Sustainable Natural Resource Management in the Himalayan Region: Livelihood and Climate Change

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Roshan Man Bajracharya (Editor) – Professor, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Kavre, Nepal
Bishal Kumar Sitaula (Editor) – Professor, Department of Environment and Development Studies (Noragric), Faculty of Landscape and Society, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas, Norway
Smriti Gurung, Ph.D (Editor) – Assistant Professor, Kathmandu University, Nepal
Nani Raut, Ph.D (Editor) – Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal

Series: Environmental Research Advances
BISAC: SCI026000

The greater Himalayan region, stretching from Afghanistan in the west to Myanmar in the east, is home to about a quarter of a billion people who greatly depend on available natural resources for their survival and livelihoods. The ever-increasing population pressure and changing climate have grave implications for the sustenance of human health and habitation in the foreseeable future. The region is confronted with numerous challenges related to forest degradation, land productivity, disaster risk, water management, biodiversity loss, erratic climatic patterns, as well as socio-political capacity. The limits of arable land have essentially been reached, while the need for enhancing production to sustain human nutritive requirements and livelihoods continues to increase. Hence, the intensification of agriculture has become a necessity rather than a choice. Yet, producing greater numbers of crops and quantities of food, fiber and other materials on the same parcel of land runs the risk of degrading the soil fertility, productivity and overall quality. Therefore, means to achieve this without irreversibly damaging the soil and land resource base have become imperative. To this end, agro-forestry, agro-slivi-pastoral systems, and the adoption of a variety of regenerative crops, soil and water management and conservation practices offer the potential to deliver multiple benefits without sacrificing the very resource upon which the human population depends. The need for ecologically sound and sustainable management of natural resources in the Himalayan region, as well as the adaptation of local communities to the impacts of climate change and measures for its mitigation, cannot be over-emphasized. This book presents findings on approaches to sustainable land management and the intensification of agriculture and animal husbandry related to soil organic matter management and carbon sequestration for multiple benefits; and the agroforestry as a crop diversification strategy with livelihood and climate mitigation/adaptation benefits, along with other aspects of forest, biodiversity and water resources management. The book deals with technical, socio-economic, policy and biodiversity issues related to the sustainable use and management of natural resources, namely forests, soil/land, water, crops, animal husbandry and diversity of flora/fauna, as well as disaster risk and vulnerability of communities in the Himalayan region. There is a continuing need to study and research approaches for harmonizing human needs and lifestyles with natural ecosystems and processes so that both may co-exist in a mutually beneficial manner.

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Preface

Section I: Forest Resource Management in the Context of Climate Change

Chapter 1. Community-Based Natural Resource Management in Nepal
(Krishna R Tiwari, Ridish K. Pokharel, Santosh Rayamajhi and Bijendra Basnyat, Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal)

Chapter 2. Estimation of Carbon Stocks in Bhutanese Forests
(Bhagat Suberi, College of Natural Resources, Royal University of Bhutan, Lobesa, Bhutan)

Chapter 3. Diversified Agroforestry Systems for Livelihood Security, Sustainability and Climate Resilience of Smallholder Farms in the Himalaya
(Deepak K. Gautam and Roshan M. Bajracharya, Nepal Agroforestry Foundation, Koteshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal, and others)

Section II: Mountain Farming Systems and Soil Management

Chapter 4. Regenerative Approach for Sustainability and Climate Resilience of Mountain Agro-Ecosystems
(Roshan M. Bajracharya, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal)

Chapter 5. Agricultural Change for Rural Transformation in Nepal
(Nani Raut, Bishal K. Sitaula and Roshan M. Bajracharya, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal)

Chapter 6. Soil Quality and Organic Carbon Management in a Mountainous Landscape of the Hkh Region in Pakistan
(Farida Begum, Roshan M. Bajracharya and Bishal K. Sitaula, Department of Environmental Sciences, Karakoram International University, Gilgit, Pakistan, and others)

Chapter 7. Sustainable Land Management Practices in Bhutan
(Tulsi Gurung, College of Natural Resources, Royal University of Bhutan, Lobesa, Bhutan)

Chapter 8. Biochar as a Catalyst to Enhance Productivity of Coffee Agroforestry Systems and Local Livelihoods in the Mid-Hills of Nepal
(Ngamindra Dahal and Roshan Man Bajracharya, Nepal Water Conservation Foundation, Kathmandu, Nepal)

Section III: Natural Disasters, Resilience and Transformative Thinking

Chapter 9. Disaster Risk Reduction and Management for Resilient Mountain Communities in Nepal
(Chandani Bhandari, Ranjan Kumar Dahal, Manita Timilsina, Kumud Raj Kafle, Gangalal Tuladhar, Geotech Solutions International Pvt. Ltd., Sanepa, Lalitpur, Nepal, and others)

Chapter 10. Human Mindset, Attitudes, and Behavior Influencing Natural Resource Management: Water Quality in Pakistan
(Zoya Arshad and Bishal K. Sitaula, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway)

Chapter 11. Vulnerability of Local Communities to Climate-Related Disasters in the Himalayan Region
(Yogeeta Dahal, College of Natural Resources, Royal University of Bhutan, Lobesa, Bhutan)

Section IV: Water Quality, Security and Resource Management

Chapter 12. Irrigation Water Quality of Surkhet Valley, Nepal
(Smriti Gurung, Nani Raut, Archana Niraula, Jhuna Kattel, Bed Mani Dahal, Pratiksha Koirala, Kumar Khatri, Bibhuti Ranjan Jha and K. C. Sneha, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal, and others)

Chapter 13. Water Resource Management in Bhutan
(Ugyen Dorji, College of Natural Resources, Royal University of Bhutan, Lobesa, Bhutan)

Chapter 14. Assessment of Water Resources with Reference to Mountain Aquifers and Spring Hydrology in Bhutan
(Jambay Jambay, College of Natural Resources, Royal University of Bhutan, Lobesa, Bhutan)

Chapter 15. River Water Pollution Due to Vehicle Washing in Bhutan
(Reeta Rai, Department of Science Education, Samtse College of Education, Royal University of Bhutan, Samtse, Bhutan)

Section V: Biodiversity and its Conservation

Chapter 16. Spiritual Ecology of Water: Water and Prayer in Christianity, Islam, Veda and Avesta
(Bishal K. Sitaula, Zoya Arshad and Hugh van Skyhawk, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway)

Chapter 17. Status and Role of Tributaries in Fish Conservation: Fish Diversity in Nepalese Rivers
(Bibhuti Ranjan Jha, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal)

Chapter 18. Diatom Studies in High Altitude Lakes in the Himalaya
(Ingrid Jüttner, Smriti Gurung, Anu Gurung, Chhatra Mani Sharma and Subodh Sharma, Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales, Department of Natural Sciences, Cathays Park, Cardiff, UK, and others)

Chapter 19. Knowledge and Public Perception toward Conservation of Bats in Bhutan
(Sangay Tshering, Department of Environment and Climate Studies, College of Natural Resources, Royal University of Bhutan, Lobesa, Punakha, Bhutan)

Chapter 20. Trophy Hunting of Wild Ungulates in Northern Pakistan
(Muhammad Zafar Khan and Mehmood Ghaznavi, Departmet of Environemntal Sciences, Karakoram International University, Gilgit, Pakistan, and others)

Section VI: Policies and Governance in Natural Resource Management

Chapter 21. Natural Resource Management Policies and Governance in Nepal
(Ridish K. Pokharel, Krishna R. Tiwari, Bijendra Basnyat, Santosh Rayamajhi and Bishnu P. Devkota, Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal)

Chapter 22. Political Ecology of Environmental Conservation: A Case of the Bhutan Himalaya
(Om Katel and Dietrich Schmidt-Vogt, College of Natural Resources, Royal University of Bhutan, Lobesa, Bhutan)

Epilogue

Index

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