The Copper Garden: New Zealand Novels

Luke Strongman
Independent Researcher, MRSNZ, Lower Hutt, New Zealand

Series: Fine Arts, Music and Literature
BISAC: LIT004070

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The Copper Garden: New Zealand Novels is a book of literary criticism and review about Aotearoa New Zealand fiction over the past one hundred fifty years. It focuses on those novels that have received attention – either with awards, prizes, or critique – and have been read to signify or perhaps even “embody” certain aspects of New Zealand character; these aspects include place, circumstance, manner, atmosphere, style, or literary historical relevance.

The Copper Garden: New Zealand Novels presents sixty-five vignettes of renowned or critically relevant novels, with the intention of introducing to the reader some of the thematical complexities and undercurrents of the authors’ works. The approach to the New Zealand novels is chronological, spanning the period of the late nineteenth to the early the twenty-first century. Through his analysis, Luke Strongman hopes to further the critical understanding and development of the Aotearoa New Zealand novel as an art form.

Introduction

Chapter 1. Samuel Butler’s Erewhon – 1872

Chapter 2. Julius Vogel’s Anno Domini 2000 or Woman’s Destiny – 1889

Chapter 3. William Satchell’s The Greenstone Door – 1914

Chapter 4. Jane Mander’s The Story of a New Zealand River – 1920

Chapter 5. Robin Hyde’s The Godwits Fly – 1937

Chapter 6. John Mulgan’s Man Alone – 1939

Chapter 7. Ngaio Marsh’s Died in the Wool – 1945

Chapter 8. Ian Cross’s The God Boy – 1958

Chapter 9. Barry Crump’s Hang on a Minute Mate – 1961

Chapter 10. Bill Pearson’s Coal Flat – 1963

Chapter 11. Ronald Hugh Morrieson’s Came a Hot Friday – 1964

Chapter 12. David Ballantyne’s Sydney Bridge Upside Down -- 1968

Chapter 13. Colin Gibson’s The Pepper Leaf – 1971

Chapter 14. Maurice Shadbolt’s Strangers and Journeys – 1972

Chapter 15. Ian Wedde’s Dick Seddon’s Great Dive – 1976

Chapter 16. M. K. Joseph’s The Time of Achamoth – 1978

Chapter 17. Maurice Gee’s Plumb – 1978

Chapter 18. Albert’s Wendt’s Leaves of the Banyan Tree – 1979

Chapter 19. Craig Harrison’s The Quiet Earth – 1982

Chapter 20. Sue McCauley’s Other Halves – 1982

Chapter 21. Peter Hooper’s People of the Long Water – 1985

Chapter 22. Janet Frame’s The Envoy from Mirror City – 1985

Chapter 23. Keri Hulme’s The Bone People – 1985

Chapter 24. Maurice Shadbolt’s Season of the Jew – 1986

Chapter 25. Fiona Kidman’s The Book of Secrets – 1987

Chapter 26. Patricia Grace’s Potiki – 1987

Chapter 27. Michael Jackson’s Rainshadow -- 1988

Chapter 28. Gregory O’Brien’s Diesel Mystic – 1989

Chapter 29. John Cranna’s Visitors – 1990

Chapter 30. Peter Wells’s Dangerous Desires – 1991

Chapter 31. Barbara Anderson’s Portrait of the Artist’s Wife – 1992

Chapter 32. Fiona Farrell’s The Skinny Louis Book – 1992

Chapter 33. Graham Billington’s The Chambered Nautilus -- 1993

Chapter 34. Damien Wilkins’s The Miserables – 1993

Chapter 35. Witi Ihimaera’s Bulibasha – 1994

Chapter 36. Kirsty Gunn’s Rain – 1994

Chapter 37. Jane Campion’s The Piano – 1994

Chapter 38. C. K. Stead’s The Singing Whakapapa – 1994

Chapter 39. Alan Duff’s What Becomes of the Broken Hearted – 1996

Chapter 40. Elizabeth Knox’s The Vintner’s Luck – 1998

Chapter 41. Maurice Gee’s Live Bodies -- 1998

Chapter 42. Kapka Kassabova’s Reconnaissance -- 1999

Chapter 43. Natasha Templeton’s Winter in the Summer Garden – 1999

Chapter 44. Sara Quigley’s After Robert – 1999

Chapter 45. Owen Marshall’s Harlequin Rex -- 1999

Chapter 46. Catherine Chidgey’s Golden Deeds -- 2000

Chapter 47. Vincent O’Sullivan’s Let the River Stand – 2001

Chapter 48. Charlotte Randall’s The Curative – 2001

Chapter 49. Lloyd Jones’s The Book of Fame – 2001

Chapter 50. Craig Marriner’s Stonedogs – 2001

Chapter 51. Stephanie Johnson’s The Shag Incident – 2002

Chapter 52. Annamarie Jagose’s Slow Water – 2003

Chapter 53. James George’s Hummingbird – 2004

Chapter 54. Chris Else’s On River Road -- 2004

Chapter 55. Maurice Gee’s Blindsight -- 2005

Chapter 56. Tim Corballis’s The Fossil Pits – 2005

Chapter 57. Emily Perkins’s Novel about My Wife – 2008

Chapter 58. Charlotte Grimshaw’s Opportunity – 2008

Chapter 59. Alison Wong’s As the Earth Turns Silver – 2010

Chapter 60. Laurence Fearnley’s The Hut Builder – 2010

Chapter 61. Patrick Evans’s Gifted – 2011

Chapter 62. Paula Morris’s Rangatira – 2011

Chapter 63. Hamish Clayton’s Wulf -- 2011

Chapter 64. Eleanor Catton’s The Luminaries – 2013

Chapter 65. Anna Smaill’s The Chimes -- 2015

Conclusion

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[2] Moore, C. (23 July 2003). ‘Judges stimulate battle of the books.’ The Press. Pg A5.
[3] Parrinder, P. (2005). Entering Dystopia, Entering Erewhon. Critical Surveys 17 (1): 13.
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[5] Butler, ibid., 85.
[6] Butler, ibid., 19.
[7] Butler, ibid., 20.
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[10] Butler, ibid., 159.
[11] Butler, ibid., 21.
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[13] Jedrzejewski, ibid., 42.
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[15] Parrinder, ibid., 9.
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[19] Brigg, P. (2001). Sir Julius Vogel’s Anno Domini 2000; or, Woman’s Destiny: On Mispredicting the Future. Extrapolation, 42 (4): 360.
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[21] Sussex, ibid., 162.
[22] Vogel, J. (1889/2000). Anno Domini 2000 or Woman’s Destiny. Introduction by Roger Robinson. London: Hutchinson and Co.: 33.
[23] Vogel, ibid., 89.
[24] Robinson, R. Introduction to Julius Vogel (1889/2000). Anno Domini 2000 or Woman’s Destiny. London: Hutchinson and Co.: 12.
[25] Robinson, ibid., 12-14.
[26] Stafford, J. and Williams, M. (2006). Mäoriland: Aotearoa New Zealand Literature. Wellington: Victoria University Press: 247.
[27] Satchell, W. (1914/1973). The Greenstone Door. Auckland: Golden Press: 66.
[28] Satchell, ibid., 58.
[29] Satchell, ibid., 27.
[30] Stafford and Williams, ibid., 227.
[31] Stafford and Williams, ibid., 227.
[32] Franke, N. P. (2015). Romantic Spectres in the Waikato Caves: William Satchell’s The Greenstone Door as a chronotopical intertext and a critique and affirmation of bourgeois modernity. Journal of New Zealand and Pacific Studies, 3 (1): 254.
[33] Franke, ibid., 40.
[34] Satchell, ibid., 12.
[35] Satchell, ibid., 71.
[36] Sandys, E. (2008). The Story of a New Zealand River. New Zealand Books Pukapuka Aotearoa. 18 (1): 7.
[37] Sandys, ibid., 7.
[38] Mander, J. (1920/1999). The Story of a New Zealand River. Auckland: Random House: 240.
[39] Atchison, E. (2014). ‘The Ideal Colonial Girl and Exiled Modern Woman in Jane Mander’s The Story of a New Zealand River.’ Women's Writing, 21(2): 229. doi:10.1080/09699082.2014.906724.
[40] Mander, ibid., 61.
[41] Mander, ibid., 10.
[42] Mander, ibid., 33.
[43] Mander, ibid., 33.
[44] Mander, ibid., 93.
[45] Atchison, ibid., 229.
[46] Mander, ibid., 181.
[47] Mander, ibid., 61.
[48] Jones, L. (1995). ‘Towards ‘Until the Walls Fall Down’: An Intended History of Aotearoa New Zealand Literature 1932-1963.’ The Journal of New Zealand Studies, 5 (1): 8.
[49] Hyde, R. (1938/2001). The Godwits Fly. Edited by Patrick Sandbrook. Auckland: Auckland University Press: Xxxiii.
[50] Sandbrook, ibid., backcover.
[51] Hyde, ibid., 32.
[52] Hyde, ibid., 33.
[53] Murray, S. (1998). Never a Soul Home: New Zealand Literary Nationalism and the 1930s. Wellington: Victoria University Press: 189.
[54] Towl, E. (2016). ‘This Imperfect Part of Truth’: The Godwits Fly, Childhood Memory and Fiction. Journal of New Zealand Studies, NS22, 19.
[55] Hyde, ibid., 68-69.
[56] Towl, ibid., 19.
[57] Towl, ibid., 22.
[58] Edmond-Paul, M. (2007). ‘Robin Hyde (Iris Wilkinson), 1906—1939.’ Kotare (1): 137.
[59] Edmond-Paul, ibid., 136.
[60] Hyde, ibid., 101.
[61] O’Sullivan, V. (2017). New Zealand Book Council. Writers Files: John Mulgan. Retrieved from http://www.bookcouncil.org.nz/writer/mulgan-John, Para. 3.
[62] Mulgan, J. (1939/1980). Man Alone. Auckland: Longman Paul Limited: 8.
[63] Mulgan, ibid., 25.
[64] Mulgan, ibid., 7.
[65] Mulgan, ibid., 10.
[66] Mulgan, ibid., 18.
[67] Mulgan, ibid., 35.
[68] Mulgan, ibid., 55.
[69] Mulgan, ibid., 124.
[70] Mulgan, ibid., 168.
[71] Mulgan, ibid., 169.
[72] Mulgan, ibid., 169.
[73] McNeill, D. (2012). Man Alone/Mulgan/Marxism. Journal of New Zealand Studies. NZ 13: 2.
[74] Marsh, N. (1945/1985). Died in the Wool. Glasgow: Collins: 13.
[75] Sisterton, C. (8 October 2015). Crime Watch. Retrieved from: http://kiwicrime.
blogspot.co.nz/2015/10/ten-tastes-of-dame-ngaio-marsh.html, 34.
[76] Sisterton, ibid., 34.
[77] Sisterton, ibid., 77.
[78] Sisterton, ibid., 131.
[79] Marsh, ibid., 13.
[80] Cross, I. (1958). The God Boy. London: Andre Deutsch Limited: 27.
[81] (2014, November 22). ‘Vintage Read: The God Boy.’ The Waikato Times. p. B4.
[82] Margie, T. (n.d). Ian Cross: The God Boy. New Zealand Herald.
[83] Cross, ibid., 33.
[84] Margie, ibid.
[85] Jones, L. ‘The Novel.’ In Terry Sturm (Edit.) (1998). The Oxford History of New Zealand Literature in English. (pp. 119-178). New York: Oxford University Press: 160.
[86] Jones, ibid., 166.
[87] Crump, ibid., 175.
[88] Sturm, T. ‘Popular Fiction’ In Terry Sturm (Edit.) (1998). The Oxford History of New Zealand Literature in English (pp. 493-544). Auckland: Oxford University Press: 530.
[89] Crump, ibid., 17.
[90] Crump, ibid., 26.
[91] Crump, ibid., 46.
[92] Crump, ibid., 56.
[93] Pearson, B. (1963). Coal Flat. Auckland: Paul’s Book Arcade: 205.
[94] Pearson, ibid., 147.
[95] King cited in Burke, C. (1983). ‘Turning the Inside Out: Pre-liberation literary Worlds in the Works of Frank Sargeson, James Courage and Bill Pearson.’ Journal of New Zealand Literature, 26: 98.
[96] Pearson, ibid., 24.
[97] Burke, ibid., 98.
[98] Burke, ibid., 279.
[99] Jones, L. (1995). ‘Towards ‘Until the Walls Fall Down.’ An Intended History of New Zealand Literature 1932-1963.’ Stout Centre Review, 5 (1): 9.
[100] Pearson, ibid., 326.
[101] Deverson, T. ‘The Language of Ronald Hugh Morrieson’ In Kaurie Bauer and Christine Franzen (Edit.) (1993). Of Pavlova, Poetry and Paradigms: Essays in Honour of Harry Orsman. (pp. 195-208). Wellington: Victoria University Press: 207.
[102] Deverson, ibid, 195.
[103] Schafer, W. J. (1998). Mapping the Godzone. A Primer on Aotearoa New Zealand Literature and Culture. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press: 137.
[104] Morrieson, R. H. (1964/2001). Came A Hot Friday. Auckland: Penguin Books: 142.
[105] Morrieson, ibid., 154.
[106] Morrieson, ibid., 78.
[107] Morrieson, ibid., 234.
[108] Craig, D. (2005). Taranaki Gothic and the Political Economy of Aotearoa New Zealand Narrative and Sensibility. New Zealand Sociology, 20 (5): 18.
[109] Craig, ibid., 19.
[110] Craig, ibid., 19.
[111] Morrieson, ibid, 52.
[112] Ballantyne, D. (2010). Sydney Bridge Upside Down. Introduction by Kate De Goldi. Melbourne: The Text Publishing Company: 2.
[113] Ballantyne, ibid., 6.
[114] De Goldi Introduction to Ballantyne, ibid., XII.
[115] Ballantyne, ibid., 88.
[116] Williamson, G. (13 February 2010). ‘Between Sanity and Disarray.’ The Australian. Retrieved from: http://www.theaustralian.com.au/arts/books/between-sanity-and-disarray/news-story/bd9a808130423b5732f55e8bc4eaceb0.
[117] De Goldi, Introduction to Ballantyne, ibid., IX.
[118] Ballantyne, ibid., 95.
[119] De Goldi, Introduction to Ballantyne, ibid., XI.
[120] Jones, L. (1998). The Novel. In The Oxford History of New Zealand Literature. Edited by Terry Sturm (pp. 119-244). Auckland: Oxford University Press: 222.
[121] Gibson, C. (1971). The Pepper Leaf: An Episode. London: Chatto & Windus: 23.
[122] Gibson, ibid., 59.
[123] Gibson, ibid., 25.
[124] Gibson, ibid., 25.
[125] Gibson, ibid., 25.
[126] Gibson, ibid., 59.
[127] Gibson, ibid., 121.
[128] Gibson, ibid., 121-122.
[129] Gibson, ibid., 226.
[130] Shadbolt, M. (1972/1990). Strangers and Journeys. Auckland: Hodder and Stoughton. 104.
[131] Shadbolt, ibid., 19.
[132] Shadbolt, ibid., 75.
[133] Shadbolt, ibid., 175.
[134] Shadbolt, ibid., 106.
[135] Shadbolt, ibid., 369.
[136] Shadbolt, ibid., 581.
[137] Shadbolt, ibid., 187.
[138] Simpson, P. (2005). Edited and Introduction. Nine New Zealand Novellas. Auckland: Reed Publishing: 11.
[139] Wedde, I. and McQueen, H. (Eds.). (1985). The Penguin Book of New Zealand Verse. Penguin: Auckland.
[140] Wedde, I. (1976). Dick Seddon’s Great Dive a Novel. Dunedin: John McIndoe Ltd: 162.
[141] Wedde, ibid., 119.
[142] Wedde, ibid., 132.
[143] Wedde, ibid., 144-145.
[144] Williams, M. (1990). Leaving the Highway. Auckland: Auckland University Press.
[145] Jackson, MacD. P. and Caffin, E. ‘Poetry 1945-90’. In Sturm, T. (Ed.) (1991). The Oxford History of Aotearoa New Zealand Literature. (pp. 335-448). Auckland: Oxford University Press.
[146] Wedde, ibid., 156.
[147] Wedde, ibid., 161.
[148] Wedde, ibid., 120.
[149] Wedde, ibid., 172.
[150] Wedde, ibid., 175.
[151] Jones, L. ‘The Novel’. In Sturm, T. (Ed.) (1991). The Oxford History of Aotearoa New Zealand Literaure. (pp. 105-102). Auckland: Oxford University Press: 195.
[152] Wedde, ibid., 186.
[153] Joseph, M. K. (1977). The Time of Achamoth. Auckland: Collins: 24.
[154] Jones, ibid., 224.
[155] Joseph, ibid., 1.
[156] Joseph, ibid., 116.
[157] Johnston, A. (3 July 1993). ‘Maurice Gee: Our Superb Storyteller.’ Evening Post. Retrieved from: http://andrewjohnston.org/gee.htm. Para. 5.
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[159] Alley, E., and Williams, M. (1992). Maurice Gee interviewed by Brian Boyd. In the Same Room. Conversations with New Zealand Writers. Auckland: Auckland University Press

: 164.


[160] Fox, A. (2008). The Ship of Dreams: Masculinity in Contemporary Pakeha and Māori Fiction of Aotearoa. New Zealand Dunedin: Otago University Press: 53.
[161] Jones, ibid., 187.
[162] Gee, M. (2000). Plumb. Auckland: Penguin Books: 1.
[163] Gee, ibid., 11.
[164] Gee, ibid., 9.
[165] Gee, ibid., 13.
[166] Gee, ibid., 15.
[167] Gee, ibid., 22.
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[169] James, ibid., 9.
[170] Gee, ibid., 53.
[171] Gee, ibid., 61.
[172] Gee, ibid., 135.
[173] Fox, ibid., 58.
[174] Gee, ibid., 67.
[175] Gee, ibid., 84.
[176] Gee, ibid., 108.
[177] Gee, ibid., 122.
[178] Gee, ibid., 160.
[179] Gee, ibid., 220.
[180] Gee, ibid., 247.
[181] Keown, M. (2002). ‘The Samoan Sisyphus: Camus and Colonialism in Albert Wendt’s Leaves of the Banyan Tree.’ Journal of Commonwealth Literature, 37 (1): 49.
[182] Najita, S. Y. (2010). ‘In the Shade of the Banyan Tree.’ The Contemporary Pacific, 22 (2): 350.
[183] Keown, ibid., 49.
[184] Alley, E. and Williams, M. (Eds.) (1992). ‘Albert Wendt Interviewed by Michael Neill.’ In In The Same Room. Conversations with New Zealand Writers. Auckland: Auckland University Press. 112.
[185] Wendt, ibid., 25.
[186] Wendt., ibid., 28.
[187] Keown, ibid., 50.
[188] Wendt, ibid., 47.
[189] Wendt, ibid., 196.
[190] Wendt, ibid., 189.
[191] Wendt, ibid., 281.
[192] Wendt, ibid., 134
[193] Wendt, ibid., 355.
[194] Najita, ibid., 360.
[195] Najita, ibid., 359.
[196] Harrison, C. (1981/2013). The Quiet Earth. Melbourne: The Text Publishing Company: 24.
[197] Beckett, B. (18 July 2013). ‘The Time is 6:12am: Reflecting on The Quiet Earth. The Listener.’ Retrieved from: http://www.noted.co.nz/archive/listener-nz-2013/ the-time-is-612am-reflecting-on-the-quiet-earth/para. 7.
[198] Harrison, ibid., 9.
[199] Harrison, ibid., 51-52.
[200] Harrieson, ibid., 81.
[201] Harrieson, ibid., 98.
[202] Harrieson, ibid., 95.
[203] Harrieson, ibid., 101.
[204] Harrieson, ibid., 112.
[205] Harrieson, ibid., 259.
[206] Harrieson, ibid., 242.
[207] McCauley, S. (1982). Other Halves. Auckland: Hodder and Stoughton Ltd: 6.
[208] McCauley, ibid., 28.
[209] Sowd, D. (1985). Other Halves. Library Journal,110 (11): 72.
[210] McCauley, ibid., 38.
[211] Jones, ibid., 196.
[212] Sowd, D. ibid., 72.
[213] McCauley, ibid., 72.
[214] Somerset, G. (24/11/2004). ‘Slipping Between the Covers.’ The Dominion Post. pB5.
[215] Simpson, P. (1983). ‘Recent Fiction and the Sargeson Tradition.’ Journal of New Zealand Literature, 1: 28.
[216] Conway, M., and Newth, K. (23 April 2000). ‘Author’s Love Story Defies the Critics.’ Sunday Star-Times. pA3.
[217] McCauley, ibid., 82.
[218] Hooper, ibid., 62.
[219] Hooper, ibid., 115.
[220] Hooper, ibid., 237.
[221] Frame, J. (1986). The Envoy From Mirror City. Auckland: Century Hutchinson: 102.
[222] Castle, T. (October 2005). ‘Gender Bending, Part 2.’ Books and Critics. The Atlantic Monthly, 119.
[223] Castle, ibid., 119.
[224] Frame, ibid., 4.
[225] Frame, ibid., 5.
[226] Frame, ibid., 7.
[227] Frame, ibid., 9.
[228] Frame, ibid., 14.
[229] Frame, ibid., 18.
[230] Cox, S. (15 September 1985). The Envoy From Mirror City (Book). Library Journal, 110 (15): 76.
[231] Frame, ibid., 18.
[232] Frame, ibid., 19.
[233] Frame, ibid., 19.
[234] Cox, ibid., 76.
[235] Frame, ibid., 26.
[236] Frame, ibid., 28.
[237] Frame, ibid., 30.
[238] Frame, ibid., 43.
[239] Frame, ibid., 44.
[240] Frame, ibid., 46.
[241] Frame, ibid., 46.
[242] Frame, ibid., 51.
[243] Frame, ibid., 56.
[244] Frame, ibid., 57.
[245] Frame, ibid., 58.
[246] Frame, ibid., 58.
[247] Castle, T. (2005). An Autobiography (To the Is-Land, An Angel at My Table, The Envoy From Mirror City). Atlantic, 296 (3): 119.
[248] Frame, ibid., 60.
[249] Frame, ibid., 64.
[250] Frame, ibid., 76.
[251] Frame, ibid., 85
[252] Frame, ibid., 87.
[253] Frame, ibid., 87.
[254] Frame, ibid., 109.
[255] Frame, ibid., 124.
[256] Evans, ibid., 97.
[257] Frame, ibid., 141.
[258] Frame, ibid., 126.
[259] Frame, ibid., 155.
[260] Frame, ibid., 160.
[261] Evans, ibid., 27.
[262] Stead, C. K. (1985). ‘Keri Hulme’s The Bone People and the Pegasus Award for Māori Literature.’ ARIEL: A Review of International English Literature, 16 (4): 103-104.
[263] Huggan, G. (1989). ‘Opting out of the (Critical) Common Market: Creolization and the Postcolonial Text.’ Kunapipi, 11 (1): 29.
[264] Hulme, K. (1994). The Bone People. London: Pan/Picador.
[265] Hulme, ibid., 31.
[266] Hulme ibid., 31.
[267] Hulme, ibid., 61-62.
[268] Fee, M. (1989). ‘Why C. K. Stead Didn’t Like Keri Hulme’s The Bone People: Who Can Write as Other?’ Australian and New Zealand Studies in Canada, 1: 12.
[269] Evans, 2000, ibid., 99.
[270] Hulme, ibid., 45.
[271] Neich, R. (1993). Painted Histories: Early Mäori Figurative Painting. Auckland: Auckland University Press.
[272] Hulme, ibid., 367.
[273] Hulme, ibid., 384.
[274] Hulme, ibid., 385.
[275] Arvidson, ibid., 123.
[276] Arvidson, ibid., 123.
[277] Jones, ibid., 234.
[278] Stafford, J. (1 June 2005). ‘Tickling history.’ Fiction. New Zealand Books Pukapuka Aotearoa. Retrieved from: https://nzbooks.org.nz/2005/literature/
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[279] Stafford, ibid., 13.
[280] Stafford, ibid., 12.
[281] Johnson, L. B; Fletcher, J.; Fialkoff, F.; and Hoffert, B. (1987). Season of the Jew. Library Journal, 112 (9): 101.
[282] Johnson et al., ibid., 99.
[283] Shadbolt, ibid., 21.
[284] Shadbolt, ibid., 34.
[285] Shadboldt, ibid., 53.
[286] Stafford, ibid., 12.
[287] Shadbolt, ibid., 98.
[288] Shadbolt, ibid., 98.
[289] Shadbolt, ibid., 427.
[290] Corbalis, R. (1998). Maurice Shadboldt. The Oxford Companion To New Zealand Literature. New York: Oxford University Press: 489.
[291] Pittaway, G. (1988). ‘Inscapes and Escapes: Novels by New Zealand Women, 1986-1987.’ JNZL: Journal of New Zealand Literature, n.6: 50.
[292] Cowley, B. (26 January 2013). ‘New Zealand Fiction Non-Fiction Crime.’ The Dominion Post, p. 028.
[293] D’Cruz, D. (2007). ‘Women, Time and Place in Fiona Kidman’s The Book of Secrets.’ Journal of Commonwealth Literature, 42 (3): 64.
[294] D’Cruz, ibid., 64.
[295] Pittaway, ibid., 50.
[296] Rosner, E. (1991). ‘Silencing the Ventriloquist: The Book of Secrets.’ World Literature Written in English, 31: 1, 80-86, DOI: 10.1080/174498591085891419.: 81.
[297] Pittaway, ibid., 50.
[298] Pittaway, ibid., 50.
[299] Kidman, ibid., 1.
[300] Pittaway, ibid., 50.
[301] Kidman, ibid., 283.
[302] Kidman, ibid., 282.
[303] D’Cruz, ibid., 77.
[304] Pittaway, ibid., 50.
[305] Rosner, ibid., 81.
[306] Rosner, ibid., 86.
[307] D’Cruz, ibid., 64
[308] D’Cruz, ibid., 65.
[309] D’Cruz, ibid., 65.
[310] Kidman, ibid., 245.
[311] D’Cruz, ibid., 65.
[312] Bardolph, J. (1990). ‘An Invisible Presence: Three Mäori Writers.’ Third World Quarterly, 12 (2): 135.
[313] Wilson, P. (2017). ‘Patricia Grace’s Potiki: Diminished Violence.’ World Literature in English, 36 (2): 122.
[314] Grace, ibid., 18.
[315] Grace, ibid., 28.
[316] Grace, ibid., 44.
[317] Jones, ibid., 228.
[318] Wilson, ibid., 122.
[319] Grace, ibid., 88.
[320] Simson, M. (1995). Forecasts: Paperbacks. Publishers Weekly, 242 (17): 68.
[321] Jackson, M. (1988). Rainshadow: A Novel. Dunedin: John McIndoe: 2.
[322] Jackson, ibid., 10.
[323] Jackson, ibid., 6.
[324] Jackson, ibid., 72.
[325] Jackson, ibid., 22.
[326] Jackson, ibid., 37.
[327] Jackson, ibid., 65.
[328] Jackson, ibid., 66.
[329] Jackson, ibid., 88.
[330] Jackson, ibid., 93.
[331] Jackson, ibid., 117.
[332] Jackson, ibid., 119.
[333] Jackson, ibid., 137.
[334] Jackson, ibid., 140-141.
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[567] Sargent, Ewan. (4 September 2000). Tales of the ‘Originals’ is no Instant Classic. The Manawatu Standard: 6.
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[569] Jones, ibid., 31.
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[604] King, ibid., 116.
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[717] Edwards, J. (31 July 2015). The Press. “Bloody hell: Kiwi on Booker List.” P. A5.


[718] Whitmore, E. (15 April 2016). Booklist. 112 (16): 30. 1/7p.
[719] Taylor, C. (14 March 2015). The Chimes by Anna Smaill review – an original dystopian debut. Books. The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.
com.books/2015/mar/14/the-chimes-ann-smaill-review.
[720] Conroy, T. (Spring 2015) New Zealand Books. Pukapuka Aotearoa, 25 (3): 3-4.
[721] Williams, 1990, ibid., 19.

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