Technological Prerequisites for the Energy and Raw Materials Independence of State and Corporative Economics
Sc. Viktor Laptev
New Russian State University, Moscow, Russia
Researcher, Kaiserslautern, Germany
Series: Energy Science, Engineering and Technology
The energy safety (independence) is one of the most important priorities of the State activity. Its achieving by means of diplomacy lowers risks of power actions and leads the society to solving science-technical problems. Atomic and hydro-power plants, production and supply of coal, oil and gas for thermoelectric power stations and chemical industry have a big grade of risk to damage the ecological systems and are limited by the nature and political resources of the State. The solar energy and air are not ownership of the State.
They don’t need production, transportation, work-out and storage. However, direct using solar energy and the energy stored in air is limited by high expenses and low device capacity. Required efficiency of solar energy convertors and direct chemical nitrogen and oxygen binding is not achievable because of low commercial effectiveness of scientific and technical solutions proposed at this moment. Nevertheless, the Sun, air and water are the principal components of energy provision required by the life on the earth. So, this triad of raw materials is the energy priority of the State without dependence on providing with natural energetical resources.
The aim and actuality of this book is energy requirement of the State provided with renewable or practically inexhaustible and accessible natural resources. Solar radiation (light), air and water are appearing as working bodies of wind and solar engines, collectors and turbines; they form geothermal and biofuel energy sources. The design solutions raise their efficiency but not indicate its limit. If the solar radiation functions as a warm source and working body, then we can ask: Which cycle is to be made by the solar radiation to exceed maximum efficiency of the heat engine using oil, gas, coil, firewood and water? The authors are solving the problem by inclusion of antenna processes in the working cycle and call attention of the respectful reader to the theory of this solar-heat engine.
The photosynthesis of the plant cell also uses the special dye molecules for antenna processes. Comparing theoretical results has allowed proposing the thermodynamic scale of chemical action for the solar radiation which builds a base for comparison of biofuel energy sources. The technology needed for production of bio- and synthetic fuel uses chemical and bioactive stuff at the stage of bio-row processing as well as at the stage of chemical fertilizers’ growth. Under nitrogen fertilizers’ productions the authors propose replacing the ammonia synthesis (800 K, 350 Bar, catalyst, 30% efficiency) with nitrogen oxygenation and obtaining nitric acid immediately from air and water at sufficiently lower expenses than under ammonia production. The authors have found the thermodynamic ground of this process for temperature range 300-620 K and pressure interval 1-310 Bar. (Imprint: Nova)
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 – Engines and Antennas in Solar Energy Conversion (pp. 1-40)
Chapter 2 – The Photon Antenna in Different Sciences (pp. 41-94)
Chapter 3 – Photons as a Working Body (pp. 95-122)
Chapter 4 – Photon Gas and Condensate: Phase Transparency (pp. 123-154)
Chapter 5 – Interpenetrating Non-Photon Phases (pp. 155-172)
Chapter 6 – Structure and Electrical Properties of Metallic Micro- and Nanocluster-Based Contacts for Highly Effective Photovoltaic Devices (pp. 173-198)