Solid-State Cultivation of Grifola frondosa and Ganoderma lucidum: Technology, Research and Possibilities for Waste Utilization in Tropical Weathers


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Series: Recent Trends in Biotechnology
BISAC: SCI008000
DOI: 10.52305/NWOF5466

The worldwide market of medicinal mushrooms is constantly increasing considering the improvement of the level of life of population and the concerns for a healthy quality of life. The consumption of Macromycetes fungi as delicatessen food or nutraceuticals is increasing due to their gourmet features, nutritional characteristics and medicinal properties. The fruiting bodies of several fungal species contain different types of compounds that are valuable in the medical and cosmetic industry and have applications in other industrial sectors. However, the cultivation of Macromycetes is not fully disseminated at world level and just a few species are grown on a commercial scale (about 10 species).

In particular, the demand of the Macromycetes Grifola frondosa (Maitake) and Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) in their different trade presentations is increasing because of their medicinal features and their applications in the pharmaceutical industry. Thus, research and development regarding the improvement of the cultivation parameters for these two fungal species have a paramount importance in order to reach a higher coverage in their industrialization. G. frondosa is a less-known and newer species in the mushroom industry. Its cultivation presents different levels of complexity and there are a few commercial facilities for its production. Likewise, G. lucidum, although more known than Maitake, exhibits significant complexity levels during its cultivation as well. In the present book, a comprehensive compilation of the developments achieved for improving the cultivation parameters of these two species in tropical weathers aimed at implementing them at industrial scale is provided. The book presents extensive research outcomes obtained by the authors not only at small scale, but also at pilot and industrial scales.

The main markets for these two species are presented as well as the most promising residual feedstocks to be used for production of Reishi and Maitake fruiting bodies in the context of countries with tropical weather. The conventional procedures for solid-state cultivation at different production scales is analyzed and specific conditions for such production in tropical weathers are also discussed. In addition, a description of the potential biologically active compounds that could be extracted from these two fungal species is provided as well as main lignocellulylitic enzymes obtained from these mushrooms. This book is intended to researchers, graduate students, technologists, and entrepreneurs as well as private firms working in the medicinal mushroom industry.
(Imprint: Nova)

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Chapter 1. Market and Feedstocks for Ganoderma lucidum Cultivation

Chapter 2. Solid-State Cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum

Chapter 3. Research Trends on Ganoderma lucidum Cultivation and its Biologically Active Compounds

Chapter 4. Market and Feedstocks for Maitake Cultivation

Chapter 5. Solid-state Cultivation of Grifola frondosa at Small and Pilot Scales

Chapter 6. Commercial Scale Cultivation of Grifola frondosa

Chapter 7. Research Trends on Grifola frondosa Cultivation and its Biologically Active Compounds

Chapter 8. Enzymes from Ganoderma lucidum and Grifola frondosa



“This book should help advance cause of mushroom biology and mushroom cultivation. It will be an important reference for those who are interest in research as well as in the cultivation of mushrooms practically in Latin American countries. Solid-State Cultivation of Grifola frondosa and Ganoderma lucidum: Technology, Research and Possibilities for Waste Utilization in Tropical Weathers is unique not only in its treatment of the technical aspects of growing these two important mushrooms in tropical climates, but also in its emphases on the environmental and socio-economic impacts in human welfare. “ – Shu T. Chang, Ph.D., Emeritus Professor of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, c/o Canberra, Australia

“This is a well written and thorough book. This book emphasizes trends and developments in mushroom biology and medicinal mushroom science with special attention to industrial mushroom cultivation from an international perspective based on the study of two very important species: Ganoderma lucidum and Grifola frondosa. I would strongly recommend this edition of mushrooms without hesitation to industrial and medicinal mycologists, mushroom growers, botanists, plant pathologists, professionals, and scientists in related fields. This book illustrates that mushroom cultivation has and will continue to have a positive global impact on long-term food nutrition, healthcare, environmental conservation, regeneration, and economic and social change. The potentially extensive use of this book can be recognized in universities, classroom, laboratories, etc. This book is useful for students pursuing degrees in mushroom science through the Ph.D. studies and beyond. This book can be used as an encyclopedia of solid-state cultivation of two species of the most important medicinal mushrooms, e.g., Grifola frondosa and Ganoderma lucidum, including information not only on cultivation, but also data on nutritional value, medicinal value, biodiversity, and environmental impact. This publication has made a positive contribution to the development of edible and medicinal fungi, not only in South America.” – Solomon P. Wasser, Professor of Botany and Mycology, Dr. Sci. (Biol.), PhD, Head International Center of Biotechnology and Biodiversity of Fungi, Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Israel; Scientific Head of the Department of Cryptogamic Plants and Fungi, Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; Elected Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms


This book is intended to researchers and graduate students carrying out research on design of more efficient ways for cultivation of Grifola frondosa and Ganoderma lucidum mushrooms. In the same way, it is intended to engineers, technologists, and entrepreneurs as well as private firms working in the medicinal mushroom industry.

The job functions of the people that could read the book are as follows: plant managers, engineers and entrepreneurs in the industry of medicinal mushrooms, researchers and graduate students in the field of medicinal mushroom cultivation, professors, teachers and students of undergraduate programs like chemical engineering, food engineering, pharmaceutical chemistry, process engineering, biochemistry, biotechnology, etc.


Cultivation scale-up, lignocellulolytic enzymes, medicinal mushrooms, production spawn, solid-state fermentation.

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