Spinal Cord and Spinal Column Tumors

Alessandro Landi, MD, PhD, Fabrizio Gregori, MD and Roberto Delfini (Editors)
University of Rome “Sapienza”, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Rome, Italy

Series: Neuroscience Research Progress, Cancer Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatments
BISAC: MED062000

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Volume 10

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Special issue: Resilience in breaking the cycle of children’s environmental health disparities
Edited by I Leslie Rubin, Robert J Geller, Abby Mutic, Benjamin A Gitterman, Nathan Mutic, Wayne Garfinkel, Claire D Coles, Kurt Martinuzzi, and Joav Merrick

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A spinal column tumor is a cancerous (malignant) or noncancerous (benign) growth that develops within or near the spinal cord or within the bones of the spine and aren’t as common as brain tumors, but they do occur. The majority of spinal cord tumors are found in children and young adults, but anyone can be diagnosed with a tumor at any point in their life. Treatment for a spinal tumor may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy or other medications. Surgery can range from a minimally invasive procedure to complex reconstruction depending on the severity of cancer involvement.

This book aimed to have a complete and detailed update on spinal oncologic pathology and the most advanced techniques for diagnosing and managing spinal cord and spinal column tumors. From the fundamentals of spinal cord anatomy and spinal tumors pathology to the clinical evaluation, radiological diagnosis and treatment techniques for specific spinal tumors. The book is divided into two sections, one on spinal cord tumors and one on vertebral column tumors. The text contains multidisciplinary notions on surgical approaches for resection, reconstruction, decompression and stabilization for spinal tumors. Furthermore, the text contains important updates on the diagnosis and treatment of vertebral metastases with particular attention to diagnostic algorithms. It contains contributions and experiences of some of the world’s leading experts in the treatment of spinal oncological pathology, making this work rich and complete.

This book is aimed at neurosurgeons, orthopedic surgeons and specialists who require a complete text on current techniques in the management of spinal tumors.
(Imprint: Nova Medicine and Health)

Preface

Chapter 1. Anatomy of Spinal Cord
(Bahaaeldin Gaber Abdrabo, Consultant neurosurgeon, Hayat National Hospital, Riyadh, KSA, and Lecturer of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Menofyia University, Egypt)

Chapter 2. Molecular Biology of Spinal Cord Tumors
(Bahaaeldin Gaber Abdrabo, Consultant neurosurgeon, Hayat National Hospital, Riyadh, KSA, and Lecturer of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Menofyia University, Egypt)

Chapter 3. Radiology of Spinal Tumors
(Bahaaeldin Gaber Abdrabo, Consultant neurosurgeon, Hayat National Hospital, Riyadh, KSA, and Lecturer of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Menofyia University, Egypt)

Chapter 4. Clinical Manifestations of Spinal Cord Tumors
(Faycal Lakhdar, and Mohammed Benzagmout, Department of neurosurgery, Hassan II university hospital, Fez, Morocco, and Neurosciences Clinical laboratory Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University medical school, Fez, Morocco)

Chapter 5. Intraoperative CT and Neurovisualization in Surgical Treatment of Spine and Spinal Cord Tumors
(Albert A. Sufianov, MD, Federal State-Financed Institution “Federal Centre of Neurosurgery” of Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, City of Tyumen, Tyumen, Russia, and I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia)

Chapter 6. Principles of Management of Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors
(Sobhy Houissa, Nidhal Maatar, and Hafedh Jemel, Department of Neurosurgery, Mongi Ben Hamida National Institute of Neurology, Tunis, Tunisia)

Chapter 7. Surgical Treatment of Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors: Techniques, Nuances, and Pitfalls
(Harshad R Purandare, and Basant K Misra, Department of Neurosurgery and Gamma Knife Radiosurgery, Hinduja Hospital and Medical Care Center, Mumbai, India)

Chapter 8. Presenting Symptoms of Spinal Astrocytomas
(Eleni Agapiou, Ioannis N. Mavridis, Maria Meliou, and Efstratios-Stylianos Pyrgelis, ‘C.N.S. Alliance’ Research Group, Lykovryssi, Athens, Greece)

Chapter 9. Intramedullary Tumors: Ependymomas
(Kiyoshi Ito, MD and Kazuhiro Hongo, MD, Department of Neurosurgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan)

Chapter 10. Spinal Cord and Spinal Column Tumors. Intramedullary Tumors: Cavernomas
(Edgardo Spagnuolo, A. Jaume, and F. Salle, Neurosurgical Department, Maciel Hospital- ASSE, School of Medicine – University of the Republic, Montevideo, Uruguay)

Chapter 11. Technical Nuances in the Extirpation of Intramedullary Cavernous Malformations
(Daniel C Walsh, Department of Neurosurgery, King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK, and Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Insititute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, London, UK)

Chapter 12. Intramedullary Tumors: Morbidity, Recurrence, Complications and Survival
(Regunath Kandasamy, Liew Boon Seng, Kamarul Imran Musa, Sarimah Abdullah, and Jafri Malin Abdullah, Department of Neurosciences & Brain Behavior Cluster, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, and others)

Chapter 13. Adjuvant Therapy in Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors
(Biswa Mohan Biswal, Regunath Kandasamy, Zamzuri Idris, Tan Yew Chin, and Jafri Malin Abdullah, KPJ IPOH Specialist Hospital, Ipoh, Malaysia, and Brian Behaviour Cluster, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia)

Chapter 14. Intraoperative Electrophysiological Monitoring (TES AND EMG) in Spinal Tumor Surgery
(Roberto Gazzeri, MD, Andrea Faiola, MD, Adrienn Laszlo, Giorgio Callovini, MD, and Marcelo Galarza, MD, PhD, Department of Neurosurgery, San Giovanni Addolorata Hospital, Rome, Italy, and Regional Service of Neurosurgery, “Virgen de la Arrixaca” University Hospital, Murcia, Spain)

Chapter 15. Spinal Intradural Extramedullary Tumors
(Imad N. Kanaan, MD, Professor & Chairman, Department of Neurosciences, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre; College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)

Chapter 16. Intradural Extramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors: Schwannomas – Clinico-Therapeutic Remarks
(Benaissa Abdennebi, MD, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Algiers I, Salim Zemirli Hospital, El Harrach, Algiers)

Chapter 17. Surgery on C-2 Neurinomas
(Atul Goel, Professor and Head of Department, Department of Neurosurgery, K.E.M.Hospital and Seth G.S. Medical College, Parel, Mumbai)

Chapter 18. Surgery of Intraspinal Lumbar Schwannoma. Technique
(Athanasios K. Petridis, MD, and Richard Bostelmann, MD, Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Germany)
Chapter 19. Intradural Extramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors: Arachnoid Cysts
(Edgardo Spagnuolo, F. Salle, and A. Jaume, Neurosurgical Department, Maciel Hospital, School of Medicine, ASSE, Montevideo, Uruguay)

Chapter 20. Intradural Extramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors: Tumors of the Filum Terminale
(Angelo Pompucci, Cosimo Sturdà, and Gianluca Trevisi, Neurosurgery, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy)

Chapter 21. Transtubular Surgery for Spinal Intradural Lesions
(John M Duff, MD, Rodolfo Maduri, MD, Sonia Plaza Wuthrich, PhD, and Lukas Bobinski, MD, PhD, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland, Faculty of Biology & Medicine, University of Lausanne, Switzerland, and Department of Orthopedics, University of Uppsala, Sweden)

Chapter 22. Surgical Treatment of Cervical Spinal Nerve Tumors
(E.G. Pedachenko, E.I.Slynko, and Y.V. Derkach, Romodanov Neurosurgery Institute, National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine)

Chapter 23. Unilateral Approach for the Resection of Filum Terminale Tumors
(Alfredo Pompili, MD, Dept of Neurosurgery, In cooperation with Stefano Telera MD, Laura Raus MD, and in memory of Fabrizio Caroli MD, “Regina Elena” Natl Cancer Institute. Rome Italy)

Chapter 24. Retroperitoneal Lombotomic Approach for Spinal Extradural Tumors
(Stefano Telera, MD, Alfredo Pompili, MD, Laura Raus, MD, and Fabrizio Caroli, MD, Department of Neurosurgery, National Cancer Institute, “Regina Elena”, Rome, Italy)

Chapter 25. Intradural Extramedullary Spinal Tumors Surgery Related Complications
(Sobhy Houissa, Sofiene Bouali, and Hafedh Jemel, Department of Neurosurgery, Mongi Ben Hamida National Institute of Neurology, Tunis, Tunisia)

Chapter 26. Spinal Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Type I and II: A Review
(Paola Castri, MD, PhD, Department of Pediatric Neurology, University of Tennessee, Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee)

Chapter 27. The Role of Intraoperative Neuromonitoring
(Ehab Shiban, and Bernhard Meyer, Neurosurgery Department, Technical University of Munich, Germany, and Neurosurgery Department, University of Augsburg, Germany)

Chapter 28. Spinal Column Tumors: Neuroradiological Imaging
(Tan Yew Chin, Jafri Malin Abdullah, Gee Teak Sheng, Regunath Kandasamy, Abd Rahman Ghani, and Zamzuri Idris, Brain and Behaviour Cluster, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia)

Chapter 29. Spinal Column Tumors: Principles of Therapy
(Ismail Al-Kebsi, and Mohammed Al-Dhahir)

Chapter 30. Spinal Column Tumors: Osteoblastomas and Osteoid Osteoma
(Marco Crostelli, and Osvaldo Mazza, Spine Surgery Unit, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, Roma, Italy)

Chapter 31. Staging, Classification and Oncological Approach for Spinal Column Metastases
(Ehab Shiban, and Bernhard Meyer, Neurosurgery Department, Technical University of Munich, Germany, and Neurosurgery Department, University of Augsburg, Germany)

Chapter 32. Evolution of Scoring Systems and Treatment Algorithms for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression
(Konstantinos Barkas, Christian Brogna, and David Bell, Department of Neurosurgery, King’s College Hospital, London, UK)

Chapter 33. Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery (MISS) for Neurological Metastases of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine
(M. Miscusi, MD, PhD, Alessandro Ramieri, MD, PhD, S. Forcato, MD, S. Trungu, MD, M. Domenicucci, MD, G. Costanzo, MD, and A. Raco, MD, NESMOS Department, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, and others)

Chapter 34. Osteolytic Metastases of the Thoracolumbar Spine: The Role of the Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty
(Alessandro Ramieri, MD, PhD, Giorgio Ippolito, MD, Umberto Prencipe, MD, Giovanni Corsini, MD, Maurizio Domenicucci, MD, and Giuseppe Costanzo, MD, Don Gnocchi Foundation ONLUS, Milan, Italy, and others)

Chapter 35. Neurosurgical Treatment of Sacrum Tumors: Surgical Techniques and Clinical Results
(E.G. Pedachenko, E.I. Slynko, and M.M. Leshko, Romodanov Neurosurgery Institute, and Oleksandrivska city clinical hospital, Kyiv, Ukraine)

Chapter 36. Surgical Approaches for the Resection of Craniovertebral Junction Tumors
(Ioan Stefan Florian, MD, PhD, Silviu Albu, MD, PhD, Cristian Abrudan, MD, PhD, Magdalena Balaci, MD, and Ioan Alexndru Florian, MD, Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Hatieganu” Cluj-Napoca, Romania, and others)

Chapter 37. Endoscopic Endonasal Approach to the Craniocervical Junction for Clival Chordoma
(Jonathan Shapey, Steve Connor, and Nicholas WM Thomas, Skull Base Unit, Department of Neurosurgery, King’s College Hospital, London, UK)

Chapter 38. Surgical Approaches to Resectioning Tumors of the Thoracic Spine
(Regunath Kandasamy, Mohd Imran Yusof, Ananda Arumugam, Abdul Rahman Izaini Ghani, Zamzuri Idris, and Jafri Malin Abdullah, Dept. of Neurosciences, Brain & Behaviour Cluster & Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, and others)

Chapter 39. Total En-Bloc Spondilectomy Through a Posterior Approach: Technique and Surgical Outcome in Thoracic Metastases
(Maurizio Domenicucci, Lorenzo Nigro, Alessandro Landi, and Roberto Delfini, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Rome, Italy)

Chapter 40. Spinal Arterovenous Malformation
(Arun K Srivastava, Vivek K. Singh, Mohammed Iqbal, and Sanjay Behari, Department of Neurosurgery and Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India)

Index

"Management of spinal cord and spinal column tumors has extended the reach of the neurosurgeon. This book reviews the main tumors of this area of the nervous system and gives an overview on the main approaches in a step-by-step fashion. The goal of this book is, therefore, to assist neurosurgeons and spinal surgeons to better understand the main neoplastic pathologies of this area, and limits and possibilities of spinal approaches. I am pretty sure that this volume will lead to improve the knowledge on spinal cord and spinal column tumors and their management for better care of patients." - Giovanni Grasso, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Neurosurgical Clinic, Department of Experimental Biomedicine & Clinical Neurosciences, Deputy Rector for Relationships with Medical & Scientific Associations and Charities, University of Palermo, Italy

"Dr. Landi and Dr. Defini have edited a most comprehensive text on spinal cord and spinal column tumors. By starting with the basic anatomy and biochemistry, they lay the groundwork for a better understanding of all the following chapters. This approach is laudable. The topic is one of the most important in the field of neurosurgery. Spinal cord tumors are poorly understood, and often overlooked. Not since the book from Johns Hopkins Hospital "Surgery for Skull Base Tumors (Contemporary Issues in Neurological Surgery)" edited by Donlin Long, MD, PhD, has there been such a comprehensive text on these issues. According to the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, primary tumors arising from the spinal cord, spinal nerve roots and dura are rare compared to CNS tumors that arise in the brain. Overall prevalence is estimated at one spinal tumor for every four intracranial lesions. About 10,000 Americans develop primary (30%) or metastatic (70%) spinal cord tumors each year. This book, edited by Dr Landi and Dr. Defini brings new clarity of understanding of this rare, but potentially devastating clinical process. Any neurosurgeons will greatly benefit from this volume." - Nelson Hendler, MD, MS, Former assistant professor of neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Former associate professor of physiology
University of Maryland School of Dental Surgery

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