The Atomic Structure and Law


Kunming Xu

Series: Mathematics Research Developments
BISAC: SCI074000

This book discovers four-dimensional space within a sphere with the instantiation of the 2s2p electron octet in a neon shell. Four space dimensions correspond to points, lines, planes, and solids geometrically. This book develops the idea of dynamic calculus that is implemented by circular functions instead of infinitesimal limits. As the law of nature, dynamic calculus of spherical quantities describes harmonic oscillations of electrons in atoms by dimension transformation rather than kinematic movement. In particular, electronic orbitals of 1s2s2p within a neon atom are defined in calculus, trigonometry, and geometry rigorously.

A fresh theory of the atomic structure and law is established from scratch that eventually changes the traditional spacetime worldview. The theory derived from atomic spacetime may be extended to the description of molecules, cells, and organisms. For example, both electrons within a helium atom constitute a two-dimensional system, which provides a mathematical model for life phenomena. A husband and a wife are two dimensions of the family; plants and animals are two kingdoms of the advanced lives. The interplay and transformation between both dimensions are the eternal theme of nature.

A DNA molecule, composed of space and time strands, is a stepwise LC oscillatory circuitry where each base pair is a capacitor, each phosphate bridge is an inductor, and each deoxyribose is a charge router directed by chiral carbons with anisotropic 2p electronic orbitals. All physical quantities are ordered into a periodic table according to their spacetime dimensions. This original approach provides sharp insight into the properties of and relationships between various physical quantities, paving the way toward the formulation of a grand unification theory. Spherical quantities in dynamic calculus complement physical quantities in linear algebra, comply with the Pythagorean theorem and the general Stokes’ theorem, observe Maxwell’s equations, and characterize the rhythms of entities and life essentially. The spherical view also endorses the core concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, such as yin and yang theory, five element theory, and eight trigram philosophy.
(Imprint: Nova)

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Part I. The Atomic Structure

Chapter 1 – Spherical Quantities in Two-Dimensional Spacetime (pp. 3-38)

Chapter 2 – The Theory of Quaternity (pp. 39-72)

Chapter 3 – Dynamic Calculus in Vector Calculus (pp. 73-92)

Chapter 4 – Quaternity, Relativity, and Quantum Mechanics (pp. 93-102)

Chapter 5 – The Structure of Atomic Shells (pp. 103-140)

Part II. The Natural Pattern

Chapter 6 – Anisotropic 2p Orbitals and Chiral Carbon (pp. 143-164)

Chapter 7 – DNA Circuits and Wave Functions (pp. 165-180)

Chapter 8 – The Principle of Cells and Life (pp. 181-202)

Chapter 9 – Circular Motion and Central Force (pp. 203-210)

Chapter 10 – The Order of Physical Quantities (pp. 211-226)

Chapter 11 – The Rational Core of Chinese Medicine (pp. 227-240)


Appendix I. Review Questions

Appendix II. Glossary of Key Concepts

Appendix III. The Law of Nature in Mathematical Formulae

Appendix IV. Special Meanings of Symbols



This book is intended for professional researchers as well as the general public who are interested in fundamental science. Professional researchers in geometry, calculus, theoretical physics, theoretical chemistry, organic chemistry, quantum mechanics, and Chinese medicine will find it useful in their work. Nonprofessional people who are curious about the new discovery of four-dimensional space, and the order of atoms and organisms based on the four-dimensional space, will find it interesting and appealing.

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