Respiratory Care in Non Invasive Mechanical Ventilatory Support: Principles and Practice

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Antonio M. Esquinas, M.D, PhD (Editor) – International Fellow AARC, Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Morales Meseguer, Murcia, Spain
Mohammed Alahmari, PhD (Editor) – Dammam Medical Complex, Dammam Health Network – Eastern Health Cluster, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; Prince Sultan Military College of Health Sciences, Respiratory Care Department, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

Series: New Developments in Medical Research

BISAC: MED003080

Non-invasive ventilation refers to the use of breathing support administered through a face mask, nasal mask, or helmet. This form of ventilatory support is useful in the treatment of respiratory illnesses including SARS, MERS, PH1N1, and COVID-19. Consisting of 63 chapters, this book provides a detailed, holistic overview of the principles and practice of non-invasive mechanical ventilatory support.

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Preface

Chapter 1. Respiratory Muscular Function and Anatomy. Implications for Respiratory Care
(Alexandre Fontoura, Ivan Antunes and Diogo Rebolo – Department of Intensive Medicine, Unidade Local de Saúde da Guarda – Hospital Sousa Martins, Guarda, Portugal)

Chapter 2. Gas Exchange During Non-Invasive Ventilation
(Jaritzy Lagunez Caramon and Salvador Sanchez Diaz – Department of Critical Care, Regional General Hospital 220 Jose Vicente Villada, Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), Toluca, Mexico State, et al.)

Chapter 3. Spontaneous Ventilation Determinants: Lung Compliance and Airway Resistance
(Khaled Alawam and Abdulwahab Alahmari – Respiratory Therapy Program, Inaya Medical Colleges, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)

Chapter 4. Pulmonary Function Monitoring. Implications for Respiratory Care in Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation
(Domingo Perez, Sandra Gonzalez, Jose Fusilo, Raquel Lemir, and Guillermo Arbo – Pulmonary Function Laboratory (NeumoLab), Santa Julia Medical Center and La Costa Medical Center, Asuncion, Paraguay)

Chapter 5. Waveform Analysis During Noninvasive Ventilation
(Ruben D. Restrepo – Division of Respiratory Care, The University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, US)

Chapter 6. Noninvasive Ventilatory Support. Technology, Devices, Classification and General Indications
(K. S. Lokesh and Vaibhav C. Padashetti – Department of Respiratory Medicine, JSS Medical College, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka, India)

Chapter 7. Equipment for Noninvasive Ventilation Physics and Principles
(Guniz Meyanci Koksal and Cigdem Akyol Beyoglu – Istanbul University- Cerrahpasa Cerrahpasa School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Istanbul, Turkey)

Chapter 8. Nasal High Flow Oxygen. Technology and Devices
(Pedro Silva Santos and Chantal Cortesão – Pulmonology Unit, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra – Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal)

Chapter 9. Nasal High Flow Oxygen. Clinical Indications and Basic Respiratory Care
(Megan Carreon – Assistant Professor, Division of Respiratory Care, School of Health Professions, UT Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, US)

Chapter 10. CPAP High Flow Oxygen Devices
(Saumy Johnson – Assistant Professor, Department of Respiratory Therapy, INAYA Medical Colleges , Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)

Chapter 11. Mask Interface in Non Invasive Mechanical Ventilation
(Kristina Ramirez – Assistant Professor; Director of Clinical Education, Division of Respiratory Care, School of Health Professions, UT Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, US)

Chapter 12. Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation Modes
(Rodrigo Della Méa Plentz and Maria Angélica Jacques – Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre Rua Sarmento Leite, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, et al.)

Chapter 13. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)
(Silvia Fernández Huerga – Department of Pneumology, Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León, León, Spain)

Chapter 14. Bi-Level Positive Airway Pressure-BiPAP
(Cristina Lameirão and José Miguel Maia – Intensive Care Unit, Centro Hospitalar de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila, Real, Portugal)

Chapter 15. Hybrid Ventilatory Modes AVAPS and NAVA
(Carvalho Catarina and Militão Isabel – Department of Intensive Care, Centro Hospitalar de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal)

Chapter 16. Continuous Non-Invasive Ventilatory Support
(Alessandra Dorça and Max Sarmet – Department of Health Sciences, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil, et al.)

Chapter 17. Methodology of Non Invasive Ventilation. Ventilator Settings and Withdrawal Protocols
(Lagunez Caramon Jaritzy, Granados Rabelo Alexander, and Sanchez Diaz Salvador – Departament of Critical Care, Regional General Hospital 220 Jose Vicente Villada, Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), Toluca, Mexico, et al.)

Chapter 18. Asynchrony Non Invasive Ventilation. Implications for Respiratory Therapist
(Mohammed AlAhmari – Dammam Medical Complex, Dammam Health Network – Eastern Health Cluster, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, et al.)

Chapter 19. Non Invasive Mechanical Ventilation Complementary Technology for Non Invasive Ventilation Therapy. Humidification Devices
(Inês Moreira, Ana Magalhães and Mariana Cabral – Department of pulmonology, Hospital Santa Marta, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Central, Lisboa, Portugal)

Chapter 20. Management of Airway Secretions – Airway Clearance Therapy
(Énio Pestana – Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Hospital da Horta, Faial, Portugal)

Chapter 21. Respiratory Care and Non Invasive Ventilation. Airway Secretions Devices
(Tayfun Kermenli – Department of Thoracic Surgery, Istanbul Aydin University, Istanbul, Turkey)

Chapter 22. Airway Secretions Devices: Mechanical Insufflator-Exsufflator-Cough Assisted
(António Madeira Gerardo and Hedi Liberato – Department of Pulmonology, Hospital Prof. Doutor Fernando Fonseca E.P.E., Lisbon, Portugal)

Chapter 23. Aerosol Therapy Evidence in NIV-Nasal High Flow Aerosols- and Pharmacology
(Hasnaa Osama, Mona A. Abdelrahman, Haitham Saeed, Yasmin M. Madney, Hadeer S. Harb and Mohamed E. A. Abdelrahim – Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt)

Chapter 24. Complications Noninvasive Ventilation. How Respiratory Therapists Act
(Tamara Clavero Sánchez and Ana Sánchez Fernández – Department of Pneumology, University Hospital of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain)

Chapter 25. Aerosol Therapy During Non-Invasive Ventilation
(Bshayer Ramadan Alhamad – Department of Respiratory Therapy, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Al Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, et al.)

Chapter 26. Respiratory Care. Non Invasive Mechanical Ventilation and Use of Thoracic Ultrasound
(Timur Ekiz and Alper Murat Ulaşlı – Türkmenbaşı Medical Center, Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Adana, Turkey, et al.)

Chapter 27. Non Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in Acute Cardiac Pulmonary Edema
(Bárbara Costa, José Miguel Maia and Nelson Barros – Intensive Care Unit, Centro Hospitalar de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal)

Chapter 28. Non Invasive Ventilation in the Treatment of Pneumonia and Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome
(Kristen Merriman – Respiratory Care Services, Director of Respiratory Care Services, Bronchoscopic and Interventional Pulmonology Services, Stanford Health Care, Stanford Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, United States)

Chapter 29. Non Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in Multiple Trauma – Blunt Chest Injury
(Mertay Boran – Department of Thoracic Surgery, Duzce University, Faculty of Medicine, Duzce, Turkey)

Chapter 30. Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in Immunocompromised Patients. Key Respiratory Care Issues
(Ana Rafael and Isabel Militão – Department of Intensive Care, Centro Hospitalar Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

Chapter 31. Non Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in High-Risk Infections – Respiratory Care- SARS, MERS, PH1N1, Coronavirus
(Patrícia Varela Ramos and Flávio Marino – Department of Intensive Care, Hospital Vila Franca de Xira, Lisbon, Portugal)

Chapter 32. Respiratory Care in Non Invasive Ventilation Approach in Obstetrics
(Rodríguez García and Raydel Manuel – Medical Specialist in Intensive and Critical Care Medicine, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Support Coordinator and Head of the Maternal Intensive Care Unit of the Pediatric Gynecological Obstetric Hospital of Nueva Aurora “Luz Elena Arismendi,” Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador)

Chapter 33. Cardiothoracic and Neurologic Surgery
(Ertay Boran and Mertay Boran – Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Duzce University, Faculty of Medicine, Duzce, Turkey, et al.)

Chapter 34. Weaning/Extubation Respiratory Failure
(Maria João Pinto and Isabel Militão – Department of Intensive Care, Centro Hospitalar de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal)

Chapter 35. Tracheostomy Decannulation and Non Invasive Ventilation: Role of Respiratory Therapist
(Cecilio O. Ceballos – Pneumology and Internal Medicine, International fellow NIV, General Hospital of Mexicali, Head of the pneumophysiology and respiratory therapy service, Del Hospital Avenue, Centro Cívico, Mexicali, BC, México)

Chapter 36. Non Invasive Ventilation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
(Jithin K. Sreedharan – Lecturer, Superintendent-Clinical and Laboratory Education Affairs, Respiratory Care Department, Prince Sultan Military College of Health Sciences, King Fahad Military Medical Complex, Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)

Chapter 37. Respiratory Care in Non Invasive Mechanical Ventilatory Support: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Population
(Berrin Er – Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Intensive Care, Ankara, Turkey)

Chapter 38. Non Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in Asthma Exacerbation
(Héctor Molina Corona and Vanessa Alejandra Villarreal Vargas – Department of Pulmonology, Hospital General Fray Junipero Serra, Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para Trabajadores del Estado, Tijuana, B. C. Mexico, et al.)

Chapter 39. Neuromuscular Disorders
(António Madeira Gerardo, Maria Inês Luz, and Hedi Liberato – Department of Pulmonology, Hospital Prof. Doutor Fernando Fonseca E. P. E., Lisbon, Portugal)

Chapter 40. Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation in Chest Wall Respiratory Disorders. Respiratory Care
(Mariana Conde – Pulmonology Department, Centro Hospitalar de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal)

Chapter 41. Non Invasive Ventilation for Patients With Obesity Hypoventilation and Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure
(Ahmed S. BaHammam and Aljohara S. Almeneessier – University Sleep Disorders Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, et al.)

Chapter 42. Non Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in Sleep Breathing Disorders
(Carlos Figueiredo – Pulmonology Department, Santa Marta Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal)

Chapter 43. Non Invasive Mechanical Ventilation: Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Respiratory Care in Elderly People
(Andrea Fabbo and Francesca Neviani – Azienda USL Modena, UO Geriatria, Disturbi Cognitivi e Demenze, Modena, Italy, et al.)

Chapter 44. Non Invasive Mechanical Ventilation and Respiratory Physiotherapy and Pulmonary Rehabilitation
(Berkan Basançelebi – Department of Cardiopulmonary Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey)

Chapter 45. Non Invasive Ventilation in Bronchoscopy and Sedation. Implications for Respiratory Therapist
(Dwayne L. Free – Respiratory Care Services, Stanford Healthcare, Stanford, CA, USA)

Chapter 46. Non Invasive Ventilation in Non-Bronchoscopy Sedation (Cardiology – Gastroenterology, Catheter Insertion). Implications for Respiratory Therapist
(Ertay Boran – Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Duzce University, Faculty of Medicine, Duzce, Turkey)

Chapter 47. Nasal High Flow Use in COPD
(Saumy Johnson – Assistant Professor, Department of Respiratory Therapy, INAYA Medical Colleges , Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)

Chapter 48. Hospital Discharge Program to Home Care Non-Invasive Ventilation
(Eva Sánchez O. – Assistant physician in the Intermediate Care Unit, Almanzor Aguinaga Hospital, Intensive Care Unit of the Juan Pablo II Private Hospital, Chiclayo, Peru)

Chapter 49. Home Non Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorders. Role of Respiratory Therapist
(Laura Gil Pintor and Soraya Jodra Sánchez – Department of Pneumology, University Hospital of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain)

Chapter 50. Home Non Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in Neuromuscular Disorders: Implications for Respiratory Therapist
(Rosana Mara da Silva and Thales Cantelle Baggio – Respiratory Physiotherapist, Municipal Health Department Jaraguá do Sul (SC), Brazil)

Chapter 51. The Use of Non-Invasive Ventilation in Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation and Respiratory Care
(Kimberly Langner-Bliss – Clinical Specialist, Respiratory Care Services, Stanford Healthcare, Stanford, Palo Alto, CA, US)

Chapter 52. Respiratory Care and Non Invasive Ventilation in Neonatology
(Luis Alberto Ahumada, Javier Meritano, and Eduardo José Cuestas – Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Misericordia, Sanatorio Allende, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina)

Chapter 53. Assessment of Pain/Distress During Non Invasive Ventilation in Pediatric and Respiratory Care
(Dipasri Bhattacharya and Mohanchandra Mandal – Department of Anaesthesiology, Critical Care & Pain, R.G.Kar Medical College & Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, et al.)

Chapter 54. Aspects of Psychological Support for Children During Respiratory Care (Non-Invasive Ventilation)
(Banu Katlan, Selman Kesici and Benan Bayrakci – Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Hacettepe University Ihsan Doğramacı Children’s Hospital, Ankara, Turkey)

Chapter 55. Counseling of Parents, Ethical Aspects, Consent, or Ascent for Children for Preparing the Family Members for Shifting Care from Ward to Home: Educational and Training Aspects for Respiratory Therapist
(Dipanjan Bagchi, Mohanchandra Mandal, and Pradipta Bhakta – Consultant Anaesthesiologist, Bolpur Sub-division Hospital, Bolpur, Birbhum, West Bengal, India, et al.)

Chapter 56. Respiratory Care in Intrahospital and Prehospital Patients with Non Invasive Ventilator Support
(Jaber S. Alqahtani and Tope Oyelade – Department of Respiratory Care, Prince Sultan Military College of Health Sciences, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, et al.)

Chapter 57. Non Invasive Ventilation in Critical Care. General Aspects for Respiratory Therapists
(Victor Manuel Mendoza Romero and Amaury Hernán González Molina – Pneumologist and Intensivist Physician, Head of the Respiratory Therapy Service; Medical
Coordinator of the Lung Transplant Program; main professor of the high specialty in Physiology and Respiratory Therapy, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases “Ismael Cosío Villegas,” Mexico City, Mexico, et al.)

Chapter 58. Non-Invasive Ventilation-Respiratory Care. Organization in Critical Care Unit
(João Carvalho and Isabel Militão – Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Centro Hospitalar de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal)

Chapter 59. Respiratory Care in Anesthesiology Pre-intubation and Upper Airways Procedure
(Manuel Ángel Gómez-Ríos, Alejandro Úbeda Iglesias and Antonio M. Esquinas – Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña, A Coruña, Galicia, Spain, et al.)

Chapter 60. Respiratory Care and Non Invasive Ventilation. Anesthesiology and Postoperative Medicine
(Alejandro Úbeda and Manuel A. Gómez Ríos – Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Punta de Europa, Algeciras (Cádiz), Spain, et al.)

Chapter 61. Respiratory Care in Non Invasive Ventilation in Ward
(Jose Luis Sandoval Gutierrez – International Non Invasive Ventilation Fellow, Medicina Interna-Medicina Crítica-Neumología, Centro de Investigación en Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias (INER), México, México)

Chapter 62. Respiratory Care in Noninvasive Ventilation-Post-intensive Care Step Down Unit
(Dušanka Obradović – Faculty of Medicine Novi Sad, University of Novi Sad, Serbia, et al.)

Chapter 63. Respiratory Therapist Education, Policies, and Protocols. Key Recommendations
(Tabatha Dragonberry – Assistant Professor, UT Health San Antonio Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, US)

Index

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