The Arctic: Current Issues and Challenges

Oleg S. Pokrovsky, PhD (Editor)
Geoscience and Environment Toulouse, University of Toulouse, CNRS, Toulouse, France

Sergey N. Kirpotin (Editor)
Bio-Clim-Land Center of Excellence, National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia

Alexander I. Malov (Editor)
N.P. Laverov Federal Centre for Integrated Arctic Research, Russian Academy of Science, Arkhangelsk, Russia

Series: Arctic Region and Antarctica Issues and Research
BISAC: SCI02000

The importance of the Arctic in many fields of human activity strongly increased over the past decades. The academic scientific research demonstrates a 3-fold increase in the number of journal articles dealing with “Arctic”: from 1,400 in 2000 to 4,200 in 2018. This increase is not fortuitous but certainly stems from double importance of Arctic regions for humanity. The first importance is the role that the Arctic plays in the on-going environmental changes, mostly linked to climate warming and environmental pollution. Here, the first key issues are the Arctic Ocean, ice melt, permafrost thaw, greenhouse gases emission, and organic carbon mobilization from soils to rivers.

From the other hand, highly fragile Arctic ecosystems and biota are strongly affected by environmental pollution, be it organic compounds or toxic metals and radionuclides. The rising concern of humanity to the key role of the Arctic in climate regulation on the planetary scale and the extreme fragility of its ecosystem, biota and native population to on-going environmental change can certainly explain an explosive interest of scientific researchers to the Arctic in connection with ‘climate change’. The second big issue of the Arctic is its eminent role in problems of natural resources. The Artic shelf contains vast amount of hydrocarbons (gas and oil), whereas the terrestrial polar regions, now liberating from ice, may turn out to be highly important sites of future ore industry.

The importance of possibly ice-free Arctic Ocean as future maritime shipping routes will further enhance the accessibility of natural resources in this region. Taken together, this can be the main driving factors of almost exponential increase in the interest to natural resources in the Arctic over past few years. The present book addresses a wide variety of environmental, social and economic issues of the Arctic, in response to rising interest to this region in academic science, sociology and business. The 14 chapters represent state-of-the art reviews written by the experts on problems of native communities, climate change, political issues, implementation of large-scale projects, natural resources and conservation, environmental monitoring and assessment of pollution issues.

 

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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Table of Contents

Preface

Introduction

Chapter 1. Learning in the Changing Arctic
(Nafisa Yeasmin and Stefan Kirchner, Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, Finland)

Chapter 2. Climate Change from the Arctic People’s Point of View: Rhythms of Everyday Life, Infrastructures and Landscapes
(Lidia Rakhmanova, Larissa Kolesnichenko, Viktor Drozdov, Yuriy Kolesnichenko and Sergey Kirpotin, Laboratory of the Ecosystems and Climate Change Research, National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Higher School of Economics, St. Petersburg, Russia, and others)

Chapter 3. Warmer Climate of Arctic Cities
(Igor Esau, Mikhail Varentsov, Marlene Laruelle, Martin W. Miles, Pavel Konstantinov, Andrey Soromotin, Alexander A. Baklanov and Victoria V. Miles, Nansen Center, Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway, and others)

Chapter 4. A Comparative Study on the Cooperation in the Arctic Ocean and the South China Sea
(Ekaterina Antsygina, Lassi Heininen and Nadejda Komendantova, Faculty of Law, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada, and others)

Chapter 5. Developing Environmental Research Capacity in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District within a Global Networking Framework
(T. S. Kolesnikova, S. N. Kirpotin, L. G. Kolesnichenko, E. N. Morgun, O.M. Shaduiko, L. P. Borilo, A. I. Sinitskiy, A. L. Titovskiy, O. S. Pokrovsky, A. V. Kouraev, P. J. Mitchell and S. N. Vorobiov, Bio-Clim-Land Centre, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia)

Chapter 6. Vegetation of the Subarctic and Arctic of Siberia: Some Types and Approaches to the Study
(I. V. Volkov, I. I. Volkova and S. N. Kirpotin, Bio-Clim-Land Center, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia)

Chapter 7. Conservation Issues of Migratory Anseriformes in the Arctic: The Experience of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug
(S. B. Rozenfeld, G. V. Kirtaev, M. Yu. Soloviev, N. V. Rogova, S. N. Kirpotin and D. O. Zamyatin, The A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of the RAS, Moscow, Russia, and others)

Chapter 8. Remote Research of Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Thermokarst Lakes Fields in Siberian Permafrost
(Yury M. Polishchuk, Ildar N. Muratov and Vladimir Y. Polishchuk, Ugra Research Institute of Information Technology, Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia, and others)

Chapter 9. Groundwater Resources of the White Sea Basin (NW Russia)
(Alexander I. Malov, Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research, Arkhangelsk, Russia)
Chapter 10. Estimation of the Condition of Arctic Tundra Landscapes Soil Cover Taking into Account Previous and Current Economic Activities: An Example of the Western Coast of Moller Bay (Archipelago Novaya Zemlya)
(Vidas V. Kriauciunas, Irina A. Kuznetsova, Stanislav A. Iglovsky, Ekaterina I. Kotova and Kirill A. Mironenko, Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research, Arkhangelsk, Russia)

Chapter 11. Radionuclides in Sea Ecosystems of the Western Sector of the Russian Arctic
(Sergey B. Zykov, Sergey V. Druzhinin, Evgeny Yu. Yakovlev and Elena N. Zykova, Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research, Arkhangelsk, Russia)

Chapter 12. Seismic Monitoring of the European Arctic and Adjoining Regions
(Galina Antonovskaya, Alexey Morozov, Natalia Vaganova and Yana Konechnaya, Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research, Arkhangelsk, Russia)

Chapter 13. Diamond Deposits of the European Arctic of Russia: Problems of the Kimberlites Exploration, Limits of Conventional Methods and New Approaches
(K. B. Danilov, E. Yu Yakovlev and N. Yu Afonin, Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, Arkhangelsk, Russia)

Chapter 14. Dispersed Sedimentary Material in the Snow and Ice Cover of the Central Arctic and Its Fluxes to the Bottom
(Alexander N. Novigatsky, Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia)

Index

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