Socialism in the 21st Century

Richard Westra
Graduate School of Law, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan

Series: Economic Issues, Problems and Perspectives
BISAC: POL005000

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Now is an opportune time to be writing about socialism. 2017 and 2018 are landmark years for socialism. 2018, of course, is the 200 year anniversary of the birth of Karl Marx, whose name is mostly associated with modern socialism. 2017 is the 100 year anniversary of the Soviet Revolution which brought into being the first socialist experiment in the world. Furthermore, 2017 is the 150 year anniversary of the publication of Volume One of Marx’s monumental Capital. Finally, 2017 is the 100 year anniversary of the publication of the iconic short booklet, Imperialism, authored by leader of the Soviet revolution, V. I. Lenin.

The procedure adopted for this book on socialism in the 21st century is as follows:
Chapter One sets the stage for the book by looking at the way the notion of socialism has gained renewed respectability through calls for it to commence via mainstream political parties.
Chapter Two considers questions of the sources for socialist ideas and follows how these were progressively shaped to animate revolutionary actors in putting socialist experiments into practice.
Chapter Three reviews the record of the Soviet Union’s socialist journey. It examines Soviet discontents and explanations for this movement; it then ends with a review of the initial theoretical response to Soviet failings.
Chapter Four explores the transformations undergone by capitalism in the 20th and 21st century. The purpose of this is to show that the kind of capitalist economy socialist revolutionaries believed would be the antechamber for socialism now no longer exists.

Preface

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. From Socialism as Idea to Twentieth Century Experiment

Chapter 3. Socialist Failure and Rethinking

Chapter 4. Socialists Confront a Changed World

Chapter 5. Ecosocialism and New Democratic Designs

Chapter 6. We are All Socialists Now

Chapter 7. Conclusion

Index

Chapter 1

[1] Francis Fukuyama, “The End of History?” The National Interest, 16 (1989), pp. 3-18.[2] Guardian, “Booklovers turn to Karl Marx as financial crisis bites in Germany”, https://www.theguardian.com/books/2008/oct/15/marx-germany-popularity-financial-crisis.
[3] Leo Panitch, “Thoroughly Modern Marx: Lights. Camera. Action. Das Kapital. Now.” http://foreignpolicy.com/2009/09/30/thoroughly-modern-marx/.[4] Fox News, “What Bernie Sanders’ ‘Democratic socialism’ means
to Millennials,” http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2016/03/01/what-bernie-sanders-democratic-socialism-means-to-millennials.html.[5] New Statesman, “How Jeremy Corbyn won the Labour leadership election,” http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/uk/2016/09/how-jeremy-corbyn-won-labour-leadership-election.[6] The Intercept, “Democratic Socialists of America Celebrate Record Membership in Chicago. Now What?” https://theintercept.com/2017/
08/04/dsa-democratic-socialists-convention-record-membership-chicago/.
[7] Jon Miltimore, “Communist Clubs Are Sprouting Up in U.S. High Schools Again,” http://www.intellectualtakeout.org/article/ comm unist-clubs-are-sprouting-us-high-schools-again.
[8] Okla Elliott, “What does Sanders mean by ‘democratic socialism’?” http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/presidential-campaign/
271652-what-does-sanders-mean-by-democratic-socialism.
[9] http://www.labour.org.uk/index.php/manifesto2017/foreword.
[10] https://diem25.org/manifesto-long/#1455748951573-1298e273-a7be.
[11] Giulio M. Gallarotti, “The Advent of the Prosperous Society: The Rise of the Guardian State and Structural Change in the World Economy,” Review of International Political Economy, 7, 1 (2000).
[12] Martin van Creveld, The Rise and Decline of the State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
[13] Jeffry A. Frieden, Global Capitalism: Its Rise and Fall in the Twentieth Century (New York: W. W. Norton, 2007) p. 65.
[14] Ibid., pp. 238-47.
[15] Walter W. Heller, New Dimensions of Political Economy (New York: W. W. Norton, 1967) p. 57.
[16] What follows draws upon Karl W. Kapp, “Economic Regulation and Economic Planning” The American Economic Review, 29, 4 (1939).
[17] Dave Nammo, “Socialism’s Rising Popularity Threatens America’s Future,” National Review, March 18, 2017, http://www.
nationalreview.com/article/445882/socialism-poll-american-culture-faith-institute-george-barna-tradition-liberty-capitalism?

Chapter 2

[1] What follows draws upon Timothy Kenyon, Utopian Communism and Political Thought in Early Modern England (London: Pinter, 1989) pp. 31-3.
[2] Keith Taylor, The Political Ideas of the Utopian Socialists (London: Frank Cass, 1982) p. 5.
[3] Werner Sombart, Socialism and the Social Movement (New York: Agustus M. Kelley, 1968) p. 31.
[4] Ibid. pp. 5ff.
[5] Frank E. Manuel, The Prophets of Paris (New York: Harper, 1962) p. 299.
[6] Frederick Engels, Socialism: Utopian and Scientific, https://
www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1880/soc-utop/ch01.htm.
[7] Ibid.
[8] Sombart, Socialism and the Social Movement, pp. 62-3.
[9] See Karl Polanyi, The Livelihood of Man (London: Academic Press, 1977).
[10] Karl Marx, A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/download/Marx_Contribution_to_the_Critique_of_Political_Economy.pdf. p. 125.
[11] Why capitalism uniquely in human history reveals the economy as a separate sphere derives from its historically peculiar tendency to “reify” human economic life. In Capital Marx refers to the peculiar properties of capital variously as its “alien”, “upside-down”, “fetishistic” tendency to convert individuals into “bearers”’ of “economic categories”; or convert concrete interpersonal social relations of production into abstract impersonal “relations between things”, such “things” as commodities and money then taking on a “life of their own.” See, Karl Marx, Capital, Volume I (New York: Vintage Books, 1977) pp. 92, 165.
[12] Ibid. p. 89.
[13] Karl Marx, Preface to A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1859/critique-pol-economy/preface.htm.
[14] Georges Haupt, “Marx and Marxism”, in Eric Hobsbawn, (ed.), The History of Marxism, Volume 1 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982).
[15] Karl Kautsky, The Class Struggle (New York: W.W. Norton, 1971) p. 119.
[16] Marx, Capital Volume I, p. 929.
[17] See Sean Larson, “The Rise and Fall of the Second International”, Jacobin, https://www.jacobinmag.com/2017/07/second-international-bernstein-rosa-luxemburg-unions-world-war, for a recent take on this drawn on in what follows.
[18] On this see Richard Westra, “In the Tracks of Imperialism”, Journal of Contemporary Asia, 45, 4 (2015).
[19] V. I. Lenin “A Turn in World Politics”, https://www.marxists.org/
archive/lenin/works/1917/jan/31.htm.
[20] Edward Hallett Carr, The Bolshevik Revolution 1917-1923, Volume One (London: Macmillan & Co. 1950) p. 25.
[21] V. I. Lenin, “The Crisis Has Matured”, https://www.marxists.org/
archive/lenin/works/1917/oct/20.htm.
[22] Carr, The Bolshevik Revolution, Volume One, pp. 105-6.
[23] Ibid. pp. 184-89.
[24] M. C. Howard and J. E. King, A History of Marxian Economics: Volume I, 1883-1929 (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1989) p. 79.
[25] Eric Hobsbawm, How to Change the World: Reflections on Marx and Marxism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011) p. 86.
[26] Edward Hallett Carr, The Bolshevik Revolution 1917-1923, Volume Two (London: Macmillan & Co. 1963) pp. 91-3.
[27] V. I. Lenin, Seventh All-Russia Congress of Soviets, December 5-9 1919, http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1919/dec/05.htm.
[28] Carr, The Bolshevik Revolution, Volume Two, pp. 92-3, 97, 132-34.
[29] Moshe Lewin, The Soviet Century (London: Verso, 2016) pp. 299-300.
[30] Howard and King, A History of Marxian Economics: Volume I, pp. 286ff.
[31] Richard Westra, “From development to BRICS: The policy magical mystery tour,” in Richard Westra (ed.) The Political Economy of Emerging Markets: Varieties of BRICS in the Age of Global Crises and Austerity (London: Routledge, 2017) p. 7.
[32] Howard and King, A History of Marxian Economics: Volume I, pp. 288, 302.
[33] Alec Nove, Stalinism and After (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1981) pp. 42-4.
[34] The story of de-kulakization” is told in most dramatic form by Roy Medvedev, Let History Judge (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989) pp. 221-47.
[35] Ibid. pp. 248-53.
[36] Nove, Stalinism and After, p. 46.
[37] Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Manifesto of the Communist Party, https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist-manifesto/ch01.htm.
[38] David M. Kotz and Fred Weir, Revolution from Above: The Demise of the Soviet System (London: Routledge, 1997) pp. pp. 21-3.
[39] T. H. Rigby, “The Government in the Soviet Political System”, in Eugene Huskey (ed.) Executive Power and the Soviet Politics: The Rise and Decline of the Soviet State (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1992) p. 21.
[40] Seongjin Jeong, “Soviet planning and labor-time calculation model: implications for 21st-century socialism”, in Richard Westra, Robert Albritton and Seongjin Jeong (eds.) Varieties of Alternative Economic Systems: Practical Utopias for an Age of Global Crisis and Austerity (London: Routledge, 2017) p. 76.
[41] Ibid. p. 75.
[42] Kotz and Weir, Revolution from Above, pp. 38-9.
[43] Lewin, The Soviet Century, pp. 214-16.
[44] Makoto Itoh, Political Economy for Socialism (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1995) p. 144.
[45] Kotz and Weir, Revolution from Above, p. 51 and pp. 38ff for elaboration of the argument.

Chapter 3

[1] Peter Hudis, Marx’s Concept of the Alternative to Capitalism (Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2013) pp. 3-5.
[2] Karl Marx, The Civil War in France, https://www.marxists.org/
archive/marx/works/1871/civil-war-france/ch05.htm.
[3] V. I. Lenin, The State and Revolution (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1965).
[4] Karl Marx, Critique of the Gotha Programme, https://www.
marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1875/gotha/.
[5] Ibid.
[6] See Stephen Resnick and Richard Wolff, “State Capitalism in the USSR? A High-Stakes Debate,” Rethinking Marxism, 6, 2 (Summer 1993), pp. 46-48; idem “Between State and Private Capitalism: What was Soviet ‘Socialism’”? Rethinking Marxism, 7, 1 (Spring 1994), pp. 9-30.
[7] Rigby, “The Government in the Soviet Political System,” pp. 8-22.
[8] Ibid. p. 13.
[9] Richard Westra, Political Economy and Globalization (London: Routledge, 2009) pp. 106-7.
[10] Carr, The Bolshevik Revolution, Volume Two, pp. 91-2.
[11] Medvedev, Let History Judge, pp. 245-48.
[12] Lewin, The Soviet Century, pp. 172-74.
[13] Kotz and Weir, Revolution from Above, pp. 27-8, 112.
[14] Paul M. Sweezy, Post-Revolutionary Society (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1980).
[15] Ernest Mandel, “On the Nature of the Soviet State,” New Left Review 108 (March-April 1978).
[16] Ernest Mandel, Power and Money (London: Verso, 1992).
[17] Tariq Ali, The Idea of Communism (London: Seagull, 2009) pp. 53-4.
[18] Nove, Stalinism and After, p. 77.
[19] Kotz and Weir, Revolution from Above, p. 28.
[20] Ali, The Idea of Communism, pp. 39-40.
[21] Jeong, “Soviet planning and labor-time calculation model.”
[22] For a cross-section of the initial literature here see Alec Nove, The Economics of Feasible Socialism (London: Allen and Unwin, 1983); idem, “Markets and Socialism,” New Left Review, 161 (1987); Jon Elster and Karl O. Moene (ed.) Alternatives to Capitalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989); Julian Le Grand and Saul Estrin (ed.) Market Socialism (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990); Tom Weisskopf, “Toward a Socialism for the Future, in the Wake of the Demise of the Socialism of the Past”, Review of Radical Political Economics, 24, 3 & 4 (1992); Pranab K. Bardhan and John E. Roemer ed., Market Socialism: The Current Debate (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993); Bertell Ollman (ed.) Market Socialism: The Debate Among Socialists (London: Routledge, 1998).
[23] See also the summary by Itoh, Political Economy for Socialism, pp. 83-98.
[24] Among the formative salvos were, Ernest Mandel, “In Defence of Socialist Planning,” New Left Review 159 (1986); idem, “The Myth of Market Socialism,” New Left Review, 169 (1988); Diane Elson, “Market Socialism or Socialization of the Market?,” New Left Review, 172 (1988); Michael Albert and Robin Hahnel, “Participatory Planning,” Science and Society, 56, 1 (1992); idem “Socialism As It Was Always Meant To Be,” Review of Radical Political Economics, 24, 3 & 4 (1992); Pat Devine, “Market Socialism or Participatory Planning,” Review of Radical Political Economics, 24, 3 & 4 (1992); David McNally, Against the Market (London: Verso, 1993); W. Paul Cockshott and Alin Cottrell, “Value, Markets and Socialism,” Science and Society, 61, 3 (1997); Fikret Adaman and Pat Devine, “On the Economic Theory of Socialism,” New Left Review, 221 (1997).
[25] W. Paul Cockshott and Alin Cottrell, “Question 2: Feasibility and Coordination,” Science & Society, Special Issue, Designing Socialism: Visions, Projections, Models, Guest Editor: Al Campbell, 76, 2 (2012) p. 198.
[26] David Schweickart, “Market Socialism: A Defense” in Ollman, Market Socialism: The Debate among Socialists p. 19.
[27] Geoffrey Hodgson, “Socialism against Markets: A Critique of two Recent Proposals,” Economy and Society, 27, 4 (1998) pp. 413-15.
[28] Itoh, Political Economy for Socialism, pp. 137-38.
[29] The argument here along with references to the players is found in Richard Westra, Exit from Globalization (London: Routledge, 2014) pp. 114-18.
[30] See, for example, Linda Weiss, America Inc.? (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2014).
[31] David Korten, When Corporations Rule the World (West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press, 1995) p. 221.
[32] Joseph Stiglitz, Whither Socialism? (Cambridge: MIT Press).
[33] David Schweickart, After Capitalism (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002).
[34] K. Dasgupta, Epochs of Economic Theory (New York: Basil Blackwell, 1987).
[35] Schweickart, After Capitalism, pp. 24-31.
[36] Ibid. p. 49.
[37] Cockshott and Alin Cottrell, “Value, Markets and Socialism,” p. 345.
[38] Michael Albert and Robin Hahnel, “Socialism As It Was Always Meant To Be,” Review of Radical Political Economics, 24, 3/4 (1992) p. 62.
[39] Jeong, “Soviet planning and labor-time calculation model.”
[40] Marx, Capital Volume I, p. 172.
[41] Itoh, Political Economy for Socialism, pp. 44-7.
[42] See, for example, Karl Polanyi, The Livelihood of Man (New York: Academic Press, 1977); David Graeber, Debt (New York: Melville House, 2012).

[43] See Medvedev, Let History Judge, on this discussion, pp. 702-7.
[44] James C. Scott, Seeing Like a State: How certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998) pp. 203-4.

Chapter 4

[1] V. I. Lenin, “Our Foreign and Domestic Position and Party Tasks Speech Delivered to the Moscow Gubernia Conference of the R.C.P.(B.)”, November 21, 1920, https://www.marxists.org/
archive/lenin/works/1920/nov/21.htm.
[2] See, for example, Arif Dirlik, After the Revolution (Hanover: Wesleyan University Press, 1994); Elmar Altvater, The Future of the Market (London: Verso, 1993).
[3] Kees van der Pijl, “International Relations and Capitalist Discipline,” in Robert Albritton, Makoto Itoh, Richard Westra and Alan Zuege (eds.) Phases of Capitalist Development: Booms, Crises and Globalizations (Basingstoke: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2001) pp. 8-10.
[4] On this and what follows see, Richard Westra, The Evil Axis of Finance: The US-Japan-China Stranglehold on the Global Future (Atlanta: Clarity, 2012) pp. 32ff.
[5] Frieden, Global Capitalism, pp. 238-47.
[6] Phillip Brown and Hugh Lauder, Capitalism and Social Progress: The future of Society in a Global Economy (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001) pp. 16-7.
[7] Frieden, Global Capitalism, pp. 180-1.
[8] Richard Westra, Unleashing Usury: How Finance Opened the Door for Capitalism then Swallowed it Whole (Atlanta: Clarity, 2016) pp. 140-2.
[9] Brown and Lauder, Capitalism and Social Progress, pp. 88-9.
[10] Ruth Milkman, Farewell to the Factory: Auto Workers in the Late Twentieth Century (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997) pp. 14-5, 22-7.
[11] Alain Lipietz, Mirages and Miracles: Crisis in Global Fordism (London: Verso, 1987).
[12] See, for example, Gerard Dumenil and Dominique Levy, Capital Resurgent: Roots of the Neoliberal Revolution (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004) p. 192.
[13] See, for example, Luke Cooper and Simon Hardy, Beyond Capitalism: The Future of Radical Politics (Winchester, UK: Zero Books, 2012).
[14] See, for example, Kees van der Pijl, Cold War Rivalries: From the Cold War to Iraq (London: Pluto Press, 2006) particularly pp. 122ff.
[15] Michael J. Webber and David L. Rigby, “Growth and Change in the World Economy since 1950,” in Robert Albritton, Makoto Itoh, Richard Westra and Alan Zuege (eds.) Phases of Capitalist Development: Booms, Crises and Globalizations (Basingstoke: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2001) pp. 259-60.
[16] See, on this, Westra, The Evil Axis of Finance, pp. 72-8; also, Richard Westra, Political Economy and Globalization (London: Routledge, 2009) pp. 108-112.
[17] Dumenil and Levy, Capital Resurgent, p. 69.
[18] For the varied sources here and on much of what follows, see Westra, Political Economy and Globalization, pp. 113ff.
[19] Westra, The Evil Axis of Finance, pp. 87-91.
[20] Westra, Unleashing Usury, pp. 178-9.
[21] Richard Westra, “A Theoretical Note on Commodification of Labour Power in China and the Global Putting-out System,” Journal of Contemporary Asia, published online May 26, 2017 http://dx.
doi.org/10.1080/00472336.2017.1324040.
[22] Peter F. Drucker, Post-Capitalist Society (New York: Harper, 1994).
[23] See Robert Albritton, A Japanese Approach to Stages of Capitalist Development (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1991) pp. 246ff.
[24] Rana Foroohar, Makers and Takers: The Rise of Finance and Fall of American Business (New York: Crown Business, 2016) pp. 52,
128-9.
[25] Ibid, pp. 104-6, 124.
[26] William Milberg and Deborah Winkler, Outsourcing Economics: Global Value Chains in Capitalist Development (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013) pp. 220-2.
[27] Nomi Prins, All the Presidents’ Bankers: Hidden Alliances that Drive American Power (New York: Nation Books, 2014) pp. 351-2.
[28] See, for example, Eric F. Gerding, Law, Bubbles and Financial Regulation (London: Routledge, 2014).
[29] Satyajit Das, A Banquet of Consequences: The Reality of Our Unusually Uncertain Economic Future (London: Pearson, 2016) pp. 43-4.
[30] Westra, Unleashing Usury, pp. 194-6.
[31] Westra, Political Economy and Globalization, p. 114.
[32] Foroohar, Makers and Takers, pp. 142-5.
[33] Colin Crouch, The Strange Non-Death of Neoliberalism (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2011).
[34] Westra, The Evil Axis of Finance, pp. 111-2.
[35] Foroohar, Makers and Takers, pp. 218-9.
[36] Das, A Banquet of Consequences, p. 58.[37] Reuters, “Super rich hold $32 trillion in offshore havens,” https://www.reuters.com/article/us-offshore-wealth/super-rich-hold-32-trillion-in-offshore-havens-idUSBRE86L03U20120722.
[38] For the high theory here and references see, Westra, Political Economy and Globalization, pp. 153-5.
[39] BBC, “How much of the world's wealth is hidden offshore?” http://www.bbc.com/news/business-40442595.
[40] Dick Bryan, Michael Rafferty and Duncan Wigan, “Capital unchained: intangible assets and the double life of capital in the offshore world,” Review of International Political Economy, 24, 1 (2017).[41] Spiegel Online, “End of an Era? The Slow Death of Europe's Social Democrats,” http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/the-demise-of-social-democracy-in-europe-a-1168670.html.
[42] https://data.oecd.org/gga/general-government-spending.htm.

Chapter 5

[1] Naomi Klein, This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014).
[2] See, for example, John R. Bell, “Marx’s anti-authoritarian ecocommunism,” in Robert Albritton, Shannon Bell, John R. Bell and Richard Westra (eds.) New Socialisms: Futures Beyond Globalization (London: Routledge, 2012).
[3] See Harry Rothman, Murderous Providence: A Study of Industrial Pollution in Industrial Societies (London: Rupert Hart-Davies, 1972).
[4] See Judith Shapiro, China’s Environmental Challenges (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2012).
[5] See, on China, Westra, The Evil Axis of Finance, Chapters 2 and 6.
[6] Das, A Banquet of Consequences, p. 198.[7] Nikkei Asian Review, “China Treasury holdings highest since July 2016: US Treasury data”, https://asia.nikkei.com/Markets/ Currencies/China-Treasury-holdings-highest-since-July-2016-US-Treasury-data.[8] Jing Daily, “Report: China Has World’s Most Billionaires for
Second Year in Row”, https://jingdaily.com/report-china-has-most-billionaires-in-world-for-second-year-in-row/.
[9] Westra, Exit from Globalization, pp. 141-2.
[10] Clive Hamilton, Defiant Earth: The Fate of Humans in the Anthropocene (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2017) p. 9.
[11] Ibid. p. 2.
[12] Ian Angus, Facing the Anthropocene: Fossil Capitalism and the Crisis of the Earth System (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2016) pp. 27-33 and passim.
[13] See also Ian Angus, A Redder Shade of Green: Intersections of Science and Socialism (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2017) pp. 49ff.
[14] Hamilton, Defiant Earth, p. 25; Angus, Facing the Anthropocene, pp. 68-9.
[15] Hamilton, Defiant Earth, pp. 5-6.
[16] Richard Westra, “From Development to BRICS: The Policy Magical Mystery Tour,” in Richard Westra (ed.) The Political Economy of Emerging Markets: Varieties of BRICS in the Age of Global Crises and Austerity (London: Routledge, 2017).
[17] Angus, A Redder Shade of Green, pp. 71ff; Hamilton, Defiant Earth, pp. 27ff.
[18] Angus, Facing the Anthropocene, pp. 38ff.[19] Guardian, “Just 100 companies responsible for 71% of global emissions, study says,” https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2017/jul/10/100-fossil-fuel-companies-investors-responsible-71-global-emissions-cdp-study-climate-change.
[20] Johan Rockström, Will Steffen, Kevin Noone, Åsa Persson, F. Stuart Chapin, Eric F. Lambin, Timothy M. Lenton, Marten Scheffer, Carl Folke, Hans Joachim Schellnhuber, Björn Nykvist, Cynthia A. de Wit, Terry Hughes, Sander van der Leeuw, Henning Rodhe, Sverker Sörlin, Peter K. Snyder, Robert Costanza, Uno Svedin, Malin Falkenmark, Louise Karlberg, Robert W. Corell, Victoria J. Fabry, James Hansen, Brian Walker, Diana Liverman, Katherine Richardson, Paul Crutzen and Jonathan A. Foley, “A safe operating space for humanity,” Nature, 461 (2009), https://www.nature.com/
nature/journal/v461/n7263/full/461472a.html.
[21] Fred Magdoff and Chris Williams, Creating an Ecological Society: Toward a Revolutionary Transformation (New York: Monthly Review, 2017) pp. 86-103.
[22] Angus, Facing the Anthropocene, pp. 89-106.
[23] International Energy Agency Statistics, CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion, International Energy Agency 2013, http://www.iea.org/
publications/freepublications/publication/CO2EmissionsFromFuelCombustionHighlights2013.pdf.
[24] Bill McKibben, Earth: Making Life on a Tough New Planet (New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 2011) p. 55.
[25] Magdoff and Williams, Creating an Ecological Society, pp. 92-105 on this and much of what follows.
[26] McKibben, Eaarth, pp. 164-6.
[27] Angus, Facing the Anthropocene, p. 159.
[28] Magdoff and Williams, Creating an Ecological Society, p. 99.
[29] Ibid, p. 101.
[30] Mohamed Bakarr and Kevin Pixley, “Crop biodiversity: The key to ending hunger,” http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2017/ 05/neglecting-major-ally-hunger-170521103802043.html.
[31] Magdoff and Williams, Creating an Ecological Society, p. 105.
[32] George Monbiot, “Insectageddon: farming is more catastrophic than climate breakdown,” Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/ commentisfree/2017/oct/20/insectageddon-farming-catastrophe-climate-breakdown-insect-populations.
[33] Richard Swift, S.O.S. Alternatives to Capitalism (Oxford: New Internationalist Publications, 2014) p. 38.
[34] See, for example, both sides in the recent debate played out in, Robin Hahnel and Erik Olin Wright, Alternatives to Capitalism: Proposals for a Democratic Economy (London: Verso, 2016).
[35] See, for example, Richard Smith, “Green Capitalism: The God That Failed,” Truthout, January 9 2014, http://www.truth-out.org/news/
item/21060-green-capitalism-the-god-that-failed; Joel Kovel, The Enemy of Nature: The End of Capitalism or the End of the World (London: Zed Books, 2002); John Bellamy Foster, Brett Clark and Richard York, The Ecological Rift: Capitalism’s War on the Earth (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2010).
[36] Naomi Klein, No is Not Enough: Resisting Trump’s Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need (Chicago: Haymarket, 2017) p. 82.
[37] Foster, Clark and York, The Ecological Rift, pp. 416-7.
[38] Chris Williams, Ecology and Socialism: Solutions to Capitalist Ecological Crisis (Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2010) pp. 216-7.
[39] Ibid, pp. 220-5.
[40] Magdoff and Williams, Creating an Ecological Society, p. 242.
[41] Danielle Nierenberg, “Agriculture: Growing Food – and Solutions,” State of the World 2013: Is Sustainability Still Possible? (Washington, DC: The Worldwatch Institute, 2013) p. 194.
[42] Magdoff and Williams, Creating an Ecological Society, pp. 247-58.
[43] Ibid. pp. 259ff. for the attention to detail of what is summarized here in a few paragraphs
[44] Ibid. pp. 290-1; See, also Michael Löwy, Ecosocialism: A Radical Alternative to Capitalist Catastrophe (Chicago: Haymarket, 2015)
p. 26.
[45] Magdoff and Williams, Creating an Ecological Society, pp. 292-8.
[46] See Westra, Exit from Globalization, Chapter 6; Richard Westra, “Renewing Socialist Development in the Third World,” Journal of Contemporary Asia, 41, 4 (2011).
[47] Swift, S. O. S. p. 19.
[48] Ibid, pp. 19-20.
[49] Karl Marx, Grundrisse, http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/
1857/grundrisse/ch01.htm.
[50] See Polanyi, The Livelihood of Man.
[51] Swift, S. O. S. p. 20.
[52] Ibid. pp. 52ff.
[53] See Westra, Exit from Globalization, pp. 152-74 on what follows.
[54] Stiglitz, Whither Socialism, pp. 204-5.
[55] See the reference and quotations in Westra, Exit from Globalization, pp. 158-60.

Chapter 6

[1] Frederick Engels, Anti-Dühring (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1954) pp. 391-3.
[2] C. B. Macpherson, The Life and Times of Liberal Democracy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011).
[3] Fred Block, “Karl Polanyi and twenty-first century socialism,” https://www.opendemocracy.net/fred-block/karl-polanyi-and-twenty-first-century-socialism.
[4] Klein, No is Not Enough, p. 41.
[5] Ibid, p. 237.
[6] Ibid, pp. 248, 267-71.
[7] Paul Mason, PostCapitalism: A Guide to Our Future (UK: Penguin Books, 2016).
[8] John R. Bell and Thomas T. Sekine, “The Disintegration of Capitalism: A Phase of Ex-Capitalist Transition,” in Robert Albritton, Makoto Itoh, Richard Westra and Alan Zuege (eds.) Phases of Capitalist Development: Booms, Crises and Globalizations (Basingstoke: Palgrave/Macmillan, 2001).
[9] Mason, PostCapitalism, p. 112.
[10] Ibid, pp. 109-11. 142-4.
[11] Richard Westra, Unleashing Usury: How Finance Opened the Door for Capitalism then Swallowed it Whole (Atlanta: Clarity Press, 2016) pp. 168-75.
[12] Mason, PostCapitalism, p. 234.
[13] Ibid. pp. 266-70.
[14] Michael T. Klare, The Race for What’s Left: The Global Scramble for the World’s Last Resources (New York: Picador, 2012) pp.
181-2.
[15] Peter Marcuse, “Cooperatives On the Path to Socialism?” https://
monthlyreview.org/2015/02/01/cooperatives-on-the-path-to-socialism/.
[16] David Pepper, “On Contemporary Eco-socialism,” in Qingzhi Huan (ed.) Eco-socialism as Politics: Rebuilding the Basis of Our Modern Civilization (Dordrecht: Springer, 2010) pp. 38-9.
[17] See, on what follows, Richard J. White and Colin C. Williams, “Beyond capitalocentricism: are non-capitalist work practices ‘alternatives’?” Area, 48, 3 (2016).
[18] See, for example, Greg Sharzer, “Cooperatives as Transitional Economics,” Review of Radical Political Economics, 49, 3 (2017).
[19] Swift, S. O. S. pp. 131-4.

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