The Bronze Mask: Protagonists of English Literature

Luke Strongman
Independent Researcher, MRSNZ, Lower Hutt, New Zealand

Series: Fine Arts, Music and Literature
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Volume 10

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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The Bronze Mask presents an analysis of fifty famous protagonists from some of the finest and most enduring works of fiction – predominantly novels – over the past five hundred years. The characters from the novels selected are mainly those critiqued from famous British and American authors, although characters from authors of Canadian, Australian and New Zealander backgrounds are also included. 50 of fictions’ notable novels and a selection of their central characters (protagonists) from Chaucer’s “The Wife of Bath” of The Canterbury Tales in the fifteenth century to Cormac McCarthy’s “Father and Son” of The Road in the twenty-first century, are discussed, explained and critiqued. The Bronze Mask casts critical light upon the writers’ works, the characters they have created, and the critics who have read them. The arrangement of the chapters and vignettes is chronological, enabling similarities, differences, and narrative and characteristic developments to be traced. The Bronze Mask portrays continuities and departures, congruencies and anomalies in the development of the fictional character over the past five hundred years, primarily from an Anglo-American perspective. (Imprint: Nova)

Introduction

Chapter 1. Geoffrey Chaucer’s – The Wife of Bath – 1478

Chapter 2. Pearl Poet’s – Sir Gawain and the Green Knight – c.1340-1400

Chapter 3. William Shakespeare’s – Prospero – 1610-1611

Chapter 4. John Bunyan’s – Christian - 1678

Chapter 5. Daniel Defoe’s - Robinson Crusoe – 1719

Chapter 6. Samuel Richardson’s – Clarissa – 1748

Chapter 7. Henry Fielding’s – Tom Jones -- 1749

Chapter 8. Laurence Sterne’s - Tristram Shandy – 1759-1767

Chapter 9. Walter Scott’s – Ivanhoe - 1820

Chapter 10. James Fenimore Cooper’s - Hawk-eye - 1826

Chapter 11. Herman Melville’s - Captain Ahab – 1851

Chapter 12. Wilkie Collins’s – Walter Hartwright -- 1859

Chapter 13. George Eliot’s – Maggie Tulliver - 1860

Chapter 14. Jules Verne’s – Phileas Fogg and Passepartout - 1873

Chapter 15. Thomas Hardy’s – Bathsheba Everdene - 1874

Chapter 16. Mark Twain’s – Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn – 1876 / 1884

Chapter 17. Robert Louis Stevenson’s – Jim Hawkins and Long John Silver – 1883

Chapter 18. Oscar Wilde’s – Dorian Gray – 1890

Chapter 19. Stephen Crane’s – Henry Fleming -- 1895

Chapter 20. H. G. Wells’s -- War of the Worlds Narrator -- 1897

Chapter 21. Henry James’s – The Governess – 1898

Chapter 22. Jack London’s – Buck - 1903

Chapter 23. P. G. Wodehouse’s – Jeeves – 1915

Chapter 24. James Joyce’s – Leopold Bloom - 1922

Chapter 25. E. M. Forster’s - Aziz – 1924

Chapter 26. Agatha Christie’s - Miss Jane Marple - 1932

Chapter 27. William Faulkner’s – Thomas Sutpen – 1936

Chapter 28. John Steinbeck’s – Kino and Juana – 1947

Chapter 29. Ralph Ellison’s – Invisible Man - 1952

Chapter 30. Ray Bradbury’s – Guy Montag - 1953

Chapter 31. William Golding’s – Piggy – 1954

Chapter 32. Patrick White’s – Voss - 1957

Chapter 33. Jack Kerouac’s – Sal Paradise - 1957

Chapter 34. Joseph Heller’s – Captain John Yossarian – 1961

Chapter 35. Sylvia Plath’s – Esther Greenwood - 1963

Chapter 36. Patrick O’Brian’s – Jack Aubrey – 1969

Chapter 37. Kurt Vonnegut’s – Billy Pilgrim - 1969

Chapter 38. C. K. Stead’s – Smith - 1971

Chapter 39. Thomas Pynchon’s - Lt. Tyrone Slothrop – 1973

Chapter 40. E. L. Doctorow’s – Harry Houdini - 1975

Chapter 41. John Irving’s – T. S. Garp – 1978

Chapter 42. Margaret Atwood’s – Offred - 1985

Chapter 43. Don DeLillo’s – Jack Gladney – 1985

Chapter 44. Witi Ihimaera’s – Kahu Apirana – 1987

Chapter 45. Toni Morrison’s – Sethe - 1987

Chapter 46. Alan Duff’s – Jake – 1994

Chapter 47. Richard Ford’s – Frank Bascombe - 1996

Chapter 48. Barabara Kingsolver’s - Orleanna Price – 1998

Chapter 49. Johnathan Franzen’s – Alfred Lambert – 2001

Chapter 50. Patricia Grace’s – Tu - 2005

Chapter 51. Cormac McCarthy’s – Father and Son - 2006

Conclusion

References

About the Author

Index

[1] Ingham, P. C. (2002). Pastoral Histories: Utopia, Conquest, and ‘The Wife of Bath’s Tale’. Texas Studies in Literature and Language, 44 (1), 43.
[2] Blackwell, A. J. (2005). A Crisis - of Authority: The Wife of Bath’s Eve-Deferred Identity. Medieval Perspectives, 21, 1-25.
[3] Sylvester, R. (2014). Shifting Traditions: Chaucer’s Narrative Accomplishment in ‘The Wife of Bath’s Tale’ Considered in the Context of the Shift From Oral Tradition to Literate Print Tradition. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 71 (3), 251.
[4] Sylvester, ibid., 252.
[5] Chaucer, (1386/1931). The Canterbury Tales. Translated into Modern English by Nevill Coghill. Middlesex: Penguin Books.
[6] Ingham, ibid, 35.
[7] Fischer, O. C. M. (1985). Gower’s Tale of Florent and Chaucer’s ‘The Wife of Bath’s Tale’ of a Stylistic Comparison. English Studies, 66 (3), 209.
[8] Ingham ibid, 43.
[9] Leicester, H. M. (1984). Of a Fire in the Dark: Public and Private Feminism in ‘The Wife of Bath’s Tale’. Women’s Studies, 11, 159-160.
[10] Cotter, J. F. (1969). ‘The Wife of Bath’ and the Conjugal Debt.’ English Language Notes, 6 (3), 169
[11] Cotter, ibid., 168.
[12] Olson, G. (1995). The Marital Dilemma in ‘The Wife of Bath’s Tale’: An Unnoticed Analogue and its Chaucerian Court Context. English Language Notes, XXXIII (I), 3.
[13] Thomas, S. (2006). The Problem of Defining Sovereynetee in ‘The Wife of Bath’s Tale’. The Chaucer Review, 41 (1), 89.
[14] Arner, L. (2006). The Ends of Enchantment: Colonialism and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Texas Studies in Literature and Language, 48 (2), 79.
[15] Frazer, J. G. (1922/1963). The Golden Bough. A Study in Magic and Religion. MacMillan: New York. 476.
[16] Frazer, ibid., 373.
[17] Pearl Poet, (2009). Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Translation and Preface Burton Raffel., A New Introduction by Brenda Webster, Afterward by Neil D. Issacs. Penguin: New York, 75.
[18] Arner, ibid., 83.
[19] Wood, A. (2015) ‘Weaving’ a New Dialectics of Ecology: Reading Sir Gawain and the Green Knight in the Anthropocene. Interdisciplinary Humanities, 32 (3), 103
[20] Beauregard, Fr. David N. (2013). Moral Theology is Sir Gawain and the Green Knight: The Pentangle, The Green Knight, and the perfection of virtue. Renascence, 65 (3), 156.
[21] Martin, C. G. (2009). The Cipher of Chivalry: Violence as Courtly Play in the World of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. The Chaucer Review, 43 (3), 311
[22] Turner, J. (2012). Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and the History of Medieval Rhetoric. Rhetoric Review, 31 (4), 379.
[23] Pearl Poet, ibid., 95.
[24] Wood, ibid., 103.
[25] Blackwell, A. (2012). Submitted in Triplicate: Gawain’s Three Confessions in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Medieval Perspectives, 27, 71.
[26] Pearl Poet, ibid., 76-77.
[27] Beauregard, ibid., 153-4.
[28] Frazer, ibid., 475.
[29] Beauregard, ibid., 155.
[30] Beauregard, ibid., 150.
[31] Martin, ibid., 311.
[32] Blackwell, (2012), ibid., 95.
[33] Beauregard, ibid., 159.
[34] Borlick, T. A. (2013). Caliban and the fen demons of Lincolnshire: The Englishness of Shakespeare’s The Tempest. Shakespeare, 9 (1), 26.
[35] Abbasi, P. & Saeedi, A. (2014). On The Postmodernist Elements in Shakespeare's The Tempest. Epiphany: Journal of Transdisciplinary Studies, 7 (1), 259.
[36] Pests, D. (2014). Acknowledging Things of Darkness: Postcolonial Criticism of The Tempest. Academic Questions, 27 (3), 281.
[37] Go, K. (2012) Montaigne’s ‘Cannibals’ and The Tempest Revisited. Studies in Philology., 109 (4), 455-473.
[38] Shakespeare, W. (1611/1994). The Tempest. Ware, Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Classics, 62.
[39] Lahiri, P. (2015). Prospero’s Chimera of Indulgence: The Subaltern in Shakespeare's The Tempest. The Indiana University Press Journal of English Studies., X (1), 79-86.
[40] Lahiri, ibid., 79.
[41] Borlick, ibid., 26.
[42] Borlick, ibid., 26.
[43] Shakespeare, ibid., 21.
[44] Borlick, ibid., 22
[45] Goldman, P. (2013). Shakespeare’s Gentle Apocalypse: The Tempest. Anthropoetics: The Journal of Generative Anthropology, 18 (2), para. 2.
[46] Shakespeare, ibid., 68.
[47] Heydt, B. (2006). A Tinker’s Treasure John Bunyan and The Pilgrim’s Progress. British Heritage, 22 (1), 50.
[48] Baker, N. (2012). Grace and favour: Deconstructing Hospitality in The Pilgrim’s Progress. The Seventeenth Century, XXVII (2) https://dx.doi. org/10.7227/TSC.27.2.3, 187.
[49] Heydt, ibid., 47.
[50] Heydt, ibid., 47.
[51] James, J. (2014). Tortuous and Complicated: An Analysis of Conversion in John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress. Foundations, 67, 44.
[52] James, ibid., 44-50.
[53] Heydt, ibid., 47.
[54] Baker, ibid., 184.
[55] Butler, G. (1987). The Iron Cage of Despair and ‘The Unpardonable Sin’ in The Pilgrim’s Progress. English Language Notes, 25 (1), 34.
[56] Bunyan, J. (1678/1996). The Pilgrim’s Progress. From This World To That Which Is To Come, Delivered Under The Similitude of a Dream. With an Introduction by Stuart Sim. Ware, Hertfordhire: Wordsworth’s Classics, 38.
[57] King James Bible Online. Psalms 23: 4. Retrieved from: https://www. kingjamesbibleonline.org/Psalms-23-4/.
[58] Bunyan, ibid., 90.
[59] Bunyan, ibid., 99.
[60] Bunyan, ibid., 110.
[61] Baker, ibid., 201.
[62] Bunyan, ibid., 128.
[63] Smit-Marais, S. (2011). Converted Spaces, Contained Places: Robinson Crusoe’s Monologic World. Journal of Literary Studies, 27 (1), 111.
[64] Smit-Marais, ibid., 111.
[65] Defoe, D. (1961). Robinson Crusoe. With an Afterword by Harvey Swados. London: Signet, 108.
[66] Gavin, M. (2013). Real Robinson Crusoe. Eighteenth-Century Fiction, 25 (2), 301.
[67] Gavin, ibid., 305-6.
[68] Gallagher, C. (2007). ‘The Rise of Fictionality’ in The Novel, ed. Franco Moretti. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 304.
[69] Smit-Marais, ibid., 102.
[70] Smit-Marais, ibid., 102.
[71] Defoe, ibid., 140.
[72] Smit-Marais, ibid., 109.
[73] Orr, L. (2014). Providence and Religion in the Crusoe Trilogy. Eighteenth-Century Life. 38, (2), 1.
[74] Defoe, ibid., 415.
[75] Dowdell, C. (2010). ‘A Living Law to Himself and Others’: Daniel Defoe, Algernon Sidney, and the Politics of Self-Interest in Robinson Crusoe and Farther Adventures. Eighteenth-Century Fiction, 22 (3), 419.
[76] Defoe, ibid., 420.
[77] Dowdell, ibid., 440.
[78] Dowdell, ibid., 309.
[79] Dowdell, ibid., 309-310.
[80] Defoe, ibid., 310.
[81] Gavin, ibid., 312.
[82] Orr, ibid., 1.
[83] Orr, ibid., 1.
[84] Orr, ibid., 20.
[85] Owens, W. R. (2013). Defoe, Robinson Crusoe, and the Barbary Pirates. English, 62 (236), 52.
[86] Owens, ibid., 53.
[87] Owens, ibid., 54.
[88] Loar, C. E. (2006). How to Say Things with Guns: Military Technology and the Politics of Robinson Crusoe. Eighteenth-Century Fiction, 19 (1), 15.
[89] Hymer, S. (2011). Robinson Crusoe and the Secret of Primitive Accumulation. Monthly Review, 63 (4), 18.
[90] Hymer, ibid., 20.
[91] Hymer, ibid., 27.
[92] Hymer, ibid., 34.
[93] Pearl, J. H. (2012). Desert Islands and Urban Solitudes in the Crusoe Trilogy. Studies in the Novel, 44 (2), 128.
[94] Pearl, ibid., 129.
[95] Loar, ibid., 3.
[96] Eagleton, T. (1982). The Rape of Clarissa. Writing, Sexuality and Class Struggle in Samuel Richardson. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press. 18.
[97] Jackson, S. (2015). Clarissa’s Political Theology and the Alternative Modernity of God, Death and Writing. The Eighteenth Century, 56 (3), 321.
[98] Jackson, ibid., 321.
[99] Jackson, ibid., 322.
[100] Jackson, ibid., 322.
[101] Steele, K. L. (2010). Clarissa’s Silence. Eighteenth-Century Fiction, 23 (1), 1-2.
[102] Loewen-Schmidt, C. (2009). Pity, or the Providence of the Body in Richardson’s Clarissa. Eighteenth-Century Fiction, 22 (1), 4.
[103] Loewen-Schmidt, ibid., 14.
[104] Loewen-Schmidt, ibid., 22-23.
[105] Hershinow, S. I. (2015). Clarissa’s Conjectural History: The Novel and the Novice. The Eighteenth Century, 56 (3), 303.
[106] Lee, W. A. (2013). A case for hard-heartedness: Clarissa, Indifferency, Impersonality. Eighteenth-Century Fiction, 26 (1), 33.
[107] Steele, K. L. (2010). Clarissa’s Silence. Eighteenth-Century Fiction, 23 (1), 5.
[108] Lee, ibid., 34.
[109] Lee, ibid., 36.
[110] Lee, ibid., 37.
[111] Lee, ibid., 38.
[112] Lee, ibid., 51.
[113] Zionkowski, L. (2011). Clarissa and the Hazards of the Gift. Eighteenth-Century Fiction, 23 (3), 471.
[114] Eagleton, T. (1982). The Rape of Clarissa. Writing, Sexuality and Class Struggle in Samuel Richardson. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press., 39.
[115] Zionkowski, ibid., 475.
[116] Hernandez, A. E. (2010). Tragedy and the Economic of Providence in Richardson’s Clarissa. Eighteenth-Century Fiction, 22 (4), 602.
[117] Zionowski, ibid., 594.
[118] Lewis, J. E. (2011). The Air of Tom Jones: or, What Rose from the Novel. The Eighteenth Century, 52 (3-4), 308.
[119] Fielding, H. (1749/2005). The History of Tom Jones, A Foundling. Edited with Explanatory Notes by Thomas Keymer and Alice Wakely. With an Introduction by Thomas Keymer. London: Penguin Books, 251-252.
[120] Lee, A. W. (2010). Epiphany and the Spiritual Quest in Tom Jones. The Explicator, 68 (3), 162.
[121] Jacques, E. (1992). Fielding’s Tom Jones and the Nicomachean Ethics. English Language Notes, 30.
[122] Jacques, ibid., 27.
[123] Ortiz, R. L. (1993). Fielding’s ‘Orientalist’ Moment: Historical Fiction and Historical Knowledge in Tom Jones. Studies in English Literature, 33 (3), 609.
[124] Fielding, ibid., 289.
[125] DeRitter, J. (1989). ‘How Came This Muff Here?’ A Note on Tom Jones. English Language Notes., 43.
[126] Jacques, ibid., 25.
[127] Jacques, ibid., 27.
[128] DeRitter, ibid., 45.
[129] Fielding, ibid., 201.
[130] Ortiz, ibid., 610.
[131] Dobranski, S. B. (2010). What Fielding Doesn’t Say in Tom Jones. Modern Philology., 107, 638.
[132] Bellman, P. N. (2008). Legal Snares: The Plot of Law in Tristram Shandy by Laurence Sterne with a Note on A Sentimental Journey. Textus, XXI, 487.
[133] Sterne, L. (2009). The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman. Introduction Cedric Watts. London: Wordsworth. p. viii.
[134] Sterne, ibid., p. xiii.
[135] Anderson, E. H. (2015). Theatrical Tristram: Sterne and Hamlet Reconsidered. Eighteenth-Century Fiction, 27 (3-4), 661.
[136] Anderson, ibid., 662.
[137] Anderson, ibid., 664.
[138] Anderson, ibid., 664.
[139] Anderson, ibid., 678.
[140] Leslie, J. C. (2005). Music’s Sentimental Role in Tristram Shandy. Papers on Language & Literature, 41 (1), 55.
[141] Leslie, ibid., 64.
[142] Bowden, M. F. (1994). The Interdependence of Women in Tristram Shandy: A Chapter of Eyes, Sausages and Sciatica. English Language Notes, 31 (4), 40.
[143] Vlock, D. (1998). Sterne, Descartes, and the Music in Tristram Shandy. Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, 38(3), 517-536. doi:1. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/451061 doi:1. 517.
[144] Vlocke, ibid., 553.
[145] Allen, D. (1985). Sexuality/Textuality in Tristram Shandy. Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, 25 (3), 651-670. doi:1. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/ stable/450501 doi:1. 651.
[146] Allen, ibid., 653.
[147] Harvey, K. (2013). The Manuscript History of Tristram Shandy. The Review of English Studies, 65 (269), 300.
[148] McNeil, D. (2001). The “Choicest Morsel” of Sterne’s Borrowings From Rabelais Unnoticed. English Language Notes, 21 (1), 43.
[149] Harvey, ibid., 489.
[150] Harvey, ibid., 490.
[151] Briggs, P. (1985). Locke’s “Essay” and the Tentativeness of “Tristram Shandy” Studies in Philology, 82 (4), 493-520. Retrieved from http:// www.jstor.org/stable/4174225. 494.
[152] Briggs, ibid., 499.
[153] Holm, M. D. (2014). Laughter, Scepticism, and the Pleasures of Being Misunderstood in Laurence Sterne’s The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman. The Eighteenth Century, 55 (4), 371.
[154] Millgate, J. (1994). Making It New: Scott, Constable, Ballantyne, and the Publication of Ivanhoe. Studies in English Literature, 34, 795.
[155] Scott, W. (1829/2004). Ivanhoe. New York: Dover Publications Inc.: 250.
[156] Stoka, K. M. (1979). The Function of Form: Ivanhoe as Romance. Studies in English Literature, 19, 645.
[157] Stoka, ibid., 646.
[158] Stoka, ibid., 647.
[159] White, S. J. (2009). Ivanhoe, Robin Hood and the Pentridge Rising. Nineteenth-Century Contexts, 31 (3), 210.
[160] White, ibid., 219.
[161] Lewin, J. (2006). Jewish Heritage and Secular Inheritance in Walter Scott’s Ivanhoe. 19 (1), 27.
[162] Lewin, ibid., 29.
[163] Lewin, ibid., 30.
[164] Lewin, ibid., 30.
[165] Lewin, J. (2005). Legends of Rebecca: Ivanhoe, Dynamic Identification, and the Portraits of Rebecca Gratz, NASHIM: A Journal of Jewish Women’s Studies and Gender Issues. 179.
[166] Lewin, ibid., 182.
[167] Costantini, C. (2008). The Jews and the Common Law: A Question of Traditions and Jurisdictions. An Analysis through W. Scott’s Ivanhoe. Textus, XXI, 483.
[168] Constantini, ibid., 487.
[169] Cooper, J. G. (2011) Ivanhoe: The Rebel Scott and the Soul of Nation. Scottish Literary Review, 10, 47.
[170] Scott, ibid., 346.
[171] Cooper, ibid., 48.
[172] Cooper, ibid., 49.
[173] Cooper, ibid., 45.
[174] Blair, D. (1993/2002). Introduction and Notes. The Last of the Mohicans. London: Wordsworth Classics, vii.
[175] Blair, ibid., vii.
[176] Smith, L. C. (2006). Cross-Cultural Hybridity in James Fennimore Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans. American Transcendental Quarterly: A Journal of New England Writers., 20 (3), 527.
[177] Cooper, J. F. (1826/2002). The Last of the Mohicans. London: Wordsworth Classics: ibid., 23.
[178] Cooper, ibid., 22.
[179] Smith, ibid., 530.
[180] Christopherson, B. (2011). The Last of the Mohicans and the Missouri Crisis. Early American Literature, 46, (2), 263.
[181] Cooper, ibid., 135.
[182] Cooper, ibid., 330.
[183] Blakemore, S. (1984). Strange Tongues: Cooper’s Fiction of Language in The Last of The Mohicans. Early American Literature, 19, (1), 21.
[184] Christopherson, ibid., 263.
[185] Bumby cited in Smith, N. (2001). Heritage of Industry: Discovering New Zealand’s Industrial History. Auckland: Reed Publishing., 20.
[186] Melville, H. (1892). Moby Dick or The White Whale. Boston: The St. Botolph Society, 115.
[187] Melville, ibid., 116.
[188] Tuttleton, J. W. (1998). The character of Captain Ahab in Melville’s Moby-Dick. World and I., 13 (2), 290.
[189] Tuttleton, ibid., 294.
[190] Tuttleton, ibid., 294.
[191] Keating, A. L. (1991). The Implications of Edwards’ Theory of the Will on Ahab’s Pursuit of Moby Dick. English Language Notes., 28 (3), 28.
[192] Keating, ibid., 28.
[193] Keating, ibid., 28.
[194] Keating, ibid., 28.
[195] Werber, N. (2011). Ahab’s Charisma: Captains, Kings, and Prophets. New German Critique, 38 (3), 51.
[196] Werber, ibid., 52.
[197] Sanborn, G. (2005). ‘Whence Come You, Queequeg,’ American Literature, 77 (2), 194
[198] Smith, ibid., 19.
[199] Collins, W. (1859/1865). The Woman in White. New York: Harper & Brothers, 5.
[200] Huskey, M. (1993). Twin Peaks: Rewriting the Sensation Novel. Literature Film Quarterly., 21 (4) 49.
[201] Collins, ibid., 5.
[202] Andres, S. (1995). Pre-Raphaelite Paintings and Jungian Images in Willkie Collin’s The Woman in White. Victorian Newsletter, 88, 27.
[203] Collins, ibid.
[204] Collins, ibid.
[205] Andres, ibid., 28.
[206] Collins, ibid., 28.
[207] Huskey, ibid., 248.
[208] Andres, ibid., 26.
[209] Huskey, ibid., 248.
[210] Nader, L. (1993). Agents of Empire in The Woman in White. Victorian Newsletter., 83, 5.
[211] Andres, ibid., 27.
[212] Ortiz-Robles, M. (2010). Figure and affect in Collins. Textual Practice, 24 (5), 841.
[213] Cameron, S. B. (2014). The Resilient Marian Halcombe: On Feminine Feeling and Wilkie Collin’s Debt to Amatory fiction. Nineteenth-Century Gender Studies, 10 (1), 11-12
[214] Cameron, ibid., 11.
[215] Griffin, S. M. (2004). The Yellow Mask, The Black Robe, and The Woman in White: Wilkie Collins, Anti-Catholic Discourse, and the Sensation Novel. Narrative, 12 (1), 67.
[216] Nader, ibid., 2.
[217] Eliot, G. (1887/2008). The Mill on the Floss. Volume 2 of Complete works. Harvard: University Press, 226.
[218] Postlethwaite, D. (1992). Of Maggie, Mothers, Monsters, and Madonnas: Diving Deep in The Mill on the Floss. Women’s Studies, 20, 303-319.
[219] Postlethwaite, ibid., 311.
[220] Eliot, ibid., 39.
[221] Hunt, A. (2012). The Authoritative Medium: George Eliot, Ruin, and the Rationalised Market. Journal of Victoria Culture, 17 (2), 164.
[222] Hunt, ibid., 166.
[223] Hunt, ibid., 179.
[224] Smith, J. (1991). The “Wonderful Geological Story”: Uniformitarianism and The Mill on the Floss. Papers on Language & Literature, 27 (4), 442.
[225] Smith, ibid., 437.
[226] Kreisler, D. (2001). Superfluity and Suction: The Problem with Saving in The Mill on the Floss. NOVEL: A Forum on Fiction, 35(1), 69-103; doi:10.2307/1346044. 70-71.
[227] Kreisler, ibid., 72.
[228] Akca, C. & Gunes, A. (2009). Culture and Gender in George Eliot's The Mill on the Floss. Journal of Faculty of Letters / Edebiyat Fakultesi Dergisi, 26(2), 1.
[229] Akca and Gunes, ibid., 14.
[230] Donaldson, D. P. & Kuhlke, O. (2009). Jules Verne’s Around the World in Eighty Days: Helping Teach the National Geography Standards. Journal of Geography, 108, 40.
[231] Verne cited in Sherard, (January 2nd, 1894). “Jules Verne at Home.” McClure’s Magazine, 121.
[232] Unwin, T. (2005) Jules Verne: Negotiating Change in the Nineteenth Century. Science Fiction Studies, 32 (1), 5.
[233] Verne, J. (2002). Around the World in Eighty Days & Five Weeks in a Balloon. Introduction and Notes by Professor Roger Cardinal. London: Wordsworth, 13.
[234] Donaldson and Kuhlke, ibid., 40.
[235] Grossman, J. H. (2013) The Character of a global transport infrastructure: Jules Verne’s Around the World in Eighty Days. History and Technology 29(3), 250.
[236] Verne, ibid., 19.
[237] Verne, ibid., 39.
[238] Donaldson and Kuhlke. ibid., 40.
[239] Verne, ibid., 29.
[240] Verne, ibid., 47.
[241] Verne, ibid., 65.
[242] Verne, ibid., 160.
[243] Verne, ibid., 160.
[244] Huntley, D. (2015). Thomas Hardy’s Wessex Country: Still Far from Madding Crowds. British Heritage, 36 (4), 24.
[245] Huntley, ibid., 24.
[246] Hardy, T. (2000). Far From The Madding Crowd. Introduction and Notes by Professor Norman Vance. London: Wordsworth Classics: 13.
[247] Jones, L. (1980). George Eliot and Pastoral Tragicomedy in Hardy’s Far From the Madding Crowd, 419.
[248] Hardy, ibid., 8-9.
[249] Jones, ibid., 419.
[250] Kreilkamp, I. (2009). Pitying the Sheep in Far from the Madding Crowd. Novel: A Forum on Fiction, 42 (3), 246.
[251] Shires, L. M. (1991). Narrative, Gender and Power in Far From the Madding Crowd. Novel, 167.
[252] Hardy, ibid., 278.
[253] Hardy, ibid., 63.
[254] Hardy, ibid. 124.
[255] Hardy, ibid., 117.
[256] Shires, ibid., 115.
[257] Fuller, G. (2015). Becoming Bathsheba. An Interview with Carey Mulligan. Cineaste., 40 (3), 18.
[258] Lorentzen, E. G. (2006). Reading Hodge: Preserving Rural Epistemologies in Hardy’s Far From the Madding Crowd. The Victoria Newsletter., 110, 1-9.
[259] Hardy, ibid., 24.
[260] Lorentsen, ibid., 3.
[261] Shires, ibid., 167.
[262] Hardy, ibid., 147.
[263] Hardy, ibid., 380.
[264] Hardy, ibid., 237.
[265] Shires, ibid., 162.
[266] Jones, ibid., 419.
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[592] Wiese, ibid., 2.
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[599] DeLillo, ibid., 45.
[600] DeLillo, ibid., 321.
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[602] DeLillo, ibid., 51.
[603] Ihimaera, W. (2007). The Whale Rider. Auckland: Reed Books: 15.
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[613] Jayne, ibid., 50.
[614] Bardolph, J. (1990). An Invisible Presence: Three Maori Writers. Literary Feature Reviews. Third World Quarterly, 12 (2), 2.
[615] Ihimaera, 2007. ibid., 130.
[616] Beck, ibid., 26.
[617] Message, ibid., 86.
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[623] Lillvus, ibid., 453.
[624] Bailin, D. (2011). Natural History as National History in Toni Morrison’s Beloved. LATCH, 4, 36.
[625] Morrison, T. (1987/2004). Beloved. New York: Vintage International, 11.
[626] Bailin, ibid., 31.
[627] Morrison, (1987/2004). ibid., 222.
[628] Morrison, (1987/2004). ibid., 222.
[629] George, S. (2012). Approaching the Thing of Slavery: A Lacanian Analysis of Toni Morrison’s Beloved. African American Review, 45, 1-2, 128.
[630] Morrison, T. (2007). Beloved. London: Vintage Books.
[631] Lillvus, ibid., 453.
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[633] Anker, ibid., 39.
[634] Duff, A. (1990/1995). Once Were Warriors. London: Vintage Books, 7.
[635] Duff, ibid., 47.
[636] Larson, C. R. (1995). They who have history. World and I, 10 (1), 317.
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[642] Ford, R. (1996). Independence Day. New York: Vintage Books.
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[645] McGuire, ibid., 262.
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[648] Dobozy, ibid., 41.
[649] Dobozy, ibid., 49
[650] Ford, ibid., 259.
[651] McGuire, ibid., 263.
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[657] Kingsolver, B. (1999/2005). The Poisonwood Bible. New York: HarperCollins, 505.
[658] Kingsolver, ibid., 5.
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[660] Kingsolver, ibid., 87.
[661] Douglas, C. (2014). The Poisonwood Bible’s Multicultural Graft: American Literature during the Contemporary Christian Resurgence. American Literary History, 26 (1), 142
[662] Kingsolver, ibid., 236.
[663] Douglas, ibid., 135
[664] Kingsolver, ibid., 96.
[665] Kingsolver, ibid., 381.
[666] Stehle, ibid., 415.
[667] Douglas, ibid., 146.
[668] Fialkoff, F. (2001). Franzen: Too Highbrow for Oprah. Library Journal, 126 (19), 52.
[669] Annesley, J. (2006). Market Corrections: Jonathan Franzen and the ‘Novel of Globalization,’ Journal of Modern Literature, 29 (2), 111.
[670] Franzen, J. (2001). The Corrections. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 536.
[671] Franzen, ibid., 330.
[672] Annesley, ibid., 111.
[673] Annesley, ibid., 112.
[674] Poole, R. J. (2008). Serving the fruitcake, or Jonathan Franzen’s Midwest Poetics. Midwest Quarterly., 49 (3), 273.
[675] Watman, M. (2001) On the hysterical playground. New Criterion., 20 (3), 67.
[676] Franzen, ibid., 197.
[677] Franzen, ibid., 465.
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[679] Franzen, ibid., 275.
[680] Suzuki, E. (2012). Genealogy and Geography in Patricia Grace’s Tu. Modern Fiction Studies, 58 (1), 113.
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[682] Grace, P. (2004). Tu. London: Penguin, 25.
[683] Suzuki, ibid., 114.
[684] Deloughrey, ibid., 465.
[685] Grace, ibid., 47.
[686] Grace, ibid., 130.
[687] Grace, ibid., 114-5.
[688] Grace, ibid., 82.
[689] Grace, ibid., 95.
[690] Grace, ibid., 105.
[691] Grace, ibid., 131
[692] Grace, ibid., 145.
[693] Grace, ibid., 201.
[694] Grace, ibid, 203.
[695] Wilson, J. (2008). The Maori at War and Strategic Survival: Tu by Patricia Grace. HECATE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Women’s Liberation, 34 (1), 94.
[696] McCarthy, C. (2009). The Road. London: Picador, 166.
[697] McCarthy, ibid., 306-307.
[698] Softing, I. A. (2013). Between Dystopia and Utopia: The Post-Apocalyptic Discourse of Cormac McCarthy’s The Road. English Studies, 94 (6), 708.
[699] Blasi, G. (2014). Reading Allegory and Nature in Cormac McCarthy’s The Road: Towards a Non-Anthropocentric vision of the Language of Nature. Arcadia, 49 (1), 40.
[700] Blasi, ibid., 40.
[701] McCarthy, ibid., 179.
[702] Michell, L. C. (2015). “Make It Like Talk That You Imagine’: The Mystery of Language in Cormac McCarthy’s The Road. Literary Imagination, 17 (2), 210
[703] Michel, ibid., 203.
[704] Softing, ibid., 711.
[705] Conlon, M. (2007, 5 January). Writer Cormac McCarthy confides in Oprah Winfrey. Entertainment News. Reuters. Retrieved from: www. reuters.com/article/us-mccarthy-idUSN052636120070605.
[706] Softing, ibid., 708.
[707] Knox, P. D. (2012). ‘Okay Means Okay’: Ideology and Survival in Cormac McCarthy’s The Road. The Explicator, 70 (2), 96.
[708] Blasi, ibid., 97.
[709] Michell, ibid., 216.

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