Sociolinguistic Parallels across Europe: Focus on Lowland Scotland and the Eastern Slavic Countries

Alexander Pavlenko, Ph.D.
A.P. Chekhov Institute of Taganrog, Rostov State University of Economics, Russia

Series: Languages and Linguistics
BISAC: LAN009050

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This book is devoted to comparisons of the linguistic situation established by English and Scots in Lowland Scotland, with situations observed in the East Slavic countries and constituted by pairs of closely cognate languages, i.e. Russian, on the one hand, and Ukrainian and Belarusian on the other. Such comparisons have become a popular approach in the field of Scots studies. The process of language change evolving along with social changes in Scotland is studied.

In this respect, East Slavic languages, which are closely cognate, provide abundant material for observation. It is their closeness manifested by mutual intelligibility as well as the closeness of their fortunes and the way they co-exist in today’s Ukraine and Belarus that make East Slavic languages quite appropriate for comparisons with English and Scots in Lowland Scotland. The first five chapters of the book are devoted to just that. The focus is on some historical and sociolinguistic parallels between Scots and Ukrainian as well as Scots and Belarusian, and it compares the key stages and trends in their social history proceeding from the Middle Ages to the present day. For all the structural and functional dissimilarity and geographical remoteness of Scots and the mentioned Slavic languages, one can make interesting observations regarding their social development. A number of sociocultural factors are used to effect the development of the native languages in Scotland and in the East Slavic countries. Some of them are singled out and compared from a historical perspective.

Three other chapters of the book deal with the sociocultural interaction between Scotland and Russia, focusing on the toponyms derived from Scottish personal names found in the territory of the former Russian Empire. As is known, Scotsmen constituted a considerable part of the Western immigrants in Russia, as they were active participants of all the major historical events in Europe. There is a number of toponyms of Western European origin in Russia, some of which date back to Scottish personal names. Such place-names constitute a humble, but noteworthy part of the Scottish legacy in Russia. Some of them luckily survived the Soviet Union’s epoch and its passion for renaming. Quite surprisingly, this stratum of the Russian toponymy has never been systematically studied. Here, the author summarizes some observations regarding the Russian place-names of direct and indirect Scottish origins, tracing back their history as well as the history of the families behind these names. A morphological analysis of the place-names is provided to reveal the word-building patterns involved.

Finally, the author includes a short chapter dealing with a striking example of parallel lexical development in Shetland Norn and Old Russian resulting in two words, which are not necessarily immediately related, but are very close in form and meaning to one another. This peculiar instance of lexical likening can shed more light on the universally recognized etymologies. The topic of this chapter matches those of the previous ones in terms of geography, as the phenomena described in it also refer to Scotland and the East Slavic world.

The abovementioned material has never been considered at this angle, and this is what makes this study new and topical. (Imprint: Nova)

Introduction

Chapter 1. What Is Similar and What Is Different in the Social Histories of Scots and Ukrainian?

Chapter 2. The Early Soviet Experience of ‘Ukrainization’ as a Reference-point for Today’s Scots Language Activists

Chapter 3. The Case of East Slavic Languages in Sociolinguistic Studies of Scots (a Comparative Approach)

Chapter 4. A Belarusian Perspective on Scots and Its Social History

Chapter 5. An Issue of Language Policy for the Post-Soviet Economies: the Case of Ukraine and Belarus

Chapter 6. A Scottish Trace in Russian Toponymy (Focus on: Two Rural Place-names

Chapter 7. Hamilton-Khomutov – a Toponymic Dimension of a Russified Scottish Family name

Chapter 8. An Index of the Russian Place-names of “Overt” and “Covert” Scottish Origins

Chapter 9. An Alternative Perspective on Early Scandinavian Borrowing into Russian (Introducing Shetlandic Evidence)

Index

Chapter 1

Aitken, A. J., 1984: “Scots and English in Scotland”, In: Trudgill, P.(ed.) Languages in the British Isles. Edinburgh, London, New York, etc. 1984, 517-532.
Aitken, A.J., 1996: Introduction. The Concise Scots Dictionary.
Editor-in-chief: Mairi Robinson. Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd., Edinburgh. 1996, ix-xvi.
Barnes M., 1991: Reflections on the Structure and the Demise of Orkney and Shetland Norn. In: Language Contact in the British Isles. Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Language Contact in Europe, Douglas, Isle of Man, 1988. Ed. P.S. Ureland, G. Broderick. Tübingen, Niemeyer. 1991, Linguistische Arbeiten No. 238, 429-460.
Beloded, I. K., Iezhakevich, G. P., Franko, Z. T., 1962: Vzaimosviazi mezhdu Ukrainskim i Drughimi Slavianskimi Yazykami v 16 — nachale 18 v. In: Voprosy Obrazovaniya Vostochnoslavianskikh Natsional’nykh Yazykov. A collection of works. Moskva, 80-89 (in Russian).
Fedoseyeva, N. D., 1993: Yazykovaya Situatsiya v Shotlandii 14 – 17 v. In: Diakhronicheskaya Sotsiolinguistica. A collection of works. Moskva, 120- 130 (in Russian).
Fielin, F.P., 1972: Proiskhozhdeniye Russkogo, Ukrainskogo i Belorusskogo Yazykov. Moskva (in Russian).
Görlach, M., 1985: Scots and Low German: The Social History of Two Minority Languages. In: Focus on: Scotland. Ed.: M. Görlach. Amsterdam-Philadelphia. 19-36.
Görlach, M., 2000: Ulster Scots: A language? In: Belfast Studies in Language, Culture, and Politics. Eds.: John M. Kirk, Dónall P. Ó Baoill. Belfast. 2000, 13-31.
Görlach, M., 2001: Scots: The View from Outside. In: Language Links. The Languages of Scotland and Ireland. Eds.: John M. Kirk, Dónall P. ÓBaoill. Belfast. 2001, 181-194.
Grant, W., 1968: Introduction to the First Edition. In: Chamber’s Scots Dictionary (reprinted 1968). 2-nd edition. Edinburgh, London. vi-xvii.
Grant, W., Dixon, M.J., 1921: Manual of Modern Scots. Cambridge.
Jones, Ch., 1995: A Language Suppressed. The Pronunciation of the Scots Language in the 18th Century. Edinburgh.
Kloss, H. 1968: Die Entwicklung neuer germanischer Kultursprachen seit 1800. Düsseldorf: Bagel. Second Edition.
Kondrashov, N. A., 1987: Slavianskiye Yazyki. Moskva (in Russian).
Macafee C., 1985: Nationalism and the Scots Renaissance now. In: Focus on: Scotland. Ed.: M. Görlach. Amsterdam-Philadelphia. 7-17.
Macafee, C., Ó Baoill, C., 1997: Why Scots is not a Celtic language. In: The Celtic Englishes. Ed.: H.L.C. Tristram. Anglistische Forschungen; H. 247. Heidelberg. 245-286.
Meier, H. H., 1977: Scots is not Alone: the Swiss and Low German Analogues. In: Bards and Makars. Ed.: A.J. Aitken, et al. Glasgow. 201-213.
Sofronov, M.V. 1979: Kitayskiy Yazyk i Kitayskoye Obschestvo. Moskva (in Russian).
Strauss, D., 1978: Scots is not Alone – Further Comparative Considerations. In: Actes du 2-e colloque de langue et de litterature cossaises. Université de Strasburg. 5-11 Juillet. 80-97.
Trubetskoy, N. S., 1991: The Legacy of Genghis Khan and Other Essays on Russia’s Identity. In: Michigan Slavic Materials, No. 33. Ed.: A. Liberman. Ann Arbor.
Withers, Ch. W. J., 1984: Gaelic in Scotland 1698-1981. The Geographical History of a Language. Edinburgh.
Zhilko, F. T., 1962: Nekotoryye Osobennosti Razvitiya
Ukrainskogo Natsional’nogo Yazyka. In: Voprosy Obrazovaniya Vostochnoslavianskikh Natsional’nykh Yazykov. A collection of works. Moskva, 102-109 (in Russian).

Chapter 2

Gab, S.P. (1965). Accents and Dialects of Rostov Region. Rostov-on-Don: Rostov State University Publishing House (in Russian).
Kreindler, I.T. (1984). The Non-Russian Languages and the Challenge of Russian: The Eastern versus the Western Tradition. In: I.T. Kreindler (ed.), Sociolinguistic Perspectives on Soviet National Languages: Their Past, Present, and Future (Contributions to the Sociology of Language 40). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. P. 345-368.
Ovchinnikova, V.S., et al. (eds.) (1975). Dictionary of the Russian Don Dialects. I vol. Rostov-on-Don: Rostov State University Publishing House (in Russian).
Tereschenko, A. (2000). Ukrainization in North-Caucasus Territory [1924-1933], In: Donskoy Vremennik (The Don Chronicle) 2000. Rostov-on-Don. 64-67 (in Russian).
Yefremov, A.S., et al. (2003). A History of Lugansk Territory. Lugansk (Ukraine): Alma-Mater (in Russian).

Chapter 3

Görlach, M., 2000: Ulster Scots: A language? In: Belfast Studies in Langauge, Culture, and Politics. Eds.: John M. Kirk, Dónall P. Ó Baoill. Belfast. 2000, 13-31.
Kloss, H. 1968: Die Entwicklung neuer germanischer Kultursprachen seit 1800 (The development of new Germanic languages since 1800). Düsseldorf: Bagel. Second Edition.
Tolochko, P.P., 1999: Chto ili Kto Ugrozhaet Ukrainskomu Yazyku? Zaporozhye (in Russian).
Trubetskoy, N.S., 1991: The legacy of Genghis Khan and other Essays on Russia’s Identity. In: Michigan Slavic Materials, No. 33. Ed.: A. Liberman. Ann Arbor. 245-267.
Zhilko, F.T., 1962: Nekotoryye Osobennosti Razvitiya
Ukrainskogo Natsional’nogo Yazyka. In: Voprosy Obrazovaniya Vostochnoslavianskikh Natsional’nykh Yazykov. A collection of works. Moskva. 102-109 (in Russian).

Chapter 4

Aitken, A.J., 1984: ‘Scots and English in Scotland’, in Trudgill, P. (ed.) Languages in the British Isles. Edinburgh, London, New York, etc. 1984, 517-532.
Comrie, B., 1990: ‘Russian’, in Comrie B. (ed.) The Major Languages of Eastern Europe. London. 1990, 63-81.
Kloss, H., 1967: ‘Abstand Languages’ and ‘Ausbau Languages’, Anthropological Linguistics 9 (1967), 29-41. Macafee, C., 1985: ‘Nationalism and the Scots Renaissance Now’, in Görlach M. (ed.) Focus on: Scotland. Amsterdam-Philadelphia. 1985, 7-17.
Pugh, S., 1996: Testament to Ruthenian. A Linguistic Analysis of the Smotryc’kyi Variant. Cambridge, Mass.
Stroganova, O.A., 2012: O Nekotorykh Grammaticheskikh Osobennostiakh Yazyka Poezii Hugh Macdiarmida (On Some Grammatical Peculiarities of Hugh MacDiarmid’s Poetic Language). In: Izvestiya Vuzov. Severo-Kavkazskii Region. Seriya ‘Obschestvennye Nauki’ / Southern Federal University. – No.3. – Rostov-on-Don: SFU Publishing House, 2012. – P. 87-92 (in Russian).
Wexler, P., 1974: Purism and Language: a Study in Modern Ukrainian and Belorussian Nationalism (1840-1967). Bloomington, In.

Chapter 5

Grin, F. 2003. “Language Planning and Economics”, Current Issues in Language Planning, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1-66 – 2003.The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Strasbourg, 5. XI.1992. Explanatory Report.
Haugen, E. 1962. “Schizoglossia and the Linguistic Norm” Monograph Series on Languages and Linguistics. Number 15 – 1962.

Chapter 6

Anderson I.G. 1990. Scotsmen in the Service of the Czars. Edinburgh.
Cross A.G. 1987. Scoto-Russian Contacts in the Reign of Catherine the Great (1762-1796). In: P. Dukes (ed.) The Caledonian Phalanx. Scots in Russia. Edinburgh, p. 24-46.
Doubrovin N. 1884. Pougachiov i Ego Soobschniki: Epizod iz Istorii Tsarstvovaniya Imperatritsy Ekateriny II. – V.2. – S. Petersburg (in Russian).
Dukes P. 1987. Scottish Soldiers in Muscovy. In: P.Dukes (ed.) The Caledonian Phalanx. Scots in Russia. Edinburgh, p. 9-23.
Fedosov D. 1996. The Caledonian Connection. Scotland-Russia Ties – Middle Ages to Early Twentieth Century (A concise biographical list). Aberdeen.
Filimonov V. (Ed.). 2005. Kaluzhskaya Encyclopedia. Kaluga (in Russian).
Rovenskiy G.V. 2006. Toponimicheskiy Spravochnik Schiolkovskogo Rayona. Nazvaniya Seleniy, Rek i Ozior, Bolot, Lessov, Dorog i Primechatel’nykh Mestnostei i Ghipotezy Ikh Proiskhozhdeniya. 2nd edition. Schiolkovo-Friazino (in Russian).
Shmemann S. 1997. Echoes of a Native Land. Two Centuries of a Russian Village. New -York.
Volkova Yu., Popova A. (Eds.) Reghionovedenie. Yug Rossii: Kratkii Tematicheskii Slovar’. Rostov-on-Don, 2004 (in Russian).

Chapter 7

Anderson, Ian. 1990. Scotsmen in the Service of the Czars. Edinburgh: Pentland Press.
Cross A.G. 1987. Scoto-Russian Contacts in the Reign of Catherine the Great (1762–1796). In: P. Dukes (ed.) The Caledonian Phalanx. Scots in Russia. Edinburgh: National Library of Scotland, p. 24–46.
Diedova, Anna. 1987. Zapovednaya Priroda Donbassa (a guidebook). Donetsk: Donbass (in Russian).
Dukes, Paul. 1987. Scottish Soldiers in Muscovy. In: P. Dukes (ed.) The Caledonian Phalanx. Scots in Russia. Edinburgh: National Library of Scotland, p. 9–23.
Fedosov, Dmitry. 1996. The Caledonian Connection. Scotland-Russia Ties – Middle Ages to Early Twentieth Century (A concise biographical list). Aberdeen: Centre for Scottish Studies/University of Aberdeen.
Karasiov, Alexey. A.A.1901 Atamanskaya cheta (Iz Vospominaniy). In: Istoricheskiy Vestnik. Istoriko-literaturnyy Zhurnal. January, February, March 1901, Vol. 83. Ed. by S.N. Shubinskiy. Saint-Petersburg: Tipographiya Suvorina, p.588-603 (in Russian).
Kirsanov, Yevgeniy. 1995. Novocherkassk (a local culture and history treatise). Novocherkassk: Don-LBL/Severo-Kavkazskiy Nauchnyy Tsentr Vysshey Shkoly (in Russian).
Krasnov, Piotr. 2007. Istoriya Donskogo Kazachestva. Ocherki Istorii Voyska Donskogo. Moscow: Yauza/Exmo (in Russian).
Novocherkassk City Forum: http://novocherkassk.net/viewtopic. php?t= 123&p=470406 (in Russian).
Popov, Dmitriy. 2011. Ocherk Istorii Oblasti Voyska Donskogo
i Kazachyikh Stanits. In.: http://kazachiy-krug.ru/stati/stanicy-vojsko-donskoe/ocherk-istorii-ovd-i-kazachih (in Russian).
Rodovid Project. Grigory Petrovich Gamilton. Pokolennaya Rospis’. In: http://ru.rodovid.org/wk/Запись:59573 (in Russian).

Chapter 8

Anderson, I.G. Scotsmen in the Service of the Czars (Edinburgh, 1990), 37.
Cross A.G., ‘Scoto-Russian Contacts in the Reign of Catherine the Great (1762-1796)’, In: The Caledonian Phalanx. Scots in Russia, ed. P. Dukes (Edinburgh, 1987), 24-46.
Dukes P., ‘Scottish Soldiers in Muscovy’, In: The Caledonian Phalanx. Scots in Russia. Edinburgh, 1987), 9-23.
Fedosov D., The Caledonian Connection. Scotland-Russia Ties – Middle Ages to Early Twentieth Century (A concise biographical list) (Aberdeen, 1996).
Filimonov V. (ed.), Kaluzhskaya Entsyklopedia (Kaluga Encyclopaedia). Kaluga, 2005 (in Russian).

Chapter 9

Chernykh, P.Ya. 1999. Istoriko-etymologhicheskiy Slovar’ Sovremennogo Russkogo Yzyka. In 2 vols., Moscow (in Russian).
Grant, W., Dixon, J. M. 1921. Manual of Modern Scots. Cambridge.
Gregor, W. 1866. The Dialect of Banffshire: with a Glossary of Words not in Jamieson’s Scottish Dictionary. In: Transactions of the Philological Society. Suppl. 2. London-Berlin.
Jakobsen, J. 1985. An Etymological Dictionary of the Norn Language in Shetland. 2 vols., Lerwick.
Preobrazhenskiy, A. 1959. Etymologhicheskiy Slovar’ Russkogo Yazyka. In 2 vols., Moscow (in Russian).
Vasmer, M. 1973. Etymologhicheskiy Slovar’ Russkogo Yazyka. In 4 vols., Moscow (in Russian).

Audience: Specialists in and students of sociolinguistics, everybody interested in Scots studies and East Slavic studies

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