Staphylococcus aureus: Infections, Treatment and Risk Assessment

Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha (Editor)
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Botucatu Biosciences Institute, UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil

Series: Bacteriology Research Developments, Immunology and Immune System Disorders
BISAC: MED022090

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This book provides an overview of the different topics of staphylococcal research in recent years. Severe infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become a global health problem in the twenty-first century. Chapter One discusses MRSA as a major cause of healthcare or hospital-associated infections (HA-MRSA) in burn patients, indicated as a high-risk group for invasive staphylococcal infection. Types of MRSA, which have traditionally been tackled as exclusive agents of healthcare-associated infections, are now recognized as the causative agents of severe disease acquired in the community. The second chapter discusses these infections as they occur mainly in “special populations”. For example, we may cite people living with HIV/AIDS, older adults living in long-term care facilities and patients with chronic diseases, notably diabetes mellitus. In Chapter Three, a third epidemiological form of MRSA is discussed, which is known as livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). Chapter Four emphasizes the current scenario of highly adaptable clonal complexes. Among these strains, LA-MRSA belonging to clonal complex (CC) 398 are particularly important, and nosocomial infections caused by strains of CC398 are frequently reported. Confirmation of the presence of microorganisms in blood cultures is one of the most important roles of clinical microbiology laboratories. Blood culture testing – the gold standard for the diagnosis of sepsis – is able to elucidate the etiology of infection and to establish appropriate antibiotic treatment in order to improve the prognosis of septic patients and, consequently, to reduce morbidity and mortality; this is the subject discussed in Chapter Five. Nosocomial infections manifest more intensely and more frequently in newborns when compared to children or adults. Staphylococcus aureus infections in newborns is discussed in Chapter Six. Staphylococcus spp. are an important cause of peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis (PD), frequently requiring change of the dialysis technique and causing an important impact on the mortality of PD patients, another matter of great importance which is discussed in Chapter Seven. Finally, the epidemiology and experimental evidence that S. aureus and its products, the superantigens, are directly related to the development or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases, which are discussed in Chapter Eight. This book provides an excellent overview of the different applications of staphylococcal research for clinicians, researchers and students who intend to address these issues, and permits continued high-quality research involving these important pathogens. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical)

Preface

Chapter 1. MRSA Among Burn Patients: Relevance, Epidemiology and Control
Carlos Magno Castelo Branco Fortaleza and Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha (Department of Tropical Diseases, Botucatu School of Medicine, Unesp – Univ Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 2. Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in Special Groups
Camila Sena Martins de Souza, Nathalia Bibiana Teixeira and Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha (Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Botucatu Institute of Biosciences, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil)

Chapter 3. Molecular Epidemiology of Livestock-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA)
Priscila Luiza Mello, Luiza Pinheiro, Lisiane de Almeida Martins and Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha (Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Botucatu Biosciences Institute, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, and others)

Chapter 4. Epidemiology of Highly Adaptable Clones: ST398 and Human Diseases
Lígia Maria Abraão, Mariana Fávero Bonesso, Eliane Patrícia Lino Pereira-Franchi and Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha (Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Botucatu Institute of Biosciences, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista. Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil)

Chapter 5. Staphylococcus spp. in Bloodstream Infections
Aydir Cecília Marinho Monteiro and Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha (Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Botucatu Institute of Biosciences, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil)

Chapter 6. Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Newborns
Danilo Flávio Moraes Riboli, Thaís Alves Barbosa and Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha (Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Botucatu Institute of Biosciences, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil)

Chapter 7. Staphylococcus spp. in the Etiology of Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis: Risk Factors of the Host and Microorganism
Ana Cláudia Moro Lima dos Santos and Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha (Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Botucatu Institute of Biosciences, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil)

Chapter 8. Staphylococcus aureus: Superantigens and Autoimmunity
Thais Graziela Donegá França and Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha (Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Botucatu Institute of Biosciences, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista. Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil)

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