Reticular Concept of Nervous System Physiology


Oleg Semenovich Sotnikov, PhD – Professor, I .P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology RAS, Saint-Petersburg, Russian Federation

Series: Neuroscience Research Progress
BISAC: SCI089000; MED110000
DOI: 10.52305/CHUA9955

The book is devoted to the main discussion of the nervous system. Whether information about nerve details is connected to each other, or whether it is distributed along single nerve fibers and reaches with great accuracy. The generally accepted model is the neuron theory of Ramon y Cajal. His opponent is the histologist Camillo Golgi. According to the theory of Ramon y Cajal, nerve impulses propagate in one direction with the help of chemical synapses. According to the Golgi theory, nerve stimuli are connected to each other and innervate the organs in batches. Connections occur between fibers with the help of electrical synapses and syncytia. Impulses are able to propagate in different directions. The monograph presents a large number of preparations of neuronists, which are evidence of the opposite reticular theory. A technique is presented that makes it possible to unmask the illustrations of Ramon y Cajal and demonstrate a large number of syncytia on his preparations. The same amount is found in the tangled networks of the gastrointestinal tract (“abdominal brain”). Electrical connections have also been established in other parts of the nervous system. Electrophysiologically, a circular interconnection of electrical synapses, spikes in a circle has been established, and multiple variants of feedback of nerve fibers have been identified. The unified neural and reticular theories are unified.

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Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Neuronism and Reticularism
1.1. The first misconception of neural theory
1.2. Black Golgi Reaction and the intertwining of science destinies
1.3. Possible syncytial connections between nerve structures
1.4. Axis cylinder and axial load

Chapter 2. Decisive Achievements of the Great Reticularist A.S. Dogel
2.1. Commissural syncytial connections of neurons and nerve fibers
2.2.  Amitosis or fusion of neurons

Chapter 3. Static and Dynamic Morphology of Neurons
3.1. Axoplasm movement – evidence of distant syncitia of anastomoses
3.2. Mechanism of intravital formation of binuclear cells by their cytoplasmic, syncytial fusion, rather than amitosis

Chapter 4. Multicore as a Phenomenon of Reticularism
4.1. History of two- and multi-core neurons
4.2. Live multinuclear neurons
4.3. Ultrastructural mechanisms of multinucleus

Chapter 5. Evidence for Reticularism in Neural Theory

Chapter 6. Syncytial Connections of Nerve Fibers
6.1. Multiple peri-membrane axoplasmic anastomoses
6.2. Syncytial connections of invertebrate neurons discovered by neuronists

Chapter 7. Contact Syncytial Perforations of Nerve Fiber Membranes
7.1. Interneuritic perforations
7.2. Neural-glial syncytial perforations in cancers

Chapter 8. Dogel’s Neural Reticular Web
8.1. First description of the network’s neuroelectric rings
8.2. The reticulum depicted by Ramón y Cajal and other neuronists
8.3. Methodological reasons for the divergence of neural and reticular theories
8.4. Recognition of the reticular theory by Cajal

Chapter 9. Reticulum as a Mandatory Property of the “Abdominal Brain” of Vertebrates
9.1. Distant paired syncytia of anastomosis networks of the gastrointestinal tract
9.2 Ring principle of organization of syncytial anastomoses of the gastrointestinal tract
9.3. Ring anastomoses of sensory receptors

Chapter 10. Kinetics of Simultaneous Development and Reconstruction of the Neuronal Network
10.1 The appearance of the first reticular network fragments
10.2. The main organ for building a network is the growth cone

Chapter 11. Mechanisms of Neural Network Reduction
11.1. Imaginary disappearance of nerve processes during fusion
11.2. Reducing the number of fibers when they are fused
11.3. Signs of fiber reduction on fixed preparations

Chapter 12. Four Reticular Phenomena – One Combined Physiological Process (Blending)
12.1. How gap junctions become tight junctions
12.2. Transformation of gap and tight junctions into syncytial perforations
12.3. Mechanism of occurrence of syncytial perforations in Wallerian degeneration
12.4. How syncytia appear in traumatic brain injuries
12.5. Electrophysiological evidence for the transformation of gap and tight junctions into syncytial perforations

Chapter 13. How Syncytial Perforations Turn Into Binuclear Cells (Simultaneous Death and Self-Healing of Dikaryons)

Chapter 14. Experimental Formation of Gap Membrane Junctions (Electric Synapses) De Novo
14.1. Membrane changes under the influence of armin
14.2. Formation of membrane gap neural-glial junctions during pessimal electrical stimulation
14.3. Formation of gap neuron-neuronal junctions when removing glia

Chapter 15. Impulsed Neural Reverberation
15.1. Graphical models of reverberation
15.2. Natural electrophysiology of autonomic ganglion and leech brain reverberation