Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy: Methods, Analysis and Research


Vinay Bhardwaj, PhD (Editor)
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USA

Anthony J. McGoron, PhD (Editor)
Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, College of Engineering and Computing, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA

Series: Nanotechnology Science and Technology
BISAC: TEC027000

In the last decade, we have seen spurring growth in academic and industrial interest in Raman spectroscopy and its modifications, in particular, Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). This is evident by the number of SERS publications in the last decade, from 580 in 2005 to almost 2000 in 2014. There are now companies worldwide that are dedicated to manufacturing SERS substrate, sensors, and other SERS-based products.

The miniaturization of Raman instrumentation from bulky and expensive bench-top designs to inexpensive handheld spectrometers has allowed SERS to be employed as an in situ detection technique. Some examples of the industrial success of Raman and SERS are rapid raw material identification (RMID), Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and drug screening in pharma and biotech industries, continuous surveillance of food, water, and environmental safety, and the diagnosis and continuous monitoring of diseases like cancer, diabetes, etc.

This progress in translating Raman and SERS techniques into commercial use and commercial products is possible because of the close collaboration between scientists and engineers. However, the weak signals of Raman spectroscopy is an inherent limitation of the spontaneous Raman spectroscopy technique. Therefore, several modifications have been made, including but not limited to, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS), transmission Raman spectroscopy (TRS), coherent anti-Stoke’s Raman spectroscopy (CARS), and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy has become a one-of-a kind, portable, and affordable technology for in-situ detection and continuous monitoring in resource-limited-settings.

The primary focus of this textbook is to try to cover the fundamentals in SERS methods of preparing substrates and sensors, and efficient spectral analysis approaches like chemometrics for diverse applications, listed in the paragraph above. However, with a goal to give a true picture to the audience when assessing the scope of spontaneous Raman and Surface-enhanced Raman for specific applications, we have briefly introduced industrially successful examples of other types of Raman spectroscopy techniques, such as SORS, TRS, and CARS.
(Imprint: Nova)

Table of Contents

Table of Contents




Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)
(G. B. V. S. Lakshmi, PhD, Vinay Bhardwaj, PhD, and Pratima S. Solanki, PhD, Special Centre for Nanoscience, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India, and others)

Chapter 2. Applications of SERS for Ultrasensitive Detection of Small Molecules
(Frank J. Owens, PhD, Department of Physics, Hunter College of the City University of New York, NY, US)

Chapter 3. Applications of SERS in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy Monitoring
(Supriya Srinivasan, PhD, and Alicia Fernandez-Fernandez, PhD, University of Miami, Miami-Florida, US, and others)
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Chapter 4. SERS for Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) to Manage Diabetes
(Vinay Bhardwaj, PhD, Vineet Kumar, PhD, and Vinod P. Gaur, PhD, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ, US)

Chapter 5. SLISA (SERS-Linked Immuno Sensor Assay): Method of Development and Validation with Reference to ELISA
(Vinay Bhardwaj, PhD, and Anthony J. McGoron, PhD, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ, US, and others)

Chapter 6. SERS for the Forensic Toxicological Screening of Drugs
(Chiara Deriu, Janak Paudyal, PhD, Vinay Bhardwaj, PhD, and Bruce McCord, PhD, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL, US, and others)

Chapter 7. Raman and SERS in Pharma: Drug Discovery, Development and Targeted Delivery
(Vinay Bhardwaj, PhD, Neelam Chaudhary, PhD, and Anthony J. McGoron, PhD, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of New jersey, Ewing, NJ, US, and others)

Chapter 8. Raman and SERS as Process Analytical Technology/Tool (PAT) in Biotech and Pharma
(Zohreh Shahnavaz, PhD, and Vinay Bhardwaj, PhD, Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and others)

Chapter 9. SERS for Surveillance of Food, Water and Environment Safety
(Anita Yadav, PhD, Vinay Bhardwaj, PhD, Sachin Gulati, PhD, and Veena Vishwakarma, Department of Biotechnology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-Haryana, India, and others)



“Despite the fact that Raman spectroscopy has been used since 1928, and the surface enhancing version has been used for more than 40 years, it is an analytical tool that has not been fully exploited in the bio-clinical, forensic and manufacturing sciences. This new text, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: Methods, Analysis, and Research”, edited by Vinay Bhardwaj and Anthony J. McGoron reviews the state of the art in these areas enabling the interested reader to understand what has been done, and determine her/his level of interest in implementing this tool. The chapters explain the applications and are replete with references enabling the reader to assess the validity and potential of the tool for his application.” – Fran Adar, Ph.D., Principal Scientist HORIBA Scientific

“This book presents an excellent chapter on the relevance of SERS in oncology, by providing a clear description of the current state of the art and offering a clear perspective on the future developments of this field.” – Professor Laura Fabris, Ph.D., Rutgers University, USA

“This book gives a wide-ranging overview and examples of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applied to a variety of real world applications covering diverse areas from toxicology, pharmaceuticals, diagnostics, environmental as well as food and water safety and security. This book will present readers with a better understanding of the potential of SERS as a sensing nanotechnology that can be successfully applied to a host of emerging analytical challenges as well as its flexibility in coupling it with other established techniques like for example ELISA.” – Dr. Stuart Farquharson (President and CEO) and Chetan Shende (Director R&D) at Real Time Analyzers, Inc. Connecticut, USA

“I am impressed to note that the book provides an up-to-date and critical overview of the SERS technique and its potential implications in the healthcare, environment, forensics, and national defense. I am particularly impressed by the editors’ holistic approach of discussing SERS applications. The authors have taken honest efforts to cover all the important aspects in SERS development: from basic optics or instrumentation design, method or process development, and data analytics including state-of-the-art chemometrics and machine learning approaches. I strongly recommend Raman and SERS technology innovators and early adopters in academia and industries to refer this impactful textbook.” – Dr. Murukeshnan (Muru) Vadakke Matham, Prof. and Director of Centre for Optical and Laser Engineering (COLE) at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

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