Scoliosis: Diagnosis, Classification and Management Options

Federico Canavese, M.D., Ph.D. (Editor)
University Hospital Estaing, Service de Chirurgie Infantile, Clermont Ferrand, France

Antonio Andreacchio, M.D. (Editor)
Pediatric Orthopeadic and Traumatology Department, Regina Margherita Hospital, Turin, Italy

Hongwen Xu (Editor)
Guangzhou Women and Children Medical Center, Guangzhou, China

Series: Orthopedic Research and Therapy
BISAC: MED065000

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The importance of the initial diagnosis and subsequent management of scoliosis is crucial as it affects the patient’s future. Initial diagnosis is highly important in orientating the patient and correlating available therapeutic means to the expected results.

Since the 1900s, the surgical approach to scoliosis has changed as thoughts and possibilities have evolved. Nowadays, progressive spinal deformities can be managed with specific orthopedic devices or vertebral arthrodesis surgery, depending on the age of the patient.

Additionally, the type and extent of scoliotic deformity as well as on the presence of comorbidities have aided in the transforming of these methods. Arthrodesis is not considered the best treatment for younger patients; however, it becomes almost inevitable to cure important deformities of the spine in older children. Surgical fusion in patients with severe scoliosis can improve the deformity, but the spine is rendered more rigid and spinal growth is subsequently affected.

The information contained in this clinical book are derived from the valuable experience of over 40 authors and co-authors from all over the world, and we hope this format will help the reader at the critical junctures to which decisions must be made. All the participants provided their own analysis, and their therapeutic choices and contributions have served this project well. This book would not exist without their efforts, diligence and commitment.

This clinical book is an opportunity for every physician and surgeon dealing with children and adolescents with scoliosis to obtain updates concerning actual trends and knowledge in this field of study.

Preface

Chapter 1. Growth of the Spine and Thorax
(Alain Dimeglio, Federico Canavese and Francois Bonnel, Université de Montpellier, Faculté de Médecine, Montpellier, France, and others)

Chapter 2. Assessment of Maturation
(Vito Pavone and Gianluca Testa, Department of General Surgery and Medical Surgical Specialties, Section of Orthopedics and Traumatology, University of Catania, Catania, Italy)

Chapter 3. Classification of Early Onset Spinal Deformity
(Mattia Cravino, Lorenza Marengo, Federico Canavese and Antonio Andreacchio, Department of Pediatric Orthopedics, Regina Margherita Children’s Hospital, Torino, Italy, and others)

Chapter 4. Classification of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis
(Lorenza Marengo, MD, Mattia Cravino, MD, Federico Canavese, MD, PhD and Antonio Andreacchio, MD, Pediatric Orthopeadic and Traumatology Department, Regina Margherita Hospital, Turin, Italy, and others)

Chapter 5. Serial Elongation Derotation Flexion Casting for Patients with Progressive Scoliosis
(Federico Canavese, MD, and Alain Dimeglio, MD, CHU Estaing, Service de Chirurgie Infantile, Clermont Ferrand, France, and others)

Chapter 6. Halo Traction: When and How?
(Zhaomin Zheng, Department of Spine Surgery, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China)

Chapter 7. EOS and Surgery: Techniques, Indications and Limitations
(Ashok N. Johari, Consultant, Children’s Orthopaedic Centre, Mumbai, India)

Chapter 8. Growth Friendly Implants with Rib Anchors in Early Onset Scoliosis
(Alaaeldin A. Ahmad, Loai J. Aker and Yahia B. Hanbali, Pediatric Orthopedic Surgeon and Associate Professor, Palestine Polytechnic University, Hebron, West Bank, and others)

Chapter 9. Growth and Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis
(Ismat Ghanem, MD, and Maroun Rizkallah, MD, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon, and others)

Chapter 10. Physiotherapy and Scoliosis: What to Do and What to Reasonably Expect from It
(Jacques Deslandes, Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Polyclinique St. Odilon, Moulins, France)

Chapter 11. The Scoliosis Specific Physical Orthopedic Test™: Creating Conservative Streams of Care for Youth with Adolescent Idopathic Scoliosis (AIS) Using Exercise, Lifestyle and Maintenance
(Suzanne Clements Martin, Pilates Therapeutics, Alameda, CA, US)

Chapter 12. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Conservative Treatments
(Andre J. Kaelin and Federico Canavese, Clinique des Grangettes, Geneva, Switzerland and others)

Chapter 13. Fusionless Techniques for Juvenile and Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis
(Kedar Padhye, MD, and Ron El-Hawary, MD, Division of Orthopedic Surgery, IWK Health Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada)

Chapter 14. Instrumented Posterior Fusion in AIS: Indications, Preoperative Planning and Outcome
(Xiaodong Qin and Zezhang Zhu, Spine Surgery Department, Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China)

Chapter 15. Anterior Instrumented Fusion in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Indication, Preoperative Planning, and Outcome
(Michael Ruf and Jörg Drumm, Center for Spinal Surgery, Orthopedics, and Traumatology, Karlsbad, Germany)

Chapter 16. Posterior Minimally Invasive Surgery for the Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis
(Charlotte de Bodman, MD, Anne Tabard-Fougère, Alexandre Ansorgue, MD, Nicolas Amirghasemi, MD, and Romain Dayer, MD, Pediatric Orthopedics and Traumatology Unit,
Lausanne University, Lausanne, Switzerland, and others)

Chapter 17. Pre- and Postoperative Sagittal Alignment in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis
(Mehmet Çetinkaya, MD, Ali Eren, MD, and Alpaslan Senkoylu, MD, Erzincan University Mengucek Gazi Training and Research Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Erzincan, Turkey, and others)

Chapter 18. Postoperative Shoulder Imbalance (PSI) and Adding-On Phenomenon
(Ismail Daldal, Erdem Aktas and Alpaslan Senkoylu, Sakarya University Research and Training Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Sakarya, Turkey, and others

Chapter 19. How to Control Shoulder Balance and Prevent Imbalance in Patients with AIS Undergoing Surgery
(Jun Jiang, MD, and Ze-zhang Zhu MD, Spine Surgery Department, Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China)

Chapter 20. Postoperative Deep Infections Following Scoliosis Surgery
(Qiang Jie, MD, Xiaowei Wang, Qingda Lu and Fei Su, Department of Pediatric Orthopedics, Hong Hui Hospital, Xi’an Jiao Tong University, Xi’an, Shan’xi, China)

Chapter 21. Neuromonitoring Signal Decrement: What to Do
(Qianyu Zhuang and Shujie Wang, Department of Orthopaedics, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Wangfujing, Beijing, China)

Chapter 22. Evaluation and Conservative Management of Spinal Deformities in Patients with Cerebral Palsy
(Michèle Kläusler and Erich Rutz, Pediatric Orthopedic Department, University Children’s Hospital Basel UKBB, Basel, Switzerland)

Chapter 23. Neuromuscular Scoliosis: Surgical Considerations and Management of Complications
(Ismat Ghanem, Maroun Rizkallah and Federico Canavese, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon, and others)

Chapter 24. Radiographic Assessment and Follow-Up of Patients with Scoliosis
(Mohsen Karami, MD, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran)

Chapter 25. Rasterstereography for the Follow-Up of AIS Patients
(Anne Tabard-Fougère, PhD, Charlotte de Bodman, MD, Alice Bonnefoy-Mazure, PhD, and Romain Dayer, MD, Willy Taillard Laboratory of Kinesiology, Geneva University Hospitals and Geneva University, Geneva, Switzerland, and others)

Chapter 26. Anesthesia Considerations and Pain Management in Children Undergoing Scoliosis Surgery
(Marie Granier and Xing Rong Song, Dept. of Anesthesia, University Hospital Estaing, Clermont Ferrand, France, and others)

Chapter 27. Experimental Animal Models in Scoliosis: Incidence and Diagnosis of Idiopathic Scoliosis and Congenital Scoliosis in Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta) through Evoked Potentials and Imaging Studies
(Alejandra Ibáñez- Contreras, David Ducoing-Gonzalez, Janine Cardoso and Braulio Hernández-Godínez, Investigación Biomédica Aplicada (INBIOMA) S.A.S de C.V. Ciudad de México, México, and others)

Index

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