Studies and Exercises in Formal Logic

John Neville Keynes

Series: Languages and Linguistics
BISAC: LAN009000

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In addition to a somewhat detailed exposition of certain portions of what may be called the book-work of formal logic, the following pages contain a number of problems worked out in detail and unsolved problems, by means of which the student may test his command over logical processes.

In the expository portions of Parts I, II, and III, dealing respectively with terms, propositions, and syllogisms, the traditional lines are in the main followed, though with certain modifications; e.g., in the systematisation of immediate inferences, and in several points of detail in connexion with the syllogism. For purposes of illustration Euler’s diagrams are employed to a greater extent than is usual in English manuals.

In Part IV, which contains a generalisation of logical processes in their application to complex inferences, a somewhat new departure is taken. So far as I am aware this part constitutes the first systematic attempt that has been made to deal with formal reasonings of the most complicated character without the aid of mathematical or other symbols of operation, and without abandoning the ordinary non-equational or predicative form of proposition. This attempt has on the whole met with greater success than I had anticipated; and I believe that the methods formulated will be found to be both as easy and as effective as the symbolical methods of Boole and his followers. The book concludes with a general and sure method of solution of what Professor Jevons called the inverse problem, and which he himself seemed to regard as soluble only by a series of guesses.
(Imprint: SNOVA)

PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION.
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.
INTRODUCTION.
PART I. TERMS.
CHAPTER I. THE LOGIC OF TERMS.
CHAPTER II. EXTENSION AND INTENSION.
CHAPTER III. REAL, VERBAL, AND FORMAL PROPOSITIONS.
CHAPTER IV. NEGATIVE NAMES AND RELATIVE NAMES.
PART II. PROPOSITIONS.
CHAPTER I. IMPORT OF JUDGMENTS AND PROPOSITIONS.
CHAPTER II. KINDS OF JUDGMENTS AND PROPOSITIONS.
CHAPTER III. THE OPPOSITION OF PROPOSITIONS.
CHAPTER IV. IMMEDIATE INFERENCES.
CHAPTER V. THE DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION OF PROPOSITIONS.
CHAPTER VI. PROPOSITIONS IN EXTENSION AND IN INTENSION.
CHAPTER VII. LOGICAL EQUATIONS AND THE QUANTIFICATION OF THE PREDICATE.
CHAPTER VIII. THE EXISTENTIAL IMPORT OF CATEGORICAL PROPOSITIONS.
CHAPTER IX. CONDITIONAL AND HYPOTHETICAL PROPOSITIONS.
CHAPTER X. DISJUNCTIVE (OR ALTERNATIVE) PROPOSITIONS.
PART III. SYLLOGISMS.
CHAPTER I. THE RULES OF THE SYLLOGISM.
CHAPTER II. THE FIGURES AND MOODS OF THE SYLLOGISM.
CHAPTER III. THE REDUCTION OF SYLLOGISMS.
CHAPTER IV. THE DIAGRAMMATIC REPRESENTATION OF SYLLOGISMS.
CHAPTER V. CONDITIONAL AND HYPOTHETICAL SYLLOGISMS.
CHAPTER VI. DISJUNCTIVE SYLLOGISMS.
CHAPTER VII. IRREGULAR AND COMPOUND SYLLOGISMS.
CHAPTER VIII. PROBLEMS ON THE SYLLOGISM.
CHAPTER IX. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF INFERENCE.
CHAPTER X. EXAMPLES OF ARGUMENTS AND FALLACIES.
APPENDIX A. THE DOCTRINE OF DIVISION.
APPENDIX B. THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF THOUGHT.
APPENDIX C. A GENERALISATION OF LOGICAL PROCESSES IN THEIR APPLICATION TO COMPLEX PROPOSITIONS.
CHAPTER I. THE COMBINATION OF TERMS.
CHAPTER II. COMPLEX PROPOSITIONS AND COMPOUND PROPOSITIONS.
CHAPTER III. IMMEDIATE INFERENCES FROM COMPLEX PROPOSITIONS.
CHAPTER IV. THE COMBINATION OF COMPLEX PROPOSITIONS.
CHAPTER V. INFERENCES FROM COMBINATIONS OF COMPLEX PROPOSITIONS.
CHAPTER VI. THE INVERSE PROBLEM.
INDEX

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