. Apr. 22 and May 4, 1938. UNC-SHC 4-49.
_____. To Markham, Maj. Gen. E.M. Cut-off at Rodney Bend. Mar. 28, 1934. USC-SHC 3-34.
_____. To U.S. Adjutant General. Consideration for appointment. Mar. 14, 1929. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Flad, Edward. Suggested Alterations of the Special Report. Nov. 23, 1927. MRC Archives.
_____. To Members, Mississippi River Commission. Senate Commerce Committee Bill, S.3434. Mar. 13 and 14, 1928. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Hodges, Col. J.N. To Jackson, Brig. Gen. Thomas. Revision of Plans, Atchafalaya Basin. Oct. 13, 1931. CEHO CW XVI Box 11, File 13, MRCRP Rev. of Plans – Atchafalaya Basin, 13 Oct. 31.
Memorandum. Hoge, Maj. William M. To Division Engineer. Report on letter from Mr. H.N. Pharr. Mar. 15, 1935. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Holcomb, Maj. W.H. To Chief of Engineers. Land areas and values in Local Levee Districts. Dec. 31, 1927. MRC Archives
Memorandum. Jackson, Col. Thomas. Dredged Channel Below End of Atchafalaya River Levees. Jan. 18, 1932. CEHO CW XVI 11-9, Atchafalaya Basin.
_____. Memo Covering Office Organizations and Personnel. May 26, 1932. MRC Archives.
_____. To Chief of Engineers. Report of Mississippi River Commission on modification of Flood Control Plan. Dec. 8, 1929. MRC Archives.
_____. To district engineers. Report of the Mississippi Flood Control Board. Aug. 25, 1928. MRC Archives.
_____. To Donaldson, R.C. Jul. 14, 1928. MRC Archives.
_____. To Jadwin, Maj. Gen. Edgar. Abolishing the Northern District, Mississippi River Commission. Jul. 7, 1928. MRC Archives.
_____. Field Reorganization. Jul. 13, 1928. MRC Archives.
_____. Functions and Agencies of the Mississippi River Commission., July 27, 1928. MRC Archives.
_____. To MRC. Jul. 12, 1928. MRC Archives.
_____. Reorganization of Districts. Jul. 7, 1928. MRC Archives.
_____. To Teale, Capt. William E. Abolishing of Northern Levee District. Jul. 3, 1928. MRC Archives.
_____. Vicksburg District Engineer, Field Reorganization. Aug. 2, 1928. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Jadwin, Maj. Gen. Edgar. To Duffy, R.N. Jul. 17, 1929. MRC Archives.
_____. To Memphis DE, Hydraulic Laboratory. Nov. 25, 1929. CEHO General (GEN) 123-1-1.
_____. To Potter, Col. Charles. Revision of plans, etc. for Mississippi River Project. May 4, 1927. NARA RG 77, Ent. 521A, Bx. 37.
_____. Special Report on Flood Control and Navigation. Nov. 18, 1927. MRC Archives.
_____. To President, MRC. Establishment of Hydraulic Laboratory in the Alluvial Valley of the Mississippi. June 18, 1929. CEHO GEN 123-1-1.
_____. To Reinecke, Maj. Paul S. Jul 15, 1929. MRC Archives.
_____. To Schulz, Col. Edward. Nov. 18, 1927. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Knappen, T.T. to Memphis District Engineer. Drainage Report on Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway. Jul. 31, 1929. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Latimer, R.A. To Col. Jones. Dec. 9, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-47.
Memorandum. Lee, Maj. John C.H. Estimate of the Situation for High Water Levee Maintenance. 1929, Mar. 5, 1929. MRC Archives.
_____. To Chief of Engineers. Flood Control. Nov. 17, 1927. MRC Archives.
_____. Owner’s offers to waive flowage rights. Dec. 15, 1928. MRC Archives.
_____. Rights of Way for Boeuf Diversion levees. Nov. 18, 1928. MRC Archives.
_____. To President, MRC. High Water Situation. Apr. 10, 1929. MRC Archives.
_____. Number of inhabitants in Boeuf Diversion Floodway. May 2, 1929. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Loving, Lt. Col. J.J. To Ferguson, Col. Harley B. General Jackson’s Flood Control Report. Oct. 27, 1930. UNC-SHC 2-25.
Memorandum. Lyman, Maj. AKB. To Secretary of War. Transfers at Government expense. Oct. 22, 1929. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Markham, Maj. Gen. E.M. To President MRC. Newspaper Interviews. Apr. 29, 1936. UNC-SHC 3-42.
Memorandum. Matthes, Gerald. Report on Atchafalaya River. Dec. 12, 1940. CEHO CW XVI Atchafalaya, Box 11, File 3.
_____. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B., Nov. 4, 1936. UNC-SHC 3-43.
_____. 1938 versus 1937 conditions – Arkansas City to Natchez. Mar. 25, 1938. UNC-SHC 4-48.
_____. Closing Old Channels. Jun. 25, 1932. UNC-SHC 3-31.
_____. Floodway for Yazoo Delta. May 23, 1933. UNC-SHC 3-34.
_____. Morganza Floodway, Raccourci Diversion: Summary of Preliminary Computations. Nov. 27, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-47.
_____. Notes on operation of Morganza Floodway. Jan. 26, 1936. CEHO CW XIV-11-21 Estimate required by Sen. Overton.
_____. Yazoo River Report. Apr. 21, 1933. UNC-SHC 3-34.
_____. To Jones, Col. Hydraulics of Morganza Study. Aug. 28, 1927. UNC-SHC 3-46.
Memorandum. Mississippi River Commission. Mar. 20, 1939. MRC Archives, MRC Tech Files.
_____. To Chief of Engineers. Hearings of Special Flood Control Board. June 9, 1928. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Morris, G.A. Plan for Channel Realignment in Greenville Bends. Jul. 31, 1934. MRC Archives.
_____. Plans for Channel Realignment in Greenville Bends – Discussion of Methods of Computation and Design. Aug. 2, 1934. MRC Archives, Greenville Bends Realignment and Boeuf Floodway, 1934.
Memorandum. Oliver, Maj. Lunsford. To Chief of Engineers. Subproject for Bank Protection – Leland Cutoff. Aug. 2, 1934. MRC Archives, Greenville Bends Realignment and Boeuf Floodway, 1934.
Memorandum. Persons, D. Yucatan Bend Cut-off, Shift of Navigation to. Jan. 22, 1934. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Pharr, Harry N. To Jadwin, Maj. Gen. Edgar. Aug. 14, 1928. MRC Archives.
_____. To President, MRC. Estimate of the situation in the Lake Providence (La.) reach of the Mississippi River. Jun. 28, 1940. MRC Archives, MRC Tech Files.
Memorandum. Pillsbury, Brig. Gen. George. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B. Review of Flood Control Plan. Aug. 9, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-46.
Memorandum. Potter, Col. Charles. To Board of Three. Argument against higher levees. June 15, 1928. MRC Archives.
_____. [Cairo Gage]. June 15, 1928. MRC Archives.
_____. Tensas Basin Floodway. June 15, 1928. MRC Archives.
_____. To Chief of Engineers. Mississippi River Commission Special Report – November 28, 1927. Feb. 15, 1928. MRC Archives.
_____. Special Report dated November 29, 1927. Nov. 29, 1927. MRC Archives.
_____. To Members, Mississippi River Commission. Nov. 21, 1927. MRC Archives.
_____. Possible Changes in Special Report of Commission. Nov. 17, 1927. MRC Archives.
_____. Senate Commerce Committee Bill. Mar. 6, 1928. MRC Archives.
_____. To Schulz, Col. Edward. Flood Diversion. Jun. 22, 1927. NARA RG 77, Ent. 521A, Bx. 37.
Memorandum. Reinecke, Maj. Paul S. To President, MRC. Number of Inhabitants in Atchafalaya Diversion Waterway. Mar. 4, 1929. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Reybold, Lt. Col. Eugene. To President, MRC. Crevasse closures, Lower Fuse Plug Levee, Upper St. Francis Levee District. May 9, 1936. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Robins, Lt. Col. Thomas. To Jackson, Brig. Gen. Thomas. Reorganization of Engineer Department at Large. Oct. 7, 1929. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Schweizer, Charles W. Ashbrook Neck Cut-off. Nov. 22, 1935. MRC Archives, Ashbrook Cutoff, 1935.
_____. Diamond Point Cutoff. Jan. 9, 1933. MRC Archives.
_____. Leland Neck Break. Aug. 9, 1933. MRC Archives, Cutoffs, Leland Neck Dike Break, 1933.
_____. Morgan Crevasse. Jul. 20, 1935. UNC-SHC 3-41.
Memorandum. Senour, Charles. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B. Feb. 3, 1936. UNC-SHC 3-42.
Memorandum. Simmonds, Brig. Gen. George S. To 2d Army Adjutant General. Sept. 25, 1918. Nov. 27, 1918. UNC-SHC 2-18.
Memorandum. Smith, Austin B. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B. Vicksburg Engineer District Cutoff. Jun. 22, 1938. UNC-SHC 4-49.
Memorandum. Smyser, R.E. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B. Passes of the Mississippi River, Deepening Southwest Pass. May 3, 1938. UNC-SHC 4-49.
_____. To General Tyler. Hydrographic Data on the Passes, Mississippi River. Apr. 7, 1938. UNC-SHC 4-49.
Memorandum. Sumervall, Maj. Brenton. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B. Schedules of Operation, Bank Protection. Jun. 8, 1932. UNC-SHC 3-31.
Memorandum. Thomas, E.J. Atchafalaya Basin Floodway. Feb. 12, 1929. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Thompkins Lt. Col. William F. To President, MRC. Blasting Operations in Giles Cutoff. Aug. 27, 1936. UNC-SHC 3-42.
Memorandum. Todd A.M. To Chief of Engineers. Flood Control, Estimated Land Valuation. Dec. 28, 1927. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Tyler, Brig. Gen. M.C. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B. Effect of Morganza Floodway on Yazoo Backwater. Dec. 4, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-47.
Memorandum. Vogel, Lt. Herbert D. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B. Jul. 19, 1933. USC-SHC 3-35.
Memorandum. Wilby, Col. Francis. To Chief of Engineers. Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway, Plans for drainage intercepted by back levee. Aug. 13, 1929. MRC Archives.
_____. Engineering Report on proposed Birds Point-New Madrid floodway. Dec. 4, 1928. MRC Archives.
_____. To Division Engineer. Comments on plan proposed by H.N. Pharr. Dec. 4, 1929. MRC Archives.
Memorandum. Williamson, E.C. Estimate for Raising the City of Cairo. Sept. 26, 1927. MRC Archives.
Note. Dent, Col. Elliot J. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B. June. 2, 1932. UNC-SHC 3-31.
Note. Pharr, H.N. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B. Jan. 26, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-44.
Note. Schley, Maj. Gen. Julian. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B., Oct. 5, 1938. MRC Archives.
Note. Tyler, Brig. Gen. Max. To Fergie., Jun. 9, 1939. UNC-SHC 4-53.
Telegram, Ellzey, Russell. To White House. Jul. 29, 1933. MRC Archives.
Telegram. Hoover, Herbert. To Driver, W.J. Sept. 20, 1929. MRC Archives.
Telegram. Jackson, Col. Thomas. To Dick, W.H. July 12, 1928. MRC Archives.
Telegram. Markham, Maj. Gen. E.M. To Ferguson, Brig. Gen. Harley B. Mar. 11, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-45.

§

Court Decisions
Danforth vs. U.S., 308 U.S. 271, No. 309. S.C., 1939.Decree and Order of Injunction No. 335, 35 F. 2d. West Louisiana District Court. 1930.Hurley et al. vs. Kincaid, 35 F.2d 235, No. 457. S.C., 1932. Matthews vs. U.S., 113 F.2d 452, Nos. 11694-5. C.A. 8, 1940.Kirk vs. Good. 13 F. Supp. 1020, 349. Missouri District Court, 1929.U.S. vs. Col. Frank P. Stubbs, et al., No. 1809. West Louisiana District Court. 1929.

§

Executive Documents

Hoover, Herbert. The Memoirs of Herbert Hoover, Vol. 2, The Cabinet and the Presidency, 1920-1933. NY: Macmillan, 1952.

§

Interviews

Beidenhern, David S. by Manders, Damon., Apr. 18, 2016.
Fields, Brig. Gen. Kenneth E. By Suid, Larry. Engineer Memoirs, Unpublished., 1982. CEHO Oral History, Career Interview, Fields, Kenneth.
Hoge, Gen; William, M. In Robertson, Maj. Gen. George R. Engineer Memoirs: General William M. Hoge. Fort Belvoir: CEHO, 1993.
Kleiss, Barbara A. By Manders, Damon., Apr. 1, 2016.
Thompson, Brig Gen; Paul, W. by Strum, Thomas. Engineer Memoirs, Unpublished., Sept. 26, 1984. CEHO Oral History, Career Interview, Thompson, Paul.
Vogel, Herbert D. By Crawford, Charles., Jan. 9, 1970. Memphis State University. CEHO Oral History, Career Interview, Vogel, Herbert.
_____. By the Public Works Historical Society (PWHS) for the Historical Division, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers., Nov. 10-Dec. 1, 1976. CEHO Oral History, Career Interview, Vogel, Herbert.

§

Legislation

U.S. Congress. An Act to Amend an Act entitled “An Act for the control of floods on the Mississippi River and its tributaries and for other purposes,” approved May 15, 1928. PL 678. 74th Congress, 2d Session.
_____. An Act Providing for the raising of the united States battle ship Maine, in Habana Harbor, and to provide for the interment of the bodies therein. PL 169. 61st Congress, 2d Session._____. Flood Control Act of 1928. PL 70-391. 70th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Flood Control Act of 1938. PL 761. 75th Congress, 3rd Session._____. Flood Control Act of 1941. PL 228. 77th Congress, 1st Session.
_____. Flood Control Act of 1944. PL 534. 78th Congress, 2nd Session.
_____. Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899. 55th Congress, 2nd Session.
_____. Rivers and Harbors Act of 1927. PL 560. 69th Congress, 2d Session.

§

Manuscripts

Barnett, Michael. “Understanding the Waters: The United Stated Corps of Engineers and the Flood Control Act of 1928.,” Unpublished manuscript. MRC Office of History.
Kreps-Heyndrikx, Y; et al. “Inland navigation canals: development of their size and of bank protection in terms of the evolution of the types of craft.”
Manders, Damon. “The Bayou Builders: A History of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District, 1976-2000.” Unpublished manuscript. Huntsville, AL: AAMRU, 2002.
_____. “The River’s Plowman: Brig. Gen. Harley B. Ferguson,” Incomplete Draft. Unpublished manuscript. MRC 2013.
_____. Untitled Mississippi River and Tributaries History. Incomplete Draft. Unpublished manuscript. MRC Office of History.

§

Periodicals
American Heritage.
DeBow’s Review.
Engineering News-Record [ENR].
Hampton Magazine.
National Geographic Magazine.
Nature Conservancy.
New Orleans States.
New Orleans Times-Picayune.New York Times [NYT].
The Military Engineer [TME].
USMA Assembly.

§

Technical Reports

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Blake, Eric S; et al. The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones from 1851 to 2006 (and Other Frequently Requested Hurricane Facts). Miami: Fla.: National Hurricane Center, April 2007.
Camillo, Charles. History Brief. “Mississippi River & Tributaries Project: Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway.” Nov. 25, 2008. MRC Electronic Archives.Coast 2050: Toward a Sustainable Coastal Louisiana. Baton Rouge: Louisiana Department of Natural Resources, 1998.
Eads, James. “Physics and Hydraulics of the Mississippi River,” and “Minority Report.” McHenry, Estill. Ed. Addresses and Papers of James B. Eads. St. Louis: Slawson, 1884.
Flad, Edward. “Fixed Crest Weirs and Fully Controlled Spillways at the Head of Floodways.,” Sept. 1937. UNC-SHC 3-46.
_____. “Laboratory Tests on River Cut-Offs.” MRC Archives.
_____. “Operation of the Bonnet Carre Spillway During the 1937 Flood.” Dec. 1937. UNC-SHC 3-47.
_____. “Tentative Suggestions for Modification of the Flood Control Project.” MRC. Oct. 1937. UNC-SHC 3-46.
Ferguson, Brig Gen; Harley B. The 1937 Flood in the Lower Valley of the Mississippi River.,” Dec. 20, 1937. UNC-SHC 3-47.
_____. Mississippi River Data to Accompany Letter of General Ferguson to Gen. Max C. Tyler., Oct. 30, 1937. UNC-SHC 10-101.
Freeman, John R. Ed. Hydraulic Laboratory Practice. NY: ASME, 1929.
Gagliano, Sherwood. Hydrologic and Geologic Studies of Coastal Louisiana, Report No. 1: Geologic and Geomorphic Aspects of Deltaic Processes, Mississippi Delta System. Baton Rouge: LSU, 1970.
_____. Hydrologic and Geologic Studies of Coastal Louisiana, Report No. 9: Deterioration and Restoration of Coastal Wetlands. Baton Rouge: LSU, Sept. 1970.
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MRC. Comprehensive Reservoir Report, Mississippi River Basin. Vicksburg: MRC, Dec. 15, 1934.
_____. Flood Crest Relations For Stages Between 45 and 55 Feet at Cairo, Illinois, Revised. Mar. 19, 1939, MRC Archives.
_____. Proceedings of the Mississippi River Commission, 176th Session, April 19-29, 1927, St. Louis, MRC, 1927.
_____. Review Report on the Project for Flood Control and Improvement of the Mississippi River. Vicksburg: MRC, 1941.
_____. Special Report of the Mississippi River Commission on Revision of Plans for Improvement of Navigation and Flood Control of the Mississippi River. St. Louis: MRC, Sept. 28, 1927.
“Report of Board.” Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1928.
Thomas, EJ. “Flood of 1927.” MRC Tech Files, 2-2-23.
_____. “Laboratory Report on Tarpley Neck Cut-Off.” Jun. 5, 1931. MRC Archives.
Thompkins, Lt. Col. William F. “West Atchafalaya Drainage and Irrigation Study.” Nov. 12, 1938, CEHO CW XIV, Box 11, File 15.
Trotter, et al., “Floods on the Lower Mississippi: An Historical Economic Overview.” NOAA SDD, 8-9 (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA], Mar. 1, 1998) at www.srh.noaa.gov/topics/attach/html/ssd98-9.htm, Jan. 8, 2010.
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_____. Experiment to Determine the Effects of Various Cut-Offs in the Greenville Bends., Aug. 26, 1931. MRC Archives.
Williams, Gardner S. “The Mississippi River Problem.” Oct. 1930. MRC Archives, File 26, Drawer 1-2.
Winkley, BR. Man-made Cutoffs on the Lower Mississippi River, Conception, Construction, and River Response. Vicksburg: Vicksburg District, 1977.

§

Theses

A’Hearn, Francis W. “The Industrial College of the Armed Forces: Contextual Analysis of an Evolving Mission, 1924-1994.” Dissertation. Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 1997.
Wilson, Dale F. “The American Expeditionary Forces Tank Corps in World War I: From Creation to Combat.” Thesis. Temple University, 1988.

§

Web Pages

National Defense University Library Website. https://digitalndulibrary.ndu.edu/cdm/. Feb. 27, 2016.
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Audience: Engineers and engineering organizations – particularly hydraulic engineers and organizations or agencies focusing on public or civil works – would find the historical context of cutoffs helpful in weighing various flood control options. Among nonprofessionals, the book would appeal to anyone interested in the history of the Mississippi Valley, the Corps of Engineers, flood control, engineering, or technology.

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